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some, disposed to play tricks, and, over the innumerable tricks and devices when detected, showed fight. Thus, resorted to by those who sbould have when exploring the ruins of Perse- paid. The prince got quite ashamed. polis, the ketkhodah of a small bam- "To-morrow" was his constant anlet refused lodgings to the travel- swer, but it never came. At last a lers, charged them extravagantly for date of payment was positively provisions, beat their servants be fixed; it was subsequent to that of cause they purchased them elsewhere, M. Flandin's departure. When Res. endeavoured to expel them from the soulbek overtook him on the road, it garden where they had camped, and was easy to see by his face that there was nearly shot in a confiict with one had been further postponement. of their couriers. Fortunately a supe. Notwithstanding the promises made rior functionary happened to visit the and the word pledged by the Shabvillage the next day, and on hearing zadeh, the treasurer of the province of his conduct, had him at once had again put him off. He had been seized and bastinadoed. Whereupon, to the prince, who had taken his order, the following morning-and this is a and promised to have it paid to his characteristic Persian trait—the ket cousin, who was at Shiraz. "Poor khodah came humbly to the French Ressoulbek was quite out of counte. tent to implore pardon. They drove nance, and I saw that he blushed for him away like a dog, and ever after the bad faith of the authorities of his wards he was gentle, polite, and eager country. He was ashamed of the to render them services. The same inexactness or penury of the public treatment had an equally good effect exchequer; and finding himself unon a different class of public ser- able to palliate the one or conceal the vants--the customhouse officers. At other, he said, bitterly, If I had the foot of the mountain of Pyra- neither wife nor children, Saheb, I zan—which name signifies the old would ask you to take me with you to woman-upon the way from Shiraz France.' The general consequences to Bender-bouchir, the travellers en- of this state of things are deplorable; countered a party of these rahdars or it is thus that all declines and perishes guardians of the road, who demanded in Persia. Patriotism is dead ; and a duty customarily paid by caravang. if a spark of religious fanaticism still On M. Flandin's refusal, the chief burns beneath the ashes that cover seized his horse's bridle, a liberty this unhappy country, it no longer promptly repaid by a cut of a whip, suffices to warm the heart of the Perwhich made the man let go. Up sian. A few plundering khans recame Ressoulbek, the principal courier, main about the throne so long as they at a gallop, dashed into the midst of see a little gold to be gathered in its the rahdars, loading them with abuse, vicinity ; but amongst the people there and exbibited his firman. The paper, are many who, regarding the king the volley of epithets, and the vigor and his vizier with contempt, hesitate, ous Jash, which might have been de and turn towards the foreigner. Theirs livered by the hand of the first noble are the uneasy and anxious glances in Persia, produced their effect, and for which the Russians watch in the the soldiers humbly apologised. northern provinces, and to which, ia

Ressoulbek, who was not a bad those of the south, the English already fellow for a Persian, was in his own actively respond." person an example of the habitual in- It is to be observed, and will bardly justice and insolvency of Persian ad- escape any intelligent reader of bis ministration. He had an order on the book, that M. Flandin, a clever treasury, payable in Shiraz; and M. painter, an industrious antiquarian, Flandin, who was on familiar and an agreeable and lively parrator, and, friendly terms with the Shahzadeh as far as his volumes enable us to there commanding, did his utmost to judge, a generous and kind-hearted get it paid, but without success. The man, has but crude and romantic prince interested himself in the matter, notions on certain political subjects. but in vain. Neither his influence, In observation he is shrewd enough; or the authority of the Shah's seal, what he sees he describes well, and tached to the document, could prevail there is no reason to doubt the cor


rectness of his appreciation of Per- the charming author of the Persian sia's condition, corruption, and de- Gil Blas, of Hadji Baba-Morier, cline-confirmed, moreover, by many who to his literary talent added that cotemporary writers. But, as we of an observer and painter of man. before remarked, in all matters relat- ners." We may content ourselves ing to the East he is an Anglopho- with these two brief paragraphs of bist (to coin a word for the occasion), praise, and ransack the volumes in and cherishes a sincere conviction vain for further laudation of Englishthat Great Britain is eternally, exclu- men. In doing so we stumble upon sively, and unscrupulously bent on a passage exemplifying the amusing extending her territory and finding ingenuity with which M. Flandin new markets for her manufactures. everywhere detects the mischievous He belongs to that division of his hand of English influence. He is Dation who hold or profess a settled speaking of the narcotic drug haschis, and irrational conviction of the habit extracted from hemp, and principally ual perfidy of this country-a convic- used in Egypt. “It was imported tion they would be extremely puzzled into Persia ; but the accidents that to justify by the adduction of facts. occurred from its use determined The English, according to him, have the Shah to prohibit it under the neglected no means, during the last severest penalties-amounting, I was forty years, of weakening and killing assured, to sentence of death-on any Persia, and impoverishing its people. who brought it into the country. All the influential men in the country This solicitude of the king of Persia are in English pay-rather a heavy for his subjects singularly astonished pull upon the secret-service money; me; but as haschis is a dangerous every Englishman he meets is taken rival to opium, I asked myself if it for "one of those agents without any might not be possible to recognise official character, but as enterprising the finger of England in this veto. as they are persevering, whom Eng. The supposition appeared to me much land sends forth whithersoever she more natural and probable than the has objects to gain and interests to Shah's capricious tenderness for his preserve." We feel quite grateful people." when we find him, however rarely, In the course of his protracted perdeparting from his usual strain, and egrinations it is not to be supposed bestowing a word or two of commend that M. Flandin had not numerous ation on one of our countrymen-as encounters with persons more interin the case of Mr Layard, whom he esting and agreeable to meet than fell in with during his rambles, and of covert English emissaries, truculent wbom (although far from acquitting village mayors, refractory customhim of Defarious designs upon the in- house officers, and Kouli assassins. dependence of Persia) he speaks as He came across all sorts of strange " the ingenious and learned interpre- characters, such as one scarcely exter of the antiquities of Asia." " At pects to fall in with out of the Arabian Persepolis, too, he is so generous as Nights, although to experienced wanto ealogise the man who out-diplo derers in the far East they are doubtmatised Napoleon's ambassador. less familiar enough. The following " Amongst the names," he says, is a striking account of one of these “that travellers have not feared to meetings :engrave upon the palace of Xerxes, “My researches in the hypogea of very few are tbose of celebrated men. Persepolis were interrupted by an We read, bowever, those of two di incident that merits narrating. I plomatists who have left more bon perceived, ascending the path, two ourable evidence of their passage individuals whose costumes appeared through Persia than this singular risc to me from afar to differ from that of inscribed between the legs or on the the Persians. They were old men, of breast of the colossas of Persepolis. low stature, but robust and quickOne is that of Sir John Malcolm, am- eyed. Instead of the pointed cap of bassador to Feth-Ali-Sbah in 1807, lambskin, their heads were covered who has written an excellent bistory with large turbans, whose points of the country. The other is that of hung down upon their shoulders.. Their beards, instead of being care- strange bas-relief of Takht-i-Jemshid fully dyed of a fine black, according to (the throne or palace of Gemschid), Persian custom, were perfectly white and wondered even more to find They exchanged a few words in a Franks camped amidst the ruins, at tongue I had not yet heard spoken in great inconvenience and some risk. those regions; then they addressed These visitors generally explained the me in Persian. In reply to my ques- presence of the strangers in the way tions, they told me they were mer- most flattering to their national pride. chants from Yezd, whither they were Doubtless they went thither because returning after a long journey in the in their own country they had nothing north of Persia. They added that, so great and magnificent as those like almost all the inhabitants of Yezd, monuments. Some, however, took a they were Ghebers; and that, in their different view of the matter. In Perquality of fire-worshippers, liko Djem- sia and other parts of the East, the sbid, the great king who had built the idea prevails that all ancient monupalaces of Persepolis, they had been ments, particularly those bearing inunwilling to pass near those ruins scriptions, indicate the place of hidden without turning aside to offer up a treasures. The men from an adjacent pious prayer. They had scarcely village, whom Messrs Flandin and spoken, when they set to gathering Coste employed for their archæologismall wood and dry plants, formed a cal diggings, were, like most Persians, sort of little pile on the edge of the too intelligent not to take an interest rock on which we were, and lighted in the excavations which brought to it, murmuring prayers in the same liglit fine sculptures, previously almost language I bad heard them speak buried in the earth; but still they upon their arrival, and which must could not believe that the mere love have been Zend, the language of Zoro- of art was the sole stimulant to these aster and of the Zendavesta, that researches; they were fully persuaded whose characters were engraven on that they had to do with treasurethe walls of Persepolis. Whilst the seekers, and countenanced a report two Ghebers thus prayed before their that the Franks daily found gold and fire, I raised my eye to the upper jewels, and that they had discovered bas-relief of the facade of the funeral a vase containing sixteen battemans, vault before which we were. The or fifty pounds' weight of gold coin, scene it represented was exactly simi- part of which they had sent to the lar. This worship still had, after Shal. In vain did M. Flandin point more than two thousand years, votar- out the absurdity of these notions, and ies whose faith had been preserved the impossibility of his finding treanotwithstanding the persecutions of sures without the knowledge of the the sectaries of Mahomet and of Ali. men who did all the digging. It was Long after the departure of the two their belief that he made them dig Ghebers, the little pile still smoked, just to the depth at which he knew and its light smoke ascended towards the treasure lay, and then took it up heaven in a thin grey column. I felt in the night. Nocturnal alarms from the influence of a religious impression marauders were the consequence of on finding myself alone beside these the reports thus spread. Two solashes which had received the homage diers, sent by the governor of Shiraz, of the two prostrate old men ; the stood sentry by turns the night through, vapour of the sacrifice slowly rising masking their fire with a barricade, above the wild rocks that commanded lest they should be picked off from afar the silent plain, covered with ruins, by its light. Another ingenious deamidst which are still to be found the vice of these warriors was to put caps remains of the ancient altars of fire." and cloaks on stakes planted in the

During the two months M. Flan- ground round about the fire, to make din's little party passed amongst these the robbers think the guard numerous. interesting remains of Persia's former They had great confidence in the effigreatness, few visitors disturbed their cacy of these scarecrows. Amongst solitude. Now and then a traveller other odd visits, M. Flandin one day, deviated from his road to take a cur when hard at work amongst the ruins, sory but wondering survey of the impugning Ker Porter's accuracy con

cerning the tails of fabulous monsters, ecstasy, which the Mussulmans greatly and sketching bas-relief combats be- admire. In connection with the potween old Persian divinities, was in- pular belief that they possess mystetruded upon by a gentleman in a tiger- rious cures for the bites of serpents skin mantle and pointed yellow cap, and the sting of scorpions, M. Flandin his arms and legs naked, a large talis- relates a curious incident which ocman banging down upon his bare curred when he was at Ispahan : breast, and a cup of Indian nut-shell "The Persian servant of a European suspended by a brass chain from his had been stung by a scorpion, and his arm. The cnp contained some small master wished to apply ammonia, coins, and a little honey, which he the usual remedy in such cases, but offered to M. Flandin. Under pre- the man refused, and ran off to the tence of a gift, he thus asked an alms. bazaar. When he returned, he said This curious-looking stranger, whose he was cured, and appeared to be so. skin was blackened by exposure to The European, rather surprised at this the sun, and whose long matted hair almost instantaneous cure, questioned fell down upon his shoulders, was a him, and found that he had been to a dervish or fakir, a sample of one of dervish who enjoyed great reputation the greatest puisances in Persia. in such cases. This dervish, he said, These dervishes are generally de- after examining the wound and utterbauched reprobates and robbers, but ing a few words, had several times are looked upon by the pious as holy lightly touched it with a little iron men, for whom a snug place is spe- blade. Still more astonished at the cially reserved amongst the houris remedy than at the cure, the European of Mahomet's paradise. The vaga desired to see the instrument by which bonds stroll about the country, instal the latter was said to have been effectling themselves wherever they please, ed. At the cost of a small pichkeck and remaining as long as they list. he was allowed to have it for a few None dare refuse them shelter; with minutes in his possession. After caretheir cry of Ya, Ali! incessantly re- ful examination, finding nothing expeated, they obtain whatever they traordinary in the instrument, he made desire. They are supposed to have up his mind that the cure was a mere remedies for all ills; barren women trick ; that the dervish was an imposconsult them, and men dread them on tor, that the scorpion's sting had not account of their reputed power of cast. penetrated, and that his servant bad ing spells. “I knew one,” says M. been more frightened than hurt. He Flandin, " who was called dervish threw the blade contemptuously upon Shah, because he bad quartered him- the table, when, to bis great surprise, self upon the king. He never quitted he beheld it attach itself strongly to a the royal residence, but followed the knife. The quack's instrument was Shah wherever be went, and had his simply a magnet. But wbat power tent and his mule or borse to enable bad the loadstone's attraction over him to do so. He was the greatest venom? This discovery was very possible scamp; drunken, a gambler, odd; incredulity was at a nonplus ; a debauchee, he combined all imagin- and yet the man stung by the scorpion able vices in his own person. He was was cured, and he who had cured him Devertheless esteemed a saint, and was in great renown at Ispahan for some day perhaps a tomb will be the treatment of that sort of wound. raised to him, bearing the name of I relate these facts without comment; iman, in token of profound venera- who knows if science will not one day tion." Their vow of poverty imposes discover something as yet unknown to no privation upon these gentry, since it, but practised by the Persians? Have they get everytbing for the asking; not savages remedies composed of the and sometimes they renounce it, to juice of plants, of whose existence our become mirzas or khans, if fortune European science is ignorant?” favours them so far. Some few of In Persia there is a legend or trathem really are austere religious fa- dition for everything, and some of naties, who pass whole days in prayer these are as fanciful as they are aband fasting, and live apart from the surd. When at Teheran, M. Flandin world, plunged in a sort of stupid was told various strange stories relating to the lofty peak of Demawend- to visit her. He arrived so panting that gigantic cone, eternally ice- and exhausted, that she had a stair crowned, which in clear weather is case cut in the rock to facilitate his visible, through the transparent at visits. But the lovers are long since mosphere of Persia, a hundred leagues dead, and their stairs are broken up off, in the city of Ispahan. One of and degraded. Again, when scaling the most generally believed tales re- some rocks in the neighbourhood of lating to the mountain is, that a plant the little town of Hamadan, supposed grows upon its slopes, and there alone, to stand upon the site of Ecbatana, which produces gold. The origin of the ancient capital of Media, the guides this story is to be traced to the golden pointed out to the travellers, in a tone colour assumed by the teeth of the of great veneration, a huge stone mass sheep that crop the herbage of the split into two. Its division had been Demawend. The phenomenon is effected, they religiously believed and easily explained by a colouring pro- confidently affirmed, by a single blow perty of the grass ; but the Persians, of the scimitar of their great iman, Ali. constant lovers of the marvellous, pre- A few days previously, a mark upon fer to behold in it an indication of the a rock, having the form of a gigantic presence of gold. Some of those whose horse-shoe, had been shown to M. faith is strongest ascend the mountain Flandin as having been left there by with great labour, to gather this grass, the hoof of Ali's horse. A more moand extract its precious essence. There dern, but bardly a more credible marare no instances upon record of for- vel, is pictorially represented amongst tunes having been made in this man- the ruins of the town of Rhey, near ner. A more poetical tradition is that Teheran. Hard by an abundant preserved with respect to a mauvais spring, known as Ali's fountain, and pas on the mountain of Pyrazan in on the face of a rock chiselled smooth Fars, at a short distance from the for the purpose, amidst nests of eagles Persian Gulf. When descending the and vultures, a bas-relief represents mountain, and soon after quitting a Feth-Ali-Shah on horseback, striking little caravanserai, about half way down a lion by a single thrust of his down, at which they had passed the lance. An old man, who had belonged night, Messrs Flandin and Coste came to that prince's court, assured M. to what is called the Cotal. Doukhtar, Flandin he had been eyewitness of the or the young girl's staircase. A stu- feat: To which the painter appends pendous mountain of rock, flanked by the remark, that the Persians love the a bottomless abyss, has to be descend- marvellous, and have very small reed by a narrow track which zigzags gard for truth. down its almost perpendicular side. On his entrance into Persia, by the The path is worn smooth and slippery, northern frontier, M. Flandin received there is no foothold for the horses and practical proof of Persian dislike to mules, and few caravans accomplish the Russians. Whilst sketching his the dangerous passage without loss of first halting-place, he was assailed by baggage, and often of beasts. When a shower of stones and abuse, with ascending, the muleteers pusb and which was coupled the word Moscov support their animals; when descend- (Russian.) The notion of there being ing, they hold them back by the tail. Other Franks than the Czar's subjects Not unfrequently they are compelled had probably never entered these to unload them, and to carry their people's heads. The ambassador burthens piecemeal over the worst made his complaint, and the stick, parts of the path. This was formerly tbat eternal resource in Persia, to less dangerous ; there were steps cut which high and low are alike subject, in the rock; crevices were filled up was applied to improve the geograwith stones. A parapet diminished at phical knowledge of M. Flandin's asleast the appearance of danger ; but of sailants. The loss of Georgia, and the parapet scarcely a vestige remains, their defeats on the banks of the and the road is a mere goat-track. Araxes, still rankle in the liearts of The Persians tell of a young princess the Persians. Tbeir antipathy to the who once dwelt upon the summit of Turks is equally strong, kept up partly Pyrazan, and whose lover daily went by the recollection of former wars

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