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PART II.

THE

FIGURES

O F

RHETORIC

CONSIDERED.

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gures vanish; but let never so much alteration be made as to the words in Figures of fentiment, the Figures will still continue; for as the Figures reft upon the ideas, it is impofsible that they fhould be destroyed by a mutation of language. The first class of Figures is only the body, the laft is the very foul of our compositions t、

23

༈ ༢ ༩

2)

0173

§4. As to the necefsity and ufe of Figures, I fhall only for the prefent transiently obferve, that they are of great férvice to animate, adorn, entertain, and illuftrate. "It is of great importance, fays "the ingenious Mr ROLLIN, to make youth ob“`serve, in reading good Authors, the use which "true eloquence makes of Figures, and the as"sistance it draws from them, not only to please, "but to perfuade, and move the affections "and that without them exprefsion is weak, and "falls into a kind of monotony, and is almoft "like a body without a foul t." QUINTILIAN gives a very juft idea of the power of Figures by a very natural comparison; «The Statuary's art, fays he, is very little feen in an upright body,

60

"when

(3 6

* Formantur autem & verba & fententiæ pœne innumerabiles, quod fatis fcio notum effe vobis; fed inter conformationem verborum & fententiarum hoc intereft, quod verborum tollitur, fi verba mutaris; fententiarum permanet, quibufconque verbis uti velis CICER. de Orat. lib. iii. p. 52.

*

+Sunt igitur Schemata feu Figuræ duplicis generis, ut à plerifque ftatuuntur, dictionis, & fententiæ. Illæ ad materiam, ac veluti corpus orationio pertinent; hæ vero ad formam & quafi animam, hoc eft, ad fententiam. GLASS11 Philolog. Sacra, p. 1422

ROLLIN on the Belles Lettres, vol. ii.`

P. 141.

$2. A Figure efsentially differs from a Trope, as in a Figure there is no translation of a word from its proper into an improper fenfe; and it is diftinguishable from ordinary language, as it cafts a new form upon fpeech, and by that mean ennobles and adorns our difcourfes t..

Lotos

4

§3. Figures are divided into two kinds. Figures of language, and Figures of fentiment *. Figures of language are fuch fort of Figures as only regard our words which are repeated in fome new and uncommon order, or with elegance and beauty fall into an harmony of found. Figures of fentiment are fuch as consift not only in words, but ideas, and by these means infuse a ftrength and vigour into our discourses. The real difference between Figures of language and Figures of fentiment plainly appears from hence, that if in Figures of language you alter the order of the words, or make a change in them, the Fi

gures

"the word to fuch forms of fpeech, as differ from the more

common and ordinary ways of expreffion, as the theatrical "habits of actors, and their deportment on the stage, are different from their usual garb and behaviour at other times. WARD'S Oratory, vol. ii. p. 33, 34.

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+ Figura, ficut nomine ipfo patet, eft conformatio quædam orationis remota à communi & primùm fe offerente ratione, Quare in Tropis ponuntur verba alia pro aliis. Horum nihil, in Figuris cadit. Nam & propriis verbis & ordine collocatis, fieri Figura poteft. QUINTIL. lib. ix. cap. 1. § 1.

43.7

Duæ funt ejus partes; diavolas, id eft, fententiarum ; & Aws, id eft, verborum. Quare ficut omnem orationem ita Figuras quoque verfari neceffe eft in fenfu & in verbis. QUINTIL. lib. ix. cap. 1. § 2. 41

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