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itself next to a miracle. A majority The spring of 1832, unhappily, now existed, most compact and reso. however, brought along with it the lute, on all political questions.

cholera morbus to Paris. At first Ca. The army had been tried at Lyons, simir Perier was not much alarmed by and had proved itself faithful. Paris its invasion ; but subsequently the was devoted to the ideas of order and scenes which took place in the capital Conservatism. The expedition to filled his heart with anguish, and his ANCONA was the only extraordinary eyes with tears. On the 1st April in whim of Casimir Perier, but he defend that year he visited, with the young ed it on the ground that it was necessary Duke of Orleans, the splendid Hosto make such a concession to France, pital of the Hotel Dieu, and visited in order to show to her that, though with him the first victims of that terthe Government was resolved on main- rible disease. The following days taining peace, it was also determined reports were put in circulation that not to submit to any humiliation. the fountains of Paris had been poi.

The expedition to ANCONA was still, soned by Government agents, and then we think, though disposed to make by the priests, and the most horrible every allowance to M. Perier, one of assassinations were perpetrated in the faults of that honest and great broad day, under the pretext of avengman's Administration. It was not suf. ing the “ people" of their poisoners. ficiently large to oppose an Austrian Never was a fouler calumny invented. army in Italy. It was not sufficiently It was the progress of the pest which powerful to keep in order the agitating carried off its victims, sweeping all spirits in the Papal and other States. before it. It would have been as nothing, and On the 6th April, 1832, Casimir less than nothing, in the event of a Perier was seized with an attack of war between Austria and the Italian the cholera. The malady was terpopulations, and was calculated to rible. He suffered most excruciatingly excite false hopes on one side, and from the cramp. The best medieal distrust on the other. But we know talent of France was procured for that, even to the hour of his death, he him. No effort, and no experiment, looked upon this as a master-stroke of was wanting or remained" untried. policy, as he did the expedition of the Every plausible remedy was sought French to the Belgian territory. M. for with avidity. Those who were Perier laboured, however, under the most opposed to his political system error, which is very common to public were as anxious as his friends to premen who have been only a short time serve his energetic and valuable life, at the head of affairs, viz. that of sup. But, though for a moment the disease posing that all the secrets of the French appeared to cede, it returned with Cabinet were not known to the other renewed power, and his exhausted and Cabinets of Europe. Yet the reverse sunken frame at last became the prey of this was the case. Europe knew of death, and he expired on the 16th that France had not an army to defend May, 1832, in the fifty-fifth year of even her own territory, much less to his age. carry war into an enemy's country; During the period that M. Casimir and therefore, when the Austrian, Perier was Minister, his speeches at Prussian, and Russian Governments the Chamber were very numerous, saw this paltry expedition to Ancona, especially from September 1831 to knowing, as they did know, that France March 1832. The subjects discussed was unable to sustain a serious war in were of the most exciting character, Italy, they perceived in it the proof, and comprised all the leading fea. that even Casimir Perier, with all the tures of the Revolution of 1830. The firmness of his character, and with all policy of the Government-the conthe resolution of his system, was duct of the Legitimists--the questions obliged to make this concession to of Austria and the Roman Statesthe war and revolutionary parties in the Polish Revolution—the destrucFrance. The subsequent continuance . tion of the hereditary peerage_the of those forces at Ancona has been capture of Warsaw, the conduct of more than absurd-it has been a fault; the foreign refugees—the settlement and it is high time that Louis Philippe of the civil list--the troubles in La should himself see the propriety of Vendée—the National Guards' law withdrawing soldiers from the Italian the troubles of Lyons—the frauds and shores.

deficits of Resner-the floating debt

the secret service money—the foreign that the Opposition had been taken policy of France—the expenses of by surprise, and the Chamber cheated foreign embassies - the troubles of out of a vote of confidence, M. CasiGrenoble, and the financial operations mir Perier demanded that a new vote of the Government, were amongst some should be given and a new decision of the topics of the most interesting come to. He said, and important debates of modern “ Et pour que l'Opposition ne puisse French bistory.

pas un jour remettre en discussion ce The last time he ever spoke in the second vote, comme le premier, sous Chamber of Deputies was in the sit. prétexte de surprise, qu'il soit bien ting of the 29th March, when he pre entendu, messieurs, comme nous sented from Government bills provid. avons dû croire qu'il l'avait été dans ing for the secret expenses of the la discussion de l'addresse, que ce Government, for the caisse de vituana, système, c'est le maintien de la paix, and for the prorogation of the suspen. sous toutes les réserves de sûreté et de sion of the municipal organization law. dignité nationales, dont nous sommes We cannot, however, do better than aussi jaloux que qui que ce soit ; c'est select as a specimen of his style and l'antipathie la plus déclarée pour toute manner of speaking, some extracts espèce de propagande ; c'est une from his celebrated address of 21st médiation de bienveillance en faveur September, 1831, in reply to the at de toutes les infortunes, avec tous les tacks made by the Opposition on the ménagemens que dicte la loyauté pour Conservative policy of the Casimir les droits et pour les traités. Perier Administration.

« C'est une attention scrupuleuse à The moment seized upon by the ne considérer les questions exterieures Opposition was when Warsaw had que sous le point de vue des veritables fallen, when Paris was in a state of intérêts de notre pays. Telle est, unparalleled agitation, and when the messieurs, dans tout pays libre et Chamber was surrounded by mobs éclairé, la règle des hommes d'etat and tumults. The following are some vraiment patriotes. Telle est celle specimens of his impassioned and que nous tracent à la fois nos intéréts manly eloquence:

matériels, l'honneur national, la paix « A la nouvelle des événemens de interieure, et la securité de notre révoVarsovie, la France a eprouvé un lution. sentiment douloureux ; mais tous les « Sous tous ces rapports, également bons citoyens, en s'associant à la situ. sacrés, nous avons donc la conscience, ation de la Pologne, n'ont pas oublié messieurs, d'avoir fait ce que voulait ce qu'ils doivent à leur propre pays, la France, non pas ce que veulent pour et assurement ils ne veulent pas elle ceux qui la font écrire et parler, réparer les malheurs de la Pologne mais ce que ses interets, étudiées conpar les malheurs de la France.

sciencieusement, réclament de l'Ad« On vous a parlé de vos delibera- ministration qui les a compris. tions, messieurs ; vous délibérez ici “ Nous persistons donc avec une sous la protection des lois, et le conviction plus profonde que jamais, gouvernement, qui est chargé de les dans un système de paix que nous nous défendre, a pour appui l'armée, la faisons gloire d'avoir défendu, d'avoir Garde Nationale, qui en criant Vive maintenu jusqu'à ce jour, et dont la la Pologne! crie avant tout : Vive le rupture jetterait une immense respon. Roi! Vive la France ! oui! Vive le sabilité, aux yeux de la France, de Roi! Vive la France! c'est là le cri l'Europe, de l'humanité toute entière, de tous les Français ; les cris fac- sur quiconque s'en serait rendu compt. tieux que nous avons entendus, nous able.". saurons les réprimer. Ceux qui crient At the death of Casimir Perier, he en ce moment, Vive la Pologne! en left two sons; one is Secretary to the ajoutant, A bas le Gouvernement du French Embassy at the Hague, and Roi! A bas l'autorité du Roi! ne sont the other undertook the direction of ni les amis de la Pologne, ni les amis de the commercial house founded by his leurs pays. Délibérez tranquillement, father. His wife, whose maiden name messieurs; tant que le pouvoir nous was Pauline Loyer, and for whom he sera confié, nous saurons le défendre ever felt the most lively and tender et le faire respecter par les factieux." affection, has no other consolation M. Mauguin having complained than that derived from the recollection

VOL. XLIV, NO. CCLXXIV.

M

of the past, from the memory of ha. ever, some tenderly attached friends ving been the devoted companion of who speak of him with enthusiasm, a man whose name is held in universal and for whom he felt the most pasrespect, and from the hopes of a pious sionate friendship. In the world, geand serene mind.

nerally, he was reserved, cold, and Casimir Perier was buried at the . uneasy ; in his family he was gay in cemetery of the Père la Chaise, not far his conversation and lively in his sallies. from his brother Scipion, and from his Casimir Perier is not forgotten. Six friend Camille Jordan. The funeral years have elapsed since he descended rites were performed by all the capital to the common grave of the wise and -and the addresses over his tomb the ignorant, the virtuous and the were delivered by Royer Collard, Big, wicked. But he is not forgotten. non, Dupin, Berenger, Davilliers, The rapid stream of time ever tlowing, Francois Delessert, and the Duke de and ever bearing away upon its boChoisieul.

som the names and the memories of Casimir Perier was very tall and those who have lived and who have well made. His face was manly and acted, has not been able to sweep regular--and there was a penetration away the memory of Casimir Perier. and a finesse in his features which His name will rest for ever engraved often contrasted well with his impos. on the annals of the French mon. ing energy. His air, his manner, were archy. prompt, and even imperious and he The political system of Casimir would say sometimes, smiling, when Perier did not expire with him.speaking of the efforts made by his When the news of his death was conpolitical opponents to compel him to veyed to Louis Philippe, he exclaimed, yield," Comment veut-on que je céde in the bitterness of his sorrow " My avec la taille que j'ai ?"

cup is full-it only required this new M. Herseul has painted an admi. disaster to complete its bitterness." rable likeness- and M. David has But the policy of the departed statessculptured a perfect medallion, of this man was persevered in -and France celebrated man. In the last years of was saved as well as Europe from an his life his features were changed by universal war. It may be said of him, corporal sufferings, and by intense as it was said of Mr Pitt by Lord mental and moral application. His Castlereagh-" His policy triumphed notions were nette and his impres. over his tomb." He died too soon for sions lively. His reason was always himself, his family, his friends, and contending with his passions, and per- bis country--but, at least, if he had petually subduing them. He presents survived, he would not have had to deed the spectacle of a man whose plore the triumph of propagandism, or powerful soul in vain attempted to the victories of sanguinary factions. convey to others the vivacity and force His poliey grappled with the hydra of the impression under which he him- whilst living, and crushed it after his self laboured.' He often said of him- death. self," Il me manque bien des choses, The glory of Casimir Perier is pure, muis j'ai du caur, du tact, el du bon. as it is incapable of attack. He apheur.'

peared as a meteor in those cloudy, His mind was, however, disposed to dark, and dreary days when all was hesitate. On vast subjects lie was mysterious, uncertain, and sad. But quick to perceive, and resolute to act his work shall be durable, for it was but on the lesser and daily affairs of not the artificial creation of a party, business or of the state he was prone but the reply to the demands of justo doubt and to adjourn. He was by tice, civilisation, and true liberty. no means a pleasant companion, an On his tomb, too early closed, as too agreeable bon-vivant, or adapted to soon opened, the drapeau of “ ORDER!" the politenesses and courtesies of life. was raised ;-and the laws have tri. He was rigorous towards others--and umphed over faction and folly. This severe towards himself, but though was the best homage which could be he loved few, he hated none. He had paid to his memory and the lesson we a passion for conquest-but not to should be taught from his life. injure, or to destroy. He had, how.

ON THE FOOD OF THE HERRING AND SALMON.

BY JOAN STARK, F.R.S., Edin.

[The following paper was drawn up in answer to “ Observations on the Natural History of the Salmon, Herring, and Vendace, by ROBERT Knox, F.R.S., Edin.," printed in Vol. XII. of the Edinburgh Transactions. It was read at the Meeting of 4th December, 1837; and the specimens referred to are in the Society's Museum.]

1.- Food of the HERRING.–(Clupea harengus, Lin.) The attention of naturalists in this and Economical History of the Her. country has of late been directed, by ring, and on the Natural History of the Parliamentary enquiries into the the Salmon. The practical details state of the salmon fisheries, to the contained in these papers-the history natural history of the salmon. The of the salmon and herring fisheriesimportance of this branch of the and the suggestions for their imfisheries to Scotland renders every provement, are, I have no doubt, fact connected with the habits, food, worthy of every praise. But the auand reproduction of the salmon of thors of these papers do not seem to great consequence, as tending to re- have been much acquainted with the gulate the time and manner of its writings of scientific men in other capture, as well as to provide for the countries, who have recorded obserincrease, or, at least, to prevent the vations on the subject of which they material diminution of the species. profess to treat. On the food of the

Though much valuable information herring and salmon, particularly, was elicited before the Committee of which must powerfully influence their Parliament upon the Salmon Fisheries habits, nothing positive is said, and of Great Britain-information wbich no reference is made to any writer could not have been easily procured who had ever treated of this matter in any other manner- yet still, in a before. And hence a later author, few particulars of the salmon's his without looking further, seems to have tory, something remains to be done taken the statements in this volume, to make that history complete. The and founded on them, as a summary species of the family Salmonidæ, for of all that could be said on the subinstance, have not yet been so dis- ject of the food of the herring and tinctly marked out as to be distin. salmon. guished at their various stages of In these circumstances, I have growth; and a good deal of mystery thought it might be of some service hangs over the history of the salmon, to science, as well as a matter of jusfrom the time the fry leave the spawn. tice to the memory of former observing-bed and descend to the sea, until ers, to give a short statement of the their return again, in their upward facts regarding the food of the hermigration, as grilses and full-grown ring and salmon, which have been resalmon. Much of that mystery, I corded by the best writers on natural have little fear, will soon be cleared history, and which seem to have been up, from the investigations of our completely lost sight of by our Scotlearned and active associates, Sir tish naturalists. I have been the William Jardine and Dr Parnell, more induced to engage in this inwho, it is understood, have been di- vestigation, and to bring out the rerecting their attention to this impor- sults here, that, a few years ago, a long tant subject. And experiments are and elaborate paper on the subject now in progress by another enquirer, was read before this Society, and subMr John Shaw, the results of which sequently printed in its Transactions. will be most interesting to science. This paper, with greater pretensions,

In the year 1803, the Highland is, I must be allowed to say, by no Society of Scotland, with the view of means exempt from the remark I promoting the fisheries of this part of have ventured to make upon the the country, published, in the second papers in the Transactions of the volume of their Transactions, several Highland Society. I allude to the papers on the Natural, Commercial, paper of Dr Knox, entitled “ Obser. vations on the Natural History of the food that may be found in the salmon's Salmon, Herring, and Vendace," as stomach at different stations and at printed in the 12th volume of the different periods of the year. It was Transactions of the Royal Society. considered to be an unnecessary waste From the statements in that paper, of time to prepare the number of though enunciated with the confidence specimens that would thus have been of demonstration, I, in common with required. The stomachs of the hermost naturalists, wholly dissent, and rings were procured from fishes in full equally disclaim the manner and the season, purchased in the Edinburgh terms in which the author has been market, and exhibit most of the kinds pleased to speak of the works and of aliment which have been referred opinions of others.

to by naturalists as the food of the Statements apparently so inconsis. herring. tent with all that had been previously Trusting to your indulgence, then, recorded, I felt assured would not I proceed, in the first place, to call pass without comment in the Society your attention to what is stated by Dr which had sanctioned their publica Knox regarding the food and sex of the tion; and I long flattered myself that Vendace of Lochmaben ; secondly, to some member of the Society better the food of the Herring; and, thirdly, qualified for the task would have un- to the food of the Salmon, and the de. dertaken the duty of pointing out velopement and growth of its ova. what had been previously recorded But, before entering on the subon the subjects of which the author ject in detail, it may be as well of this paper claims the discovery. to state the claims of Dr Knox, as It is because no one has so come for the sole discoverer of the food of ward that I now appear before you; the three fishes referred to ; and this, and it is because some weight may be to avoid all misapprehension, I shall attached to uncontradicted assertions, do in his own words. The Doctor's by those who have never investigated statements naturally arrange themthe subject beyond this paper, that the selves into, correction of these statements becomes 1. The positive. _“ The nature of absolutely necessary. In pointing out the food of the herring, coregonus, what has been recorded by previous and salmon, was not to be stumbled writers on the subject, and comparing upon by accident. I feel happy in their statements with the assertions of having to offer it as a direct result of Dr Knox, I desire it to be distinctly patient scientific enquiry.”—P. 463. understood, that I am far from wish. 2. The comparative." Modern ing to detract from that individual's systematic writers on natural history, merit as a cultivator, a successful cul- so far as I have been able to observe, tivator it may be, of his own peculiar maintain a profound silence as to the branch of science. It is as a natu. food of the herring." " In such ralist, writing on a branch of natural works, all mention of the food is either history, that his claims come into com omitted, or, what is much worse, mis. petition with other naturalists; and taken, and consequently their habits." the form into which I have thrown my P. 513. observations seemed to me the best « In 1833, Professor Rennie of the mode of eliciting the truth, and doing King's College, London, declares the justice to all parties.

food of the herring to be altogether In the investigations into which I unknown.”_P. 513. have been led as to the food of the “I am aware that there are many, herring and salmon, I may add, that whose regard for accuracy in scienI have verified the recorded observa- tific statements being extremely coarse tions of naturalists by occasional in- and loose, will not only assert they spection of the stomachs of both fishes. had examined the stomach of the herThe preparations on the table af- ing, but had also seen its food."ford the strongest corroboration of the P. 515. statements of writers on natural bis. " We have already seen a person tory as to the nature of the salmon's assert, in open defiance of the state. food. They were prepared by my ments of all practical fishermen, and friend Dr Parnell from fishes in full of every writer on natural history, season from the friths of Forth and from Linné downwards, to Professor

Tay. They are by no means intend. Rennie, that the food of the herring ed to exhibit all the various kinds of was known to every body!! The ob

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