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u. when the face is made direct, when the hands “ hang down, when the feet are set close toge « ther, and when a: Aiff air prevails over the “ whole image from head to foot. The grace
ful bending, and, as I may call it, the motion « of a statue, gives life to it. The hands are “ formed in different poftures, and the coủnte« nance is infinitely varied. And the same beauty " and pleasure which strike us in the works of « the Statuary, strike us also in the Figures of “ the Rhetorician +
$ 5. Before I finish my discourse on the general nature of Figures, I shall give a few directions as to the proper management of them.,
(1) Let our discourses be founded upon reafon, and let us establish every thing we advance with solid and convincing arguments. We are first to labour to enlighten the understanding, and inform the judgment, and then introduce our Figures to affect and engage the passions, and thereby secure a complete triumph over our audience. It is a kind of insult to the reason of a man to endeavour to excite his passions, before he is fatisfied of the truth and justice of our
caufe; + Nam relli quidem corporis vel minima gratia eft. Neque enim adverfa fit facies, & demiffa brachia, & jun&ti 'pedes, & à fummis ad ima rigens cotpus! Flexus ille, &, ut fic dixerim, motus dat a&um quendam effectis. Ideo nec ad onom
modum formatæ manus, & in vultu mille species 2 Quam : quidem gratiam & dele&tationem afferunt Figutæ, quæque in senfibus, quæque in verbis funt. QyiNTI. lib. ii. cap. 14.
cause; but when he is once thoroughly convinced by the clear light of argument, he is prepared to catch the flame, and our eloquence and pathetis address, which consist so much in the use of Figures, will scarce fail to have a commanding efficacy and prevalence over his soul, at least this is the proper place for employing them.
(2) Let us be sparing in the use of Figures: We should not needlessly multiply thein, and teem in our discourses over-wrought, and, as I might say, encumbered with Figures, as if we had set ourfelves in the vain-glory of our hearts go display all the riches of our imagination, while we should be instructing our hearers, and making a rational progress towards the conquest of their passions. Never let our Figures have place in our arguments, -except for illustration. Let our reasoning be clear and concise, and as void of rhetorical embellishment as possible. Never let us hide or disguise the chain of truth by the pomp of Rhetoric, or varnish our discourses with such kind of ornaments as we fee in the windows of Gothic cathedrals, whose gaudy paintings injure the pure light of the day, which would otherwise be transmitted in a gentle and unsullied luftre, And Figures, even in their proper situation, as a reinforcement to reason and evidence, should not in general be lavishly expended, but discrectly and moderately used; “ for, as Mr BLACKWALL “ well observes, a passion described in a multi- tude of words, and carried on to a dispropor
of tionate length, fails of the end proposed, and « tires instead of pleasing. Contract your force, $fays that ingenious Writer, into a moderate sa compass, - and be nervous rather than coof pious. But if at any time there be occasion for you to indulge a copioufness of stile, be
ware it does not run into looseness and luxus « riance *" “ An Author, says the Arch- . * bishop of CAMBRAY, is not satisfied with plain 4 reafon, native graces, and lively sentiments, $ which are the true perfection of a discourse: s Self-love makes him overshoot the mark... 81Dhey who have a juft taste, avoid excess in
every thing, even in wit itfelf." He thews $s! moit wit who khows when to check its fallies, 75, that he maysadapt himself to peoples capaci
tiqs; and finooth the way for them. --- I would s have a sublime "lo familiar, fo sweet, and fo Sissimple, that at first every Reader would be apt
to think he could easily have hit on it himself, i though few are capable of attaining it't." sis(3) Let not our Figures be too much adorned and refined into too nice an exactness. The lefs art the better. 1 And it becomes an Orator, even when he employs it, to conceal it as much as possible, that he may not appear ambitious to make a parade of his abilities, when he should infame the passions ; and may not be neglected and traduced as a trifer, when he is treating
upon BLACK WALL's Introduction to the Classics, page 187, + Letter to the French Academy, p. 247, 248.
upon momentous, and interefting, fubjects Let us feel our subject in all its importance : let it glow, like a living coal, at our hearts,; and der the Figures we make use of be as it were the powerful and spontaneous Manies of this internal fire. Nature and vehement sensation will admit of no affectation or artifice; and there is as much difference between the Orator who nicely adjusts his sentences, and delicately contrives and polishes his Figures, and the Orator who speaks in the pathos and transport of his soul, as there is between a painted Aame and a real conflagration, or between an artificial fountain spouting up its little streams into the air, and the strong majestic current of a river haftening to pour its aniple treas fures into the ocean. When a person is powerfully possessed with the passion he would infpire into others, he delivers himself with spirit and energy; he naturally breaks out into lively and bold figures, and all the suitable expressions of a strong and commanding eloquence. I have admired that paragraph (not wholly foreign to our purpose) in Mr Pope's Preface to his transla, tion of Homer's Iliad; though
Iliad; though perhaps the characters of the several great Writers he instances are not perfectly juft. In the passage we may both observe the great excellency of a Writer, I mean this internal ardor, and how. Mr Popen, in his various descriptions of several Authors, has beautifully exemplified the very, excellency he describes, “ It is remarkable, says he, thaj
2:sa « Homer's fancy, which is every where vigobocs.**Mollvin,
« rouss is not discovered immediately at the be
ginning of his Poem in its fullest splendor : « it grows in the progress both upon himself 6 and others, and becomes on fire, like a chao “ riot-wheel, by its own rapidity. Exact difpo. “sition, just thought, correct elocution, pou « lished numbers, 'may have been found in a « thousand, but this poetical fire, this vivida vis " animi, in a very few. Even in works where ci all those are imperfect or neglected, this can « overpower Criticism, and make us admire;
even while we disapprove. Nay, where this appears, though attended with absurdities, it
brightens all the rubbish about it, till we see « nothing but its own splendor." This fire is « discerned in Virgil, but difcerned as through «' a glass reflected from Homer, more shining c than fierce, but every where equal and con& ftant. In LưCan and STATIUS, it burfts out « in sudden, short, and interrupted flashes. In “ Milton it glows like a furnace, kept up to « an uncommon ardor by the force of art. 6 SHAKESPEAR it strikes before we are aware, « like an accidental fire from heaven : but in « Homèr, and in him only, it burns every where « clearly, and every where irresistibly t."
$ 6. I shall conclude with two passages ; one from the Prince of at least the Roman Orators, and the other from the Prince of Critics · Every topic, says Cicero, is often transiently
ct rouched ** Preface to HOMBR, P. 3. O&avo edition.