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Cicero, in a letter to Atticus, makes use of this Figure in a great perturbation of mind. “I “ know nothing of Pompey, and believe he « must be taken, if he has not got on shipboard. " O incredible swiftness ! But of our friend --

Though I cannot accuse him without sorrow, “ for whom I feel such pain and anguish *.” The same Figure is also employed by him to express his gloomy anxiety, when he thus writes to his friend Cassius : “ Brutus could scarce support

himself at Muting. If he is safe, the day “ is ours : but if not (may Heaven avert the “ omen!) all must have recourse to you t." He means, if BRUTUS is defeated.

Juvenal concludes his eighth satire, in which he lashes the Romans for priding themselves in their high birth, with an Apofopesis:

Better that from THERSITES' I loins you came,
And, like ACHILLES, sweep th' embatild plains,
And grasp and wield the thunder of his arms,
Than be the hero's progeny, and ftain
With cowardice the glories of your fire.
Survey your genealogy, and trace


* De Pompeio scio nihil ; eumque, nifi in navim sese contulerit, exceptum iri puto. O celeritatem incredibilem! hujus autem nostri

Sed non possum fine dolore accusare eum, de quo angor & crucior.

Cicer. ad ATTICUM Epift. lib. vii. epift. 22.

+ Brutus Mutinæ vix jam sustinebat. Qui si conservatus crit vivimus, fin, quod Dii omen avertant ! omnis omnium cursus est ad vos. Cicer. ad Familiar. lib. xii, epift. 6.

The name of a worthless fellow, mentioned by Homer.

Your boasted pedigree up to its fource;
What find you there? Th’offscouring of mankind.
Your ancestors were shepherds, or more base;
How base, the muse will not presume to say *.

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$ 4. The Scripture makes use of this Figure upon the following occasions :

In a way of promise. 2 Sam. v. 8. - And ss David said, On that day whosoever gets up to *s the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the s lame and the blind, that are hated of David's ss soul ---- Here the speech stops; but what is understood is, that he who does this service Mall be chief captain, as we learn from comparing this place with 1 Chron, xi. 6. . In like manner, Dan. iii. 15. » Now if ye be ready,' the words of NEBUCHADNEZZAR, ss that at what time ye hear the ss sound of the cornet, fute, harp, fackbut, ss psaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of music ss-Here the speech is broken; but our Translation supplies the word well, which undoubtedly is understood.

This Figure is used in Scripture in a way of anger or commination. Gen. iii. 22. - And ss now lest he's that is, ADAM, oss that is, ADAM, * put forth his hand, and eat, and live for ever." As a supplement to the words, which are the threatning of the Almighty against ADAM for his sin in eating the forbidden fruit, we are to add, “I " will banish him from paradise, and guard the “ passage against his re-admission there.” In like manner, James iii. 5. - My brethren, says. * the Apostle, be not many masters, knowing ss that ye shall receive the greater condemnass tion is that is, unless we cease from a censorious and arrogant judgment of others.

hand, * Malo pater tibi Thersites, dummodo tu sis.

Æacidæ fimilis, Vulcaniaque arma capessas,
Quam-te Therfitem fimilem producat Achilles.
Et tamen ut longè repetas, longèque revolvas
Nomen, ab infami gentem deducis alylo.
Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuorum,
Aut pastor fuit, aut illud quod dicere nola.

This Figure is sometimnes employed in the sacred Writings to give vent to forrow and complaint. Psalm vi. 3. * My soul is sore vexed , ss but thou, O LORD, how long ?s that is, “ how 6 long wilt thou continue the tokens of thy « displeasure against me? or, how long will it be “ ere thou wilt attend to my cry, and relieve “ me?” So again, Luke xix. 42. « If thou hadst so known," the words of our Lord lamenting over Jerusalem, " even thou, at least in this thy s day, the things which belong to thy peace ! ss but now are they hid from thine eyes :" that is, “ how happy hadft thou been if thou hadft “ known the things that belong to thy peace.”

This Figure is made use of in facred Writ in solemn oaths and appeals to Heaven. I Sam. iï. 17. - God do so to thee, and more also, if

thou hide any thing from me:" that is, “I “ adjure thee, by an imprecation of the divine “ vengeance upon thee if thou refuseft my de5 sire, that you tell me the whole matter."


Thus Heb. iii. 10. · To whom I Jware in my is wrath, if they shall enter into my rest ;ss that is, “if they do enter into my rest, I am not GOD, “ and my truth is pledged in vain."

$ 5. The use of this Figure is to communi. cate our passions in public speaking, just in the fame manner as they are found to operate in nature, and hereby we may expect to engage and inflame the minds of our audience. These suppressions are the genuine products of anger, forrów, fear, and the other passions, wrought up to violence in the soul, which are too mighty and yehement for utterance. But let us take heed that this Figure does not become too common, and thereby lose its efficacy; and let us also beware that the Apofiopefis does not obfcure our meaning, for when this Figure is properly managed, though our sense is not expressed, yet it is readily understood; and the subsequent thought is so obvious, that it strikes the mind, notwithstanding it is not uttered by words. Nay, when the Apofiopesis is well conducted, there may be weight and energy given to the sentiment, which words are not able to represent; and our silence shall, it may be, have more power upon our hearers than a diffusive eloquence. “ An Apofiopefis,says DEMETRIUS PhalareUS, “ infuses a strength into our dif6 courses *.” « This Figure," the words of

HERMOGENES, * Η ειρημενη δε Αποσιωπησις δεινοτερον ποιησει τον λογον, De Elocutione, $ 276.

HERMOGENES, “ animates our speech, and seems s to be dictated from the soul only; as where 56 DEMOSTHENES says, Then as to myself --- but I am unwilling to speak any thing severe, especially at the beginning of my address. And on ano“ ther occasion, For not concerning these --- but I will suppress what occurred to my mind *"

To an Orator that successfully uses this Fi. gure, I may apply, with some variation, a line of Dr Young's, in his epitaph on Lord Aubrey BEAUCLERK ; who, upon receiving a mortal wound in an engagement of his ship with the Spaniards, ordered his successor in command still to maintain the fight against the enemy. The foul still feels him when he speaks no more t.

Και η Αποσιώπησις δε ενδιαθετε λογέ, και ως αληθώς, οιον, εμψυχε. Παραδειγμα ταυτης

“ Ann' εμοι μεν, ου βουλομαι . « δε δυσχερες ουδεν ευπειν αρχομεν 3 τε λογου."

Και εν τω υπες μεγαλοπολιτων, « Ου γαρ περι τουτων" αλλ' εασω τoγ. “sasabor simu9, Mos”. Hermogen.' de Ideis, lib. ii. $7. de ver a Oratione,

+ The epitaph of Dr Young, though the last line only is what I have taken the liberty to accommodate to my purpose, is as follows:

While Britain boasts her empire o'er the deep,
This marble shall compel the brave to weep :
As men, as Britons, and as soldiers mourn,
O'er dauntless, loyal, virtuous BEAUCLERK's urn.

Sweet were his manners, as his soul was great ;
And ripe his worth, tho' immature his fate.
Each tender grace that love and joy inspires,
Living, he mingled with his martial fires ;
Dying, he bid Britannia's thunder roar,
And Spain ftill felt him when he breath'd no more.

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