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AND

CRITICISM OF ITS PRESENT

IMPORTANCE.

BY

FREDERICK ALBERT LANGE,

LATE PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITIES OF ZÜRICH AND MARBURG.

Authorized Translation

BY

ERNEST CHESTER THOMAS,

LATE SCHOLAR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD.

IN THREE VOLUMES.

VOL. III.

LONDON:
TRÜBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL.

1881.
(All rights reserved.]

LIBRARY OF THE LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY.

A.46616

nadantyne Press

BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO.

EDINBURGH AND LONDON

NOV 6 1900

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER II.

BRAIN AND SOUL, . . . . . . . Pp. 111-161

The difficulties of the subject have become more obvious with the

progress of the sciences. Injurious reaction of scholastic psycho-
logy, III-112. Phrenology, 113-125. Reflex movements as the

basis of psychical activity. Pfüger's experiments, 125-127.

Various misunderstandings and erroneous interpretations of physio-

logical experiments, 127-133. The brain does not produce any

psychological abstractum, 133. Erroneous theories of Carus and

Huschke, 134-137. Scholastic ideas must be discarded, 137–138.

Stubbornness of the prejudice as to the localizations of mental

functions, 138. Meynert's brain researches, 139-142. Psycho-

logical importance of the motor paths, 142-144. Identity of the

excitation in all nerves, 144. Experiments of Hitzig, Nothnagel,

and Ferrier; their meaning, 145-153. Wundt's remarks on the

elementary phenomena of the psychical functions, 153. Carrying

out of the laws of the conservation of energy by the cerebral

functions, 154-159. Intellectual value of the content of sensation,

159.

CHAPTER III.

SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY,

·

.

· · · Pp. 162-201

Errors in the attempts at a Scientific and Mathematical Psychology :

Herbart and his School, 162-167. Necessity of a criticism of

Psychology, 167. Hypotheses as to the Nature of the Soul ; ' a

psychology without a Soul, 168–169. Criticism of self-observation

and of observation by means of the internal sense,' 169-174.

Scientific Method and Speculation, 175-178. Animal psychology,

178, 179. Ethnopsychology ; ethnographical accounts of travel,

180-183. Darwin's influence, 183-184. Somatic method ; applica-

tion of experiment, 184-186. Empirical psychology in England :

Mill, Spencer, Bain, 186-193. Moral statistics, 194-201.

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