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Her learning and good-breeding such,
Spaniards or French came to her;
At length she turas a bride:
And flutters in her pride.
Still vary shapes and dyes;
Then painted butterflies.
DR. SWIFT. THE HAPPY LIFE OF A COUNTRY PARSON
PARSON, these things in thy possessing,
Are better than the bishop's blessing:
Lo here the Septuagint,--and Paul,
He that has these, may pass his life,
AN ESSAY ON MAN,
IN FOUR EPISTLES
TO H. ST. JOHN, LORD BOLINGBROKE.
Having proposed to write some pieces on human life and manners, such as (to use my lord Bacon's expression). come home to men's business and bosoros,' I thought it more satisfactory to begin with considering man in the abstract, his nature, and his state; since, to prove any moral duty, to enforce any moral precept, or to examine the perfection or imperfection of any creature whatsoever, it is necessary first to know what condition and relation it is placed in, and what is the proper end and purpose of its being.
The science of human nature is, like all other sciences, reduced to a few clear points: there are pot many certain truths in this world. It is therefore in the anatomy of the mind as in that of the body; more good will accrue to mankind by attend. ing to the large, open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much such finer nerves and vessels, the conformations and uses of which will for ever escape our observation. The disputes are all upon these last; and I will venture to say, they have less sharpened the wits than the hearts of men against each other, and have diminished the practice more than advanced the theory of morality. If I could
fatter myself that this Essay has any merit, it is in steering betwixt the extremes of doctrines seeming. ly opposite, in passing over terms utterly unintelligible, and in forming a temperate yet not inconsistent, and a short, yet not imperfect, system of ethics.
This I might have done in prose; but I chose verse, and even rhyme, for two reasons.
The one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards: the other may seem odd, but it is true; I found I could express them more shortly this way than in prose itself; and nothing is more certain, than that much of the force, as well as the grace of arguments or instructions, depends on their conciseness. I was unable to treat this part of my subject more in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, or breaking the chain of reasoning: if any man can unite all these without diminution of any of them, I freely confess he will compass a thing above my capacity.
What is now published is only to be considered as a general map of man, marking out no more than the greater parts, their extent, their limits, and their connexion, but leaving the particular to be more fully delineated in the charts which are to follow. Consequently, these Epistles in their
progress (if I have health and leisure to make any progress) will be less dry, and more susceptible of poctical ornament. I am here only opening the foun. tains, and clearing the passage. To deduce the rivers, to follow them in their course, and to observe their effects, may be a task more agreeable.
AN ESSAY ON MAN.
ARGUMENT OF EPISTLE I.
Of the Nature and State of Man with respect to
Of man in the abstract.-I. That we can judge only
with regard to our own system, being ignorant of the relations of systems and things, ver. 17, &c. II. That man is not to be deemed imperfect, but a being suited to his place and rank in the creation, agrecable to the general order of things, and conformable to ends and relations to him unknown, ver. 35, &c. III, That it is partly upon his ignorance of future events, and partly upon the hope of a future state, that all his happiness in the present depends, ver. 77, &c. IV. The pride of aiming at more knowledge, and pretending to more perfection, the cause of man's error and misery. The impiety of putting himself in the place of God, and judging of the fitness or unfitness, perfection or imperfection, justice or injustice, of his dispensations, ver. 109, &c. V. The absurdity of conceiting himself the final cause of the creation, or expecting that perfection in the moral world, which is not in the natural, ver. 131, &c. VI. The unreasonableness of his complaints against Providence, while on the one hand he demands the perfection of the angels, and on the other the bodily qualifications of the brutes ;