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COACHES' FIRST USED IN ENGLAND, &c. 331 favourite, who (about 1619) began to have them drawn by fix horses, which, as an old historian says, “ was wondered at as a novelty, and imputed to him as a mastering pride." Before that time, ladies chiefly rode on horseback, either single, on their palfreys, or double, behind some person, on a pillion.

In the reign of Edward III. the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench had a falary of no more than 661. 135. 4d. per annum; and the ordinary judges of that Bench, and of the Common Pleas, had only 40l. each per annum. The annual allowance of Henry IV.'s confessor was higher. It was 69l. 10s. 6d. It was in the year 1573, Queen Elizabetlı created the Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl Marshal of England during life, with a falary of only 20l. per annum. Her secretary for the French tongue, Thomas Edmonds, Esq. was treated more generously. His falary was 661. 135. 4d. and the same with that of the Chief Justice.

A short time after King James I. came to the throne of England, he took it in his head one day to go and hear causes in Westminster-hall, in order to fhew his great learning and wisdom. Accordingly, being feated on the bench, a cause came on, which the counsel, learned in the law, fet forth to such advantage, on the part of the plaintiff, that the fagacity of the Royal Judge foon faw the justice of it so clearly, that he frequently cried out,

. ter unco weel! The gude mon is i' the reeght! the gude mon is i’ the reeght! He mun ha' it! he mun ha' it!" The Plaintiff's counsel having ended, his Majesty was for determining the cause immediately, and was much offended, after so plain a state of the matter, that the Judges of the Court should defire him to hear both parties before he pafled judyment. At length, curiosity to know what could be said in fuch a cafe, rather than any respect to the rules of the Court, made him defer his decision; but the DefenU x 2


dant's counsel had scarce began to open their cause, when his facred Majesty appeared greatly discomposed, and was so puzzled as they proceeded, that he had no patience to hear them out, but starting up in a passion, cried, " I'íe hear na mair: ye're au knaves aleeke! Ye gi' each other the lee, and neither's i' the reeght."


Account of the ever-memorable and Extraordinary Conspiracy

called the GUNPOWDER PLOT, with some Curi.us Partculars of those I'onderful Characters, who had planned, but

kappily failed in, the Execution of this furfrizing Scheme, Of all the astonishing events in English history, that of the Gunpowder Plot, which took place in the reign of King James I. (1604-5), is scarcely to be paralleled; whether we consider the instruments, the means employed, or the end proposed, it is doubtless one of those infernal schemes which no one could suppose human nature, in its most de praved state, could either devise or execute. This memorable conspiracy contains at once a singular proof both of the strength and weakness of the human mind, its widef departure from morals, and most steady attachment to religious prejudices. The papists had expected great favor: and indulgence upon the accession of James, the son e Mary Stuart; but when they found that he strictly executed the laws enacted against them, and persevered in all the vigorous meafures of Elizabeth, surprise and rage filed the soft dictates of humanity, and in the base thoughts revenge, they forgot the real duties of Christianity.

Robert Catesby, of Ashley, in the county of Leiceller, : gentleman of good property and estimation, and so taknating in his manner as to possess every one who knew him. with a most extravagant liking of his company, first med

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tated a most surprising inethod of revenge, and communia cated his intentions to Thomas Piercy, a descendant of the illustrious house of Northumberland, and his most particular and intimate friend. Piercy, in a fally of passion, proposed assassinating the king, on which Catesby took the opportunity of revealing to him a more secure and extensive plan of treason. "In vain," cried he, “would you put an end to the king's life: his children would succeed both to his crown, and to his maxims of government. In vain would you extinguish the whole royal family, the nobility, the gentry, the parliament, are all infected with the same heresy. To answer any good purpose, we must at one blow destroy the king, the royal family, the lords, the commons, and involve all our enemies in one common ruin. Happily, they will be assembled on the first meeting of Pa:liament, and afford us an opportunity of a glorious revenge. A few of us may run a line below the hall in which they meet, and chusing the very moment when the king makes his speech to both houses, consign over to destruction those determined foes to all piety and religion ; while the impious inhabitants, meditating perhaps new persecutions against us, shall pass from flames above to flames below, there for ever to endure torments due to their crimes. The glorious catastrophe may easily be laid at the door of the puritans." This speech had the desired effect, Piercy was charmed with the project, and it was agreed between Caterby and Piercy to intimate this scheme to a few other chosen friends, particularly to John Wright, one of the first persons to whom Catesby entrusted the secret, and to Thomas Winter, a discontented Catholic, who had thoughts of quitting England for ever, and had retired himself to his þrother's house, in the country, till such time as a convenient opportunity should offer for that purpose. He was {wice sent for by Catesby to come with all possible speed to


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London. Having obeyed the second invitation, Catesby disclofed to him his Gunpowder scheme, into which Thomas Winter readily entered, and also drew into the confpiracy his brother Robert.

He immediately set off for Flanders, to found the inclinations of several persons towards such a project. Here he was recommended to Guy Fawkes, a gentleman and officer in the Spanish service, as a proper person to overlook the work; he being an approved soldier and skilful engineer. They embarked at Dunkirk and came to England together, soon after which Piercy hired the house adjoining the house of Lords, where they first began the mine. Catesby entered with such spirit into this business, that in the course of a few months he was obliged to call in some monied persons io carry it on with that spirit that was necessary. Having, with the advice and concurrence of Piercy, Winter, Fawkes, &c. intimated the scheme to Sir Everard Digby, and afterwards to Francis Trelham, the first, in confequence of his persuasive manners, promised 1,500l. and the latter 2000l. to purchase fuch materials as were wanting to carry the plot into execution. When they enlisted any new conspirator, in order to bind him to secresy, they always, together with an oatlı, employed the communion, the most sacred site of their religion. And it is remarkable that no one of these pious devotees ever entertained the least compunction with regard to the cruel massacre which they projected, of whatever was great or eminent in the nation. Some of them only were startled by the relection, that of necessity many Catholics must be present as spectators or attendants on the king, and as having seats in the House of Peers; but Telmond, a jesuit, and Garnet, superior of that order, in England, removed their scruples, and thewed them how the intereits of religion required that the innocent should be sacri. faced with the guilty.



Christopher Tohn

Guido Robert


. Fawkes Catesby

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