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« anointed Priest, continually officiates before
God, and devotes its noblest powers to hiin “ for a spiritual facrifice *.”
$ 7. Under the head of Allegory we may place Parables, of which we have so many instances in Scripture; and Fables, of which we may find some very fine examples in Pagan antiquity. The best Orators have not fcrupled to make use of them. Thus when ALEXANDER, after his conquest of Thebes, ordered the Athenians to deliver up to him eight, or, as others fay, ten of their Orators, DEMOSTHENES dissuaded them from complying with this demand by a Fable of the sheep, who gave up their guardian dogs to the wolves t.
• STENNETT's Sermons, vol. i. page 161, 162;
ή Ευθύς δ' ο Αλεξανδρώ- εζητει τεμπων των δημαγωγών δικά μεν, ως Ιδομενεύς και Δουρίς ειρηκασιν οκτώ δ', ως οι πλεισοι και δοκιμωτατοι των συγγραφεων – Οτε και τον περι των προCατων λογον ο Δημοσθενης, ος τους λύκους της κυίας εξιδεικε, PLUTARCHUS in Vit. DemostheXis.
The METONYMY considered.
§ 1. The definition of a Metonymy. § 2. The
change of name used four ways: (1) The cause put for the effect; (2) The effect put for the cause; (3) The subječt put for the adjunct ; (4) The adjunet put for the subject. § 3. The Metalepsis, its definition. § 4. The use of the Metonymy.
$1. Metonymy * is a Trope, in which one
name is put for another, for which it may be allowed to stand by reason of some relalation or coherence between them.
-- $.2. This change of name is principally used these four ways:
(1) When the cause is put for the effect. Thus Mars among the Heathens is used for war, Ceres for corn, and Bacchus for wine. So we bíd a person read Cicero, that is, Cicero's Works. So we say,
So we say, “ look at this man's hand,” that is, at his writing. Thus VIRGIL. describes his Mepherd “as playing upon his
reed," and the pafing of one name into an. otber.
* From META
reed *,” that is, upon his pipe made of a reed. Instances of this kind are not wanting in Scripture. Luke xvi. 29. ' They have Moses and the
Prophets ;s and Numb. xxxii. 23. And be sure
your sin will find you out, that is, the punishment of your sin.
(2) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the effect is put for the cause. Death is called pale, because it makes the countenance pale. Youth is called gay, because it makes persons gay. And in like manner anger is called rash, because it makes men rash. We have instances of this sort in Scripture. Gen. xxv. 23. Two nations ss are in thy womb," that is, the fathers of two nations; Exod. xv. 2. ss The LORD is become my * falvation," that is, the author of
my salvation; and 2 Kings iv. 40. * There is death in the pot," that is, a poisonous herb that will cause death.
(3) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the subject is put for the adjunct, that is, for some circumstance or appendage belonging to or depending upon the subject. " He has a good heart,” that is, he has courage, which is supposed to reside in the heart. CHRIST. bid his Disciples, Matt. xxvi. 27. to s drink of the cup," that is, of the wine in the cup. It is said, Mark i. 33. that ss the city was gathered at the door," that is, all the inhabitants of the city. To these examples. I might add such as follow : the Church, that is, Religion forbids it.
“ He painted our
King,". Sylvekrem tenui mufam meditaris avena.
VIRGIL. Eclog. i. ver. 2.
King,” that is, the picture of our King. “There's the Hero,” that is, the bust of the Hero.
(4) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the adjunct is put for the fubject. Gen. xxxi. 53. * Jacob fware by the fear of his father Ifaac,s that is, by the God whom Is AAC feared. 2 Kings xx. I. Şet thine house in order, that is, the affairs of thine house. Phil. ii. 3. - For * we are the circumcision, that is, the persons who are circumcifed. Such passages as follow belong also to this division of the Metonymy. 44 We slight living virtue,” that is, men alive who are virtuous. " No age shalt be silent in thy praise,” that is, men in no age shall be six lent in thy praise. And what charming Metonymies have we of this kind, since the virtues and vices mentioned evidently denote the persons in whom they are found, in that animated passage of Cicero, where, comparing the forces of the Roman republic with the profligate army of CATILINE, he says, “ On this side modesty is en
gaged, on that impudence; on this side chaf “tity, on that leudness; on this integrity, on s that deceit ; on this side piety, on that pro“ faneness; on this side constancy, on that fury; “ on this side honour, on that baseness ;- on this « side moderation, on that ungoverned passion : « in a word,, equity, temperance, fortitude, pru“dence, and all virtues contend against injuf
tice, luxury, effeminacy, ralhness, and all * manner of vices *", * Ex hac enim parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc
$ 3. Under the Metonymy we may consider the Metalepsis, of which it may frequently either more or less consist; but it has this circumftance peculiar to it, that it is very far-fetched and uncommonly multiplied, or, as Dr Ward defines it, * two or more Tropes, and those " of a different kind, are.contained under one “ word, so that gradations or intervening fenfes 36 come between the word that is expressed, and " the thing designed by it. The contests, fays “ the learned Professor, between Sylla and “ Marius proved very fatal to the Roman state.
Julius CÆSAR was then a young man. But
Sylla, observing his afpiring genius, faid of có him, In one CÆSAR there are many MARIUSĖS: ** (nam Cæfari multos Marios ineffe
, Suet. in Vit. c. 1.) Now in this expression there is a Metá<- lepfis, for the word Marius, by a Synecdoche s or Antonomasia, is put for any ambitious or 66 turbulent person-; and this again by a Metonymy
of the cause for the ill effects of fuch-a * temper to the Public. So that Sylla's mean* ing, divested of these Tropes, was, that CÆSAR “ would prove the moft dangerous person to the .66 Roman state that ever was bred in it: which 66 afterwards proved true in the event 7.."
As pudicitia, illinc ftuprum ; hinc fides, illinc fraudatio ; hinc pie. tas, illinc fcelus ; hinc constantia, illinc furor ; hinc honeftas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, illinc libido; denique a. quitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate, cum luxuria, cum ignavia, cum temerin tate, cum vitiis omnibus. CICER. in Catit. Orat. ii. $11.
# Ward's Oratory, vol ii. page 25, 26.