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sincere and illuminated believer in Christ Jesus. In addition, Mr. McGavin has presented the reformed churches and nations a controversial work, which contains all the charming elements of a pure defence of the gospel, with that simplicity and impressiveness which characterize it; against the delusive errors and corrupt perversions with which it is so much assailed by its most wily and inveterate foes.

Much theological disputation would be saved if the contending parties would copy the example of the Protestant. The extent and duration of the strife of words, instead of being often a protracted series of logomachy, would speedily become so limited and short, that the Polemics would either harmonize; or as in this case, the weaker combatants would decamp from the field of battle, and abandon a contest in which an inglorious defeat is manifestly inevitable.

1. The Protestant is plain and unequivocal. There is no deceitfulness, no double dealing, no mystification, no Jesuitical evasions, and no use of words in varied meanings. What was intended is said ; and that which is written is comprehensible. No labour is requisite to ascertain Mr. McGavin's design ; all is obvious and perspicuous. Consequently, mistake or misapprehension must be wilful. The confusion of Babel is altogether discarded from these lucubrations. Whether the author's principles and logic are admitted or not, is in this respect irrelevant; but one fact is certain; he cannot be misunderstood, unless it is done from some evil design. This course, at once, exterminates three-fourths of the wordy combat ; because it so contracts the warfare, that it must be imputed to obstinacy or intentional perversion, if the parties do not coalesce, or if the feebler antagonist will not yield or abscond.

2. The Protestant is uncompromising and decided. This is another most important ingredient in a controversial discussion. Mr. McGavin assumed his position, and he veers neither to the right nor to the left. He is always in the same attitude, fronting his adversary. He boldly affirms that popery is the offspring of Satan ;' and as such, that no Christian can be guiltless who holds any connexion and fellowship with him. He neither offers to meet the enemy upon the terms of amity, nor will he debase the truth so far as to condescend to parley with him. His doctrine is, that there can be no peace with popery, without Judas-like treason against the Lord Jesus Christ; and therefore he contended against "the man of sin and son of perdition,” as the grand enemy of his Prince and Saviour, and likewise of the Christian church, and of the whole world. This is honest and advantageous; because no man is perplexed to ascertain what the writer means, and the object which he would execute if circumstances admitted. It was this upright and fearless tone which provoked the wrath of his adversaries, who, when they discovered that the author was neither to be cajoled by Jesuitical wiles, nor intimidated by bluster, or menaces; nor silenced by calumnious vociferation, attempted to rob him through legal chicanery, and "the glorious uncertainty of the law.”

3. The Protestant is powerful and conclusive. It is impossible for any person to read these volumes without being convinced, that popery is a revolting compound of impiety, wickedness, and despotism. Mr. McGavin has contributed to the cause of the reformation, an efficient antidote to all the deceitfulness and artifices of the antichristian system

and its ecclesiastical supporters. These are the sole and legitimate objects of religious controversy; the extinction of error, and the conviction of its advocates. By the Protestant, Mr. McGavin has triumphantly achieved these important purposes; if it were possible by truth, and reason, and fact, thus to eradicate what the Bible styles, “damnable heresy," and convert its deluded abettors and disciples. Probably few works of a controversial character can be adduced, in which the end proposed by the author, the confutation of an abhorrent system of irreligion and iniquity, has been more successfully accomplished than in this “series of essays on the principal points of controversy between the church of Rome and the reformed."

4. The Protestant is pointed, but affectionate. In many respects, these volumes are analogous to a correct and faithful gospel sermon of the first order. They portray the fatal malignity of Romanism; they warn the Papists of the awful consequences which must unavoidably flow from their adhesion to their ungodliness; they inculcate divine truth in all its clearness and energy; and they counsel the sinner to repent, turn from his evil ways, and “seek the Lord while he may be found," with all his heart, through the gracious and only Mediator. They combine the most touching earnestness of persuasion, with a peculiar solicitude for the everlasting welfare of those who are guilty of "denying the Lord that bought them," and of substituting the corrupt traditions of men for the hallowed commandments of God. Mr. McGavin, in the Protestant, unites the two apparently contradictory qualities which were exemplified by John, “the disciple whom Jesus loved;" who was a “son of thunder," and yet, whose extraordinary tenderness, and melting affectionate heart, have rendered him proverbial, even among the holy twelve apostolical brethren, for his most amiable philanthropy, and for the peculiar attributes which marked his Christian amity and love.

These are the general characteristics of Mr. McGavin's justly celebrated Protestant, which developes the dignity and courtesy of a gentleman, while he inculcates evangelical truth in all its unmitigated energy, but with the affection of a Christian philanthropist. Therefore, these essays need no additional charm to recommend them to the acceptance of “all them who love the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity;" and who importunately pray, that “the word of the Lord may have free course and be glorified;" and who devoutly anticipate the evolution of divine prophecy, “when the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days; in the day that the Lord bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke of their wound. For the angel shall come down from heaven, having great power, and lightening the earth with his glory, and shall cry mightily with a strong voice, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen; and the voice of a great multitude in heaven and upon earth, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of many thunderings, with transporting ecstasy shall resound the triumphant reply—“ Alleluia ! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Amen. Alleluia! Amen."



347 | Clarendon quoted, 710, 714, 717

Becket and the Virgin, 317 Clarke's answer,

Belgian Bishops,

137 Claude D'Espence,



216, 222 Clement VI., Pope,


Bells baptized,

519 Cloyne and Ross against the
Benediction of cattle, 492 Bible,

Bible references, 55, 119, 125, 222, Commandments, 151, 153, 355

234, 236, 241, 245, 252, 259, | Confession, auricular, 602, 609,
267, 273, 281, 294, 667, 672,

622, 630, 636, 641
674, 680 Constantine, emperor, 488
Bible schools,

572 Coppinger's address, 666, 079
Bible societies, 234, 244, 258 Councils—
Bigotry of Papists, 52, 54, 79, Constance,

203, 210
118, 121

Blackadder of Glasgow 133 Trent, 204, 237, 238, 271, 409,
Blindness counterfeited, 366

419, 458, 536, 545, 606
Blois relics,
350 Countess of Argyle,

Bonacina on oaths,

202 Crabs escaped from Purga-





Bones of Saints, 349, 527 Crucifixes,


Bourke's case,

187 Culdees,

59, 131

Bradley's conversion, 622, 628 Culpa et Pæna,


Breaking faith, 199, 205, 212, 218, | Cup refused to laity, '203
225 Cutty Stool,

149, 162

British ambassador, 433

Brothels by the pope, 141

Brunswick's reasons, 121

Buchanan's anecdote, 441
Buchanan's Franciscan, 571
Bulls, Papal-

Against Bible societies, 572 Da Costa in the Inquisition, 648
Against Solicitants, 648 Damnation by Pius IV. 172
Against the Waldenses, 60 Decretals,


Against Wickliffe, 240 Demosthenes,



. 406

Discipline of Scotland and

Rome contrasted, 162, 168,

180, 187

Cameron's letters on breach Bible,


of covenant,

511 Faith with heretics, 194, 212


| Indulgences,



| Dogs worshipping the mass
170 I wafer,

447, 486
Capuchin friar,

614 Dominic the first Inquisitor, 363

Carlisle's pamphlet, 545 | Drumgoole's speech, 217

Catechisms, 150, 152, 156, 168 | Drummond's controversy

Catholic emancipation, 292, 430 with Hay,


591 | Dublin priests' frauds, 533

Challoner on satisfaction, 654 | Dupin on indulgences, 162

Christian charity,

146 | Durand against the Bible, 281

Circulation of tracts, 288 | Dutch lady and priest, 255





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