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in which he fays, “I see that cloud of a cruel “ and bloody war rising in Italy. I perceive « a storm, big with thunder and lightning, “ gathering in the west; which, wherever the « hurricane of victory shall carry it, will fill “ all places with a shower of blood *.” The proper words war, blood, and viftory, connected with the Tropes cloud, shower, and tempeft, render the several parts of the Allegory clear and evident. “ I always thought,” says Tully, in his defence of Milo, « that as to other storms “ and tempests, they were only to be sustained

by Milo in the commotions of our public as« semblies +." If the Orator had not used the words public assemblies, the passage had been a complete Allegory, but by its insertion there is an evident mixture of literal and allegorical language. In this kind of Allegories, as QuintiLIAN well observes, “ beauty arises from the Tro

pical, and an easy apprehension of the mean« ing from the proper expressions (l.”

But there cannot methinks be a more pleasing example of literal and allegorical meaning, than in

the • Videre se itaque, ait, confurgentem in Italiâ nubem illam trucis & cruenti belli: videre tonantem ac fulminantem ab occasa procellam quam in quascunque terrarum partes victoriæ tempeftas detulerit magno cruoris imbre omnia fædaturum. Justin. lib. xxix. cap. 3.

+ Equidem ceteras tempeftates, & procellas in illis duntaxat fluctibus concionum semper patavi Miloni effe fubeundas, &c. Orat. pro Milo. 2.

1 Quo in genere & fpecies ex arceffitis verbis venit, & in tellectus ex propriis. QUINTIL, lib. viii. cap. 16.

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the four first verses of the twenty third Psalm: $ The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. ss He makes me to lie down in green pastures ; s: He leads me beside the still waters. He re, As stores my soul. He leads me in the paths of * righteousness for his name's fake. Yea, though * I'walk through the valley of the shadow of

death, yet will I fear, no evil; for: thou art * with me, thy rod and staff they comfort me." Lord --- my soul --- righteousness --- name's sake, are words used in their proper sense; while there is evidently an Allegory in the other expressions, taken from a shepherd, and his kind and faithful protection and care over his flock.

Scripture will afford us also another instance of mixed Allegory in Ephes. vi..from the 10th to the 19th verse: Finally, my brethren, be strong in ss the LORD, and in the power of his might. Put ss on the whole armour of God, that ye may be ss able to stand against the wiles of the Devil. s For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but

against principalities, against powers, againft ss, the rulers of the darkness of this world, against

{piritual wickedness in high places. Where» fore take unto you the whole armour of God, ss that ye may be able to withstand in the evil

day, and having done all, to stand. Stand ss therefore, having your loins girt about with

truth, and having on the breaft-plate of righs teousness, and your feet shod with the

preparasi tion of the gospel of peace; above all, taking is the third of faith, wherewith ye shall be able

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so to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked :

and take the helmer of salvation, and the sword * of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. Pray

ing always, with all prayer and supplication in

the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all per** leverance and fupplication for all saints. Upon a careful review of this passage it will evidently appear, that there is a mixture of allegorical and literal sense, and that they alternately appear and disappear throughout the whole description.

§ 5. If it fhould be suggested, that if our fentences Thould be thus made up of literal and allegorical language we shall hereby violate a rule that has been given, namely, to continue and carry on a Metaphor in the same manner it began,

there is an easy answer to such an objection by observing that there is a very great and effential difference between the mixture of literal and allegorical expression, and the confusion arising from heterogeneous Metaphors. The mixture of literal and allegorical language is not the clustering of difcordant Metaphors together, but the infertion of one and the fame Metaphor in fome parts of a sentence or paragraph, while plain expression makes up the remainder: whereas a confusion of Metaphors is the heaping fuch Metaphors together as are absolutely dissimilar, and contrary to one another, or an attempt to make a coalescence where an impossibility in nature abhors the union. A conjunction of common and metaphorical expressions, or a fentence


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consisting partly of the one, and partly of the other, is like the fun in a summer's day, fome times shining in a clear opening of the heavens, and fometimes darting its rays through clouds, gilded and variegated with his glories. But in= consistent Metapbor's are not unlike the ancient chaos, where all the powerful principles and elements of nature were blended together, and waged irreconcilable war in one perpetual confusion anđ uproar.

$ 6. As we are certain that the human mind is extremely fond of variety, QUINTILTAN's obfervation may be very juft, “That the moft beautiful s6 form of speech is that which consifts of the « Comparison, Allegory, and single Trope, att “ instance of which he gives us in the following

passage from CICERO: For what Atreights, “ what arm of the fea can you think of, fo'mdch « troubled with the tossings and agitations of « Waves? How violent the perturbations and

fury of our popular assemblies for the election “ of magistrates ? The space of only one day or “ night often throws all things into confusion, " and fometimes only a small breath of rumour “ fhall quite change the whole opinion of the “

people *

• Illud verò longè fpecioffimum genus orationis, in quo trium permifta eft gratia, Similitudinis, Allegoriæ, & Translationis. Quod enim frecum, quém euripum, tot motus, tantas tam varias habere putatis agitationes fluctuum; quantas per. torbationes, & quantos æftus habet ratio comitiorum. Dies intermiflus unus, aut nox interpofita, fæpe perturbat omnia,

A like vein -of Allegory and Comparison we may observe in the following passage of a late excellent Divine : “ As the bodies of believers

are like common tabernacles for their frailty, « so they may be likened to the facred tabernaucle which was framed by the special appoint“ inent of God, in respect of the use and service « they are devoted: to, and of the honour they « receive by grace. They are tabernacles, as

they are the tenements of their own spirits ; « and sacred ones, as they are the habitations of " the Spirit of God: for their bodies are conse( crated to his service as well as their souls. The « members of their bodies are instruments and « fervants of righteousness, vessels which their « souls possess in sanctification and honour. “ Some of them are peculiarly dignified in the « service of God, like those utensils which were « both of special use and ornament in the Sanc«tuary. The head of the saint, like the candle« sticks of the Tabernacle, holds forth a constant «. light of divine truth and wisdom; while his « heart, like the sacred altar, retains an inextin

guishable fire of divine love and zeal: his or“ gans of speech are like the silver trumpets and “ other musical instruments of the Sanctuary, “ devoted to the glory of God, and employed to

praise him in the beauty of holiness; while the 66. foul that resides in this tabernacle, like the

a anointed

& totam opinionem parva nonnunquam commutat aura ru. moris. QUINTIL. lib. viii. cap. 6. $ 2.. ex. CICERO. pro MURÆN. $17.

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