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ed by the overhanging cliffs, 600 feet in only broken by one or two summits, which height : they appear smooth as a mirror, are different both in outline and quality and afford access by boats and small ves from the surrounding country. These sels to the little sheltered cots and farms isolated heights generally consist of trap. which now enliven the margin. These rock, and are covered with rich soil and patches are of no great extent, and occur very heavy timber. The most remarkable alternately on either bank of this noble is Warrawolon-whose top I first obsery. stream, comprising farms of from thirty to ed from the hill of Jellore in the south, at a hundred acres.

the distance of 108 miles. This being a " The necessity for a permanent land most important station for the general communication between the seat of go. survey which I made previously to openvernment and the northern part of the ing the northern road, it was desirable to colony was obvious, and, indeed, a road clear the summit, at least partly, of trees; in that direction had been the subject of which work, after considerable labour, petitions from the settlers to Sir Thomas was accomplished-the trees having been Brisbane, under whose auspices the track very large. On removing the primeval across the mountain beyond the Hawkes. forest, I found the view from that summit bury was first discovered and surveyed by extended over a wild waste of rocky pre. Mr Finch. This tract, with some slight cipitous ravines, which debarred all access alterations, was found, on a more general or passage in any direction, until I could survey, to be the most favourable line for patiently trace out the ridges between a cart-road in that direction that the coun- them; and for this purpose I ascended that try afforded, and it had been opened but hill on ten successive days, the whole of a short time, when I thus proceeded along which time I devoted to the examination it, accompanied by Mr Simpson, the of the various outlines and their connexassistant surveyor, who, under my direc. ions, by means of the theodolite. tions, had accomplished the work. Just “ Looking northward, an intermediate then, however, the first steam vessel had and lower range concealed from view the arrived in Australia, thus affording a re. valley of the Hunter, but the summits of gular coast communication between Syd. the Liverpool range appeared beyond it. ney and the northern portion of the colony. On turning to the eastward, my view exThe land communication became, in con- tended to the unpeopled shores and lonely sequence, an object of less importance waters of the vast Pacific. Not a trace than before, to the present handful of of man was visible on any side, except a settlers at least, although it was not the distant solitary column of smoke that arose less essential to a respectable government, from a thicket between the hill on which or where an armed force had been organ- I stood and the coast, and marked the ized, as in New South Wales, solely for asylum of a remnant of the aborigines. the suppression of bushrangers, a sub-genus These unfortunate creatures could do in the order banditti, which, happily, can longer enjoy their solitary freedom. The now only exist there in places inaccessible dominion of the white man surrounded to the mounted police. The ascent north them. His sheep and cattle filled the ward from this ferry on the Hawkesbury, green pastures where the kangaroo (the is a substantial and permanent work. It principal food of the natives) was accusaffords a favourable specimen of the value tomed to range, until the stranger came of convict labour, in anticipating the wants from distant lands and claimed the soil. of an increasing population.

Thus these first inhabitants, hemmed in by “ The country traversed by this new the power of the white population, and road is equally barren, and more moun- deprived of the liberty which they formerly tainous than that traversed between Para enjoyed of wandering at will through matta and the Hawkesbury. Amid those their native wilds, were compelled to seek rocky heights and depths, across which I a precarious shelter amidst the close had recently toiled on foot, marking out thickets and rocky fastnesses which affordwith no ordinary labour the intended line, ed them a temporary home, but scarcely I had now the satisfaction to trot along a & subsistence ; for their chief support, the new and level road, winding like a thread kangaroo, was either destroyed or banishthrough the dreary labyrinth before me, ed. I knew these unhappy people, and and in which various parts had already had frequently met them in their haunts. acquired a local appellation not wholly In the prosecution of my surveys I was unsuited to their character, such as “ Hun- enabled to explore the wildest recesses of gry Flat,'' Devil's Backbone,' • No-grass these deep mountainous ravines, guided Valley,' and · Dennis's Dog.kennel.' In occasionally by one or two of their number. fact, the whole face of the country is com. I felt no hesitation in venturing amongst posed of sand-stone rock, and but partially them, for to me they appeared a harmless, covered with vegetation. The horizon is unoffending race. On many a dark night, and even during rainy weather, I have pro. Englishmen, and leaving them entirely ceeded on horseback amongst these steep to the indolence, helplessness, and miand rocky ranges, my path being guided sery of savage life. We shali cerby two young boys belonging to the tribe, tainly not imitate the policy of the who ran cheerfully before my horse, alter United States to their Indian neighnately tearing off the stringy bark which bours; we shall not make war upon served for torches, and setting fire to the

their persons nor plunder their hunting

their per grass trees (xanthorhaa) to light my grounds ; but in the course of another way."

half century the native tribes will, proWe cannot help observing on this bably, either have shrunk into the inteinteresting passage, that here Major rior, or have sunk into the general ex. Mitchell indulges in a little senti. panse of British population of all mentality-the only instance of doubt. changes the one most to be desired for ful taste which we have observed in their comfort, knowledge, and secuhis volumes. He deplores the fate rity. It is true that measures may be of these aboriginal savages, as “ no occasionally necessary which the men longer able to enjoy their solitary of cheap charity and long harangues freedom." In a country of which not in this country, the Buxtons, et hoc a hundredth part has ever been settled, genus omne, will whine or rail over we should have supposed that they as the most atrocious of all offences might have enough of both freedom against the art of talking philanand solitude. But we are told that thropy, and extending the traffic in “the dominions of the white man beer and Baptists to the colonies ; for surrounded them,”- those dominions those natives, with all their innocence, consisting of a strip of land on the sea. are stealers of cattle and most things shore! The same ultra-pathetic strain that they can lay their hands on; are is followed. His (the Englishman's) hostile where they have force, and apt sheep and cattle fill the green pas- to be treacherous where they have not ; tures where the kangaroo, the prin- and can throw spears and brandish cipal food of the natives, was accustom- clubs in a very assassin-like style. ed to range, until the stranger came That they also have good qualities of from distant lands and claimed the soil. certain kinds, is readily admitted; but If this had been said or sung in a mo. if they commit murder they must be dern novel, it might have been pro. punished, and if they make attacks perly placed; but it has no relation. They must be repelled. As of their ship to the general grace and manly lands they make no use but to walk style required in important works, and over them, it is fortunate even for of which we find so many able in themselves that England has settled stances in the present writer. The her colony among them. It offers a plain truth is, that there are kanga- hope of amelioration which otherwise roos enough, acres enough, and de. they never could have possessed, and serts enough, for ten times the native in its progress it offers them all the ad. population. It is also quite clear, that vantages, and they are numberless, under the English government no which are to be found in the resources violences will or can be committed of advanced and opulent society. against the natives ; that if they will On the evening of the 26th, the adopt the arts and advantages of civi. Major reached the inn near the head lisation, they will be welcomed to their of the little valley of the Wollombi, a share with the English, and thus, if tributary stream to the river Hunter. they will be but peaceable, they will be Here there is some soil fit for cultivaunmolested. Where the English set- tion, and the whole of it is taken up in tlements advance, of course, the na- farms; but the pasturage afforded by tives will retire; but this must be the the numerous valleys on the sides of slightest possible hardship to men who the mountains, called “ water-runs," are wholly without settlements of their are more profitable to the owners of own, whose life is spent in wandering the farms than the farms themselves, over the country, and who still have a of which the produce merely supports, country nearly as large as Europe to at present, the grazing establishments. wander over at will. The question, In a climate so dry as Australia, the in fact, rests between filling some disa selection of farm land depends solely tricts of this great continent with the on the direction of streams, for it is vigour, intelligence, and activity of only in the beds of water-courses that any ponds can be found during dry “ These were the best men I could find. seasons. The formation of reservoirs All were ready to face fire or water, in has not yet been resorted to, although hopes of regaining, by desperate exploits, the accidental largeness of the ponds a portion, at least, of that liberty which left in such channels has frequently de- had been forfeited to the laws of their termined settlers in their choice of a country. This was always a favourite serhomestead, when, by a little labour, a vice with the best disposed of the convict pond equally good might have been prisoners, for in the event of their meritmade in other parts, which few would ing, by their good conduct, a favourable select, from the want of water. In report, the Government was likely to grant some situations there is abundance of them some indulgence on their return. I

chose these men either from the characters good soil, now considered unavailable

they bore, or according to their trade or for any purpose excepting grazing, only from the want of “ frontage," as

particular qualifications : thus,

“ Burnett was the son of a respectable it is termed, on a river or chain of

house-carpenter on the banks of the Tweed, ponds; and selections have been fre

where he had been too fond of shooting quently made of farms, which have

game, his only cause of trouble.' thus excluded extensive tracts behind "«'w

“ Whiting, a Londoner, had been a them from water, and which remain

soldier in the Guards. ing, consequently, unoccupied, have

“ Woods had been long useful in the continued accessible only to the sheep department as a surveyor's man; in which or cattle of the possessor of the water capacity he first came under my notice, frontage. In the lower portion of the when he had been long employed as a Wollombi, where the valley widens and boatman in the survey of the coast, and water becomes less abundant, it was having become in consequence ill from found impossible to locate some vete scurvy, he made application to me to be rans on farms the Major had formerly employed on shore. The justness of his marked out for them; but in its upper request, and the services he had pervalleys, though there is little breadth formed, prepossessed me in his favour, of alluvial soil, the water never fails, and I never afterwards had occasion to and small farmers show a disposition change my good opinion of this sailor. to settle in any available corner there

“ John Palmer was a sailmaker as well -the only beginning of an agricultural

as a sailor, and both he and Jones had been population as yet apparent in New

on board a man-of-war, and were very South Wales.

handy fellows.

“ Worthington was a strong youth, re. On the 28th the Major reached the

cently arrived. He was nicknamed by his appointed place of rendezvous on the

comrades · Five o'clock,' from his having, Foy Brook, having traversed the val.

on the outset of the journey, disturbed ley of the river Hunter, an extensive

them by insisting that the hour was five tract of country, consisting of low un.

o'clock soon after midnight, from his eadulating land, thickly wooded, and

gerness to be ready in time in the mornbearing in most places a good crop of ing. grass. On the 29th the whole equip. “ I never saw Souter's diploma, but his ment came up, and, on the 30th, the experience and skill in surgery were sufMajor had the satisfaction of seeing ficient to satisfy us, and to acquire for his party move forward in exploring him from the men the appellation of • Docorder. It consisted of the following tor.' persons :

" Robert Muirhead had been a soldier “ Alexander Burnett, 2 Carnotere

in India, and banished, for some mutiny, Robert Whiting, { Carpenters.

to New South Wales; where his steady William Woods,

conduct had obtained for him an excellent John Palmer,

character. Thomas Jones,


" Delaney and Foreham were expeWilliam Worthington, J

rienced men in driving cattle. James Souter, . Med. Assistant. “ Joseph Jones, originally a London Robert Muirhead,

groom, I had always found intelligent and Daniel Delaney, { Bullock-Drivers. trust-worthy. James Foreham,

“ Bombelli could shoe horses, and was Joseph Jones,


afterwards transferred to my service by Stephen Bombelli, Blacksmith. Mr Sempill in lieu of a very turbulent Timothy Cussack,

Man. character, whom I left behind, declaring it Anthony Brown, Servant to me. to be his firm determination to be hanged. Henry Dawkins, . Ser, to Mr White. “ Cussack had been a bog surveyor in


Ireland; he was an honest creature ; he Hunter, near Segenhoe, the extensive had got somehow implicated there in a estate of Potter Macqueen, Esq.; and charge of administering unlawful oaths. here, says the Major,

" Brown had been a soldier, and suhsequently was assistant coachman to the

“I was very anxious to obtain the asMarquis of — , and

sistance of an aboriginal guide, but the " Dawkins was an old tar-in whom

natives have almost all disappeared from Mr White, himself formerly an officer in

the valley of the Hunter ; those who still the Indian navy-placed much confidence.

linger near their ancient haunts, are some“ Thus it had been my study, in organ

times met with about such large establishizing this party, to combine the tried men ments as Segenhoe, where, it may be of both services with some neat-handed presumed, they meet with kind treatment. mechanics, as engineers, and it now form

Their reckless gaiety of manner; intellied a respectable body of men, for the pur

gence respecting the country, expressed in pose for which it was required.

a laughable inversion of slang words ; "Our materiel consisted of eight mus

their dexterity and skill in the use of their kets, six pistols ; and our small stock of weapons ; and above all, their few wants, ammunition, including a box containing generally ensure them that look of welcome sky-rockets, was carried on one of the without which these rovers of the wild covered carts.

will seldom visit a farm or cattle station. “Of these tilted carts we had two, so

In those who have become sufficiently acconstructed that they could be drawn either

quainted with us to be sensible of that by one or two horses. They were also so

happy state of security enjoyed by all men light, that they could be moved across

under the protection of our laws, the condifficult passes by the men alone. Three

duct is strikingly different from that of stronger carts or drays were loaded with

those who still remain in a savage state. our stock of provisions, consisting of flour,

The latter are named “myalls" by their pork (which had been boned in order to

half civilized brethren, who, indeed, hold diminish the bulk as much as possible),

them so much in dread, that it is seldom tea, tobacco, sugar, and soap. We carried, possible to prevail on any one to accombesides, a sufficient number of pack-sad- pany a traveller far into the unexplored dles for the draught animals, that in case parts of the country. At Segenhoe, on a of necessity we might be able to carry for former occasion, I met with a native but ward the loads by such means. Several recently arrived from the wilds. His pack-horses were also attached to the

terror and suspicion, when required to party. I had been induced to prefer wheel

stand steadily before me while I drew his carriages for an exploratory journey-lst portrait, were such, that all that power of From the level nature of the interior

disguising fear, so remarkable in the sacountry; 2dly, From the greater facility

vage race, was overcome, the stout heart and certainty they afforded of starting

of Cambo beat visibly, the perspiration early when the necessity of laying all our

streamed from his breast, and he was stores in separate loads on animals' backs

about to sink to the ground, when he at could thus be avoided. The latter method

length suddenly darted from my presence, being further exposed to interruptions on

but speedily returned, bearing in one hand the way, by the derangement of loads or

his club and in the other his bomareng, galling the animals' backs-one inexpe

with which he seemed to acquire just forrienced man being likely thus to impede

eing likely thus to impede titude enough to be able to stand on his the progress of the whole party.

legs until I finished the sketch." “For the navigation or passage of Contrast Saunders with Cambo. rivers, two portable boats of canvass had “The party moved off at seven, and been prepared by Mr Eager, of the King's

passing, soon after, near the farm of an dockyard at Sydney. We carried the can

old man whom I had assisted some years vabs only, with models of the ribs-and

before in the selection of his land, I rode tools, having carpenters who could com

to see him, accompanied by Mr White. plete them when required.

He was busy with his harvest, but left the " Qur hour for encamping, when cir

top of his wheat-stack on seeing me, and cumstances permitted, was to be two, P.M.,

came running up, cordially welcoming us as affording time for the cattle to feed and to his dwelling. A real Scotch bonnet rest; but this depended on our finding wa

covered the brow of a face wbich reminded ter and grass. Day-break was to be the

me, by its characteristic carving, of the signal for preparing for the journey, and

land of the mountain and the flood.' The no time was allowed for breakfast until

analogy between the respective features after the party had encamped for the day. was, at least, so strong in my mind, and

On the 5th, the party pitched their the sight of the one was so associated with tents on the left bank of the river the idea of the other, that had I seen this face on a stranger, in a still more distant had only been an invention of his own, corner of the earth, it must have called to by which he had hoped to improve his mind the hills of my native land. The chance of escape. This worthy was old man was very deaf; but in spite of age afterwards hanged in Van Diemen's and deafness, his sharp blue eye seemed Land. to express the enduring vigour of his That day they encamped on the mind. He had buried his wife in Scot. Kingdon Brook, where it formed a land, and had left there a numerous family, broad pool deep enough for bathing that he might become its pioneer at the in, with good grass in the neighbourantipodes. He had thus far worked his he

hood—the “ burning hill" of Wingen way successfully, and was beginning to

distant about four miles. On the 3d reap the fruits of his adventurous industry.

they ascended the chain of bills conSleek cattle filled his stock-yard, his fields

necting Wingen with Mount Murulla waved with the yellow grain, and I had the satisfaction of learning from him that he

and the Liverpool range; and descendhad written for his family, and that he

and that he ing to a beautiful valley of considersoon expected their arrival in the colony. able extent, watered by Page's River, He immediately gave grain to our horses, they encamped on a fine flat, appaand placed before us new milk, and, what rently consisting of a soil of excellent we found a still greater luxury, pure water quality, the extremities of the moun. from the running burnie close by; also, a tains on the north falling in long gra. bottle of the mountain dew,' which, he dual slopes, well covered with grass, said, was from a still which was 'no far and already eaten short by sheep. On aff.' When I was about to mount my the 4th their way lay westward to. horse, he enquired if I could spare five wards the head of the valley, in order minutes more, when he put into my hands to cross, by the usual route, the higher the copy of a long memorial addressed to and principal range, which still lay to the Government, which he took from the north the whole of the valley apamong the leaves of a very old folio vo- pearing to consist of good land, and lume of Pitscottie's History of Scotland. The adjacent mountain affording excelThis memorial prayed, that whereas lont

lent sheep pasture; and on the 5th Scoone was in the valley of Strathearne,

they ascended and descended the Li.

the and that the pillow of Jacoh, which had

verpool range, which divides the cobeen kept there as the coronation-stone of

lony from the unexplored country bethe Kings of Scotland, was fated still to be where their dominion extended ; and as you

yond here I at length drank the this valley of the Kingdom Ponds had not

water of a stream (called by the naas yet received a general name. that it tives ‘Currangai) which flowed into might be called Strathearne, &c. &c. We the unexplored interior ; and from a were finally compelled, although it still hill near our route this day I beheld, wanted two hours of noon, to drink a for the first time, the distant blue ho'stirrup.cup' at the door, when he most rizon, exactly resembling that of the heartily drank success to our expedition, ocean.” . and I went on my way, rejoicing that, on The day before, the Major, when leaving the last man of the white race we riding a little beyond the encampment, were likely to see for some time, the cere- had fallen in with a tribe of natives mony of shaking hands was a vibration of from Pewen Bewen on Dart Brook, sincere kindness.'

one of whom afterwards visited the Soon after having rejoined his party, party, but could tell little about the a soldier of the mounted police came interior of the country. This tribe up, and delivered to the Major a letter had reached Currangai before them, from the Military Secretary at Sydney, apparently to join some of their friends informing him that “the Barber" had who lay extremely ill there, being af. sawed off his irons, and escaped from the flicted with a virulent kind of smallprison at Bathurst. This intelligence pox. “We found the helpless creawas meant to put him on his guard re- tures stretched on their backs beside specting the natives, as it was suppos- the water, under the shade of the wated “the Barber" would assemble them tle or mimosa tree, to avoid the inbeyond the settled districts, with a tense heat of the sun. We gave them view to drive off the cattle of the colo- from our stock some medicine, and nists-and especial caution would be the wretched sufferers seemed to place necessary to prevent a surprise from the utmost confidence in its efficacy. natives so directed, if, as most people I had often, indeed, occasion to obsupposed, his story of the great river" serve, that, however obtuse in some

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