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and a pease.
18 to be gathered, that the king of Twelfth- shall be King; and where the peaze is, night, after the manner of royalty, ap- she shall be Queene. poinied his officers. He himself attained “ Nis. I have the peaze, and must be his dignity thus :
Queene. Then also every householder,
“ Mel. I have the beane, and King; I to his abilitie,
must commande." Doth make a mightie cake, that may
Pinkerton's “ Ancient Scotish Poems," suffice his companie :
contain letter from sir Thomas RanHereia a pennie doth he put,
dolph, queen Elizabeth's chamberlain of before it come to fire,
the Exchequer, to Dudley lord Leicester, This he divides according as
dated froin Edinburgh on the 15th Januhis householde doth require,
ary, 1563, wherein he mentions, that Lady And every peece distributeth,
Flemyng was “ Queen of the Beene" on as round about they stand, Which in their names unto the poore
Twelfth-day in that year: and in Ben Jon
son's Masque of Christmas, Baby-cake, is given out of hand. But who so chaunceth on the peece
one of the characters, is attended by “an wherein the money lies,
Usher, bearing a great cake with a bean, Is counted king amongst them all,
Herrick, the poet of our and is with showtes and cries
festivals, has several allusions to the celeExalted to the heavens up.
bration of this day by our ancestors : the Mr. Fosbroke notices, that “ the cake poem here subjoined, recognises its cus
toms with strict adherence to truth, and in was full of plums, with a bean in it for
pleasant strains of joyousness. the king, and a pea for the queen, so as to determine them by the slices. Some Twelfe-Night, or KING AND QUEESE. times a penny was put in the cake, and Now, now the mirth comes the person who obtained it, becoming With the cake full of plums, king, crossed all the beams and rafters Where beane's the king of the sport he of the house against devils. A chafing
Beside, we must know, dish with burning frankincense was also
The pea also lit, and the odour snuffed up by the whole Must revell
, as queene in the court here. family, to keep off disease for the year.
Begin then to chuse, After this, the master and mistress went
This night as ye use, round the house with the pan, a taper, Who shall for the present delight here,
Be a king by the lot, and a loaf, against witchcraft.”
And who shall not So far Mr. Fosbroke abridges Naogeor- Be Twelfe-day queene for the night here. gus's account, which goes on to say, that
Which knowne, let us make -- in these dayes beside,
Joy-sops with the cake; They judge what weather all the yeare And let not a man then be seen here, shall happen and betide :
Who unurg'd will not drinke, Ascribing to each day a month,
To the base from the brink, and at this present time,
A health to the king and the queene here. The youth in every place doe flocke,
Next crowne the bowle ful. and all apparel'd fine,
With gentle lambs-wooll; With pypars through the streetes they runne, Adde sugar, nutmeg, and ginger, and singe at every dore.
With store of ale, too;
And thus ye must doe There cities are, where boyes and gyrles, To make the wassaile a swinger.
together still do runne, About the streete with like, as soone
Give them to the king as night beginnes to come,
And queene wassailing; And bring abrode their wassel bowles,
And though with ale ye be whet here ; who well rewarded bee,
Yet part ye from hence,
As free from offence, With cakes and cheese, and great good cheare, and money plenteouslee.
As when ye innocent met here. Queen Elizabeth's Progresses by Mr. A citation by Brand represents the ancient Nichols, contain an entertainment to her Twelfth-night-cake to have been composat Sudley, wherein were Melibæus, the ed of flour, honey, ginger, and pepper. king of the Bean, and Nisa, the queen of The maker thrust in, at random, a small the Pea.
coin as she was kneading it. When baked, “ Mel. Cut the cake : who hath the beane, it was divided into as many parts as there
were persons in the family, and each had drew lots for kingdonis, and like kings his share. Portions of it were also as exercised their temporary authority.” Insigned to Christ, the Virgin, and the deed, it appears, that the question is three Magi, and were given in alms. almost at rest. Mr. Fosbroke affirms that
the king of Saturnalia was elected by On Twelfth-day the people of Ger- beans, and that from thence came our many and the students of its academies king and queen on this day.” The coincichose a king with great ceremony and dence of the election by beans having sumptuous feastings.
been common to both customs, leaves In France, the Twelfth-cake is plain, scarcely the possibility of doubt that with a bean; the drawer of the slice con ours is a continuation of the heathen taining the bean is king or queen. All practice under another name. Yet “some drink to her or his majesty, who reigns, of the observances on this day are the and receives homage from all, during remains of Druidical, and other superstithe evening. There is no other drawing, tious ceremonies.” On these points, if and consequently the sovereign is the Mr. Fosbroke's Dictionary of Antiquities only distinguished character. In Nor- be consulted by the curious inquirer, he mandy they place a child under the will there find the authorities, and be in table, which is so covered with a cloth other respects gratified. that he cannot see ; and when the cake is divided, one of the company taking up The Epiphany is called Twelfth-day, the first piece, cries out, “ Fabe Domini because it falls on the twelfth day after pour qui ?" The child answers, “ Pour Christmas-day., Epiphany signifies male bon Dieu:” and in this manner the nifestation, and is applied to this day pieces are allotted to the company. If because it is the day whereon Christ was ihe bean be found in the piece for the manifested to the Gentiles. Bourne in * bon Dieu,” the king is chosen by draw- his Vulgar Antiquities, which is the subing long or short straws. Whoever gets structure of Brand's Popular Antiquities, the bean chooses the king or queen, remarks that this is the greatest of the according as it happens to be a man or twelve holidays, and is therefore more woman. According to Brand, under the jovially observed, by the visiting of friends old order of things, the Epiphany was and Christmas gambols, than any other. kept at the French court by one of the Finally, on observances of this festival courtiers being chosen king, and the not connected with the Twelfth-night other nobles attended an entertainment king and queen. It is a custom in on the occasion; but, in 1792, during the many parishes in Gloucestershire on this revolution, La Fête de Rois was abo- day to light up twelve small fires and lished; Twelfth-day was ordered to be one large one; this is mentioned by called La Fête de Sans-Culottes ; the old Brand : and Mr. Fosbroke relates, that in feast was declared anti-civic; and any some countries twelve fires of straw are priest keeping it was deemed a royalist. made in the fields “ to burn the old The Literary Pocket Book affirms, that at witch," and that the people sing, drink, La Fête de Rois the French monarch and dance around it, and practise other and his nobles waited on the Twelfth- ceremonies in continuance. He takes night king, and that the custom was not “the old witch " to be the Druidical God revived on the return of the Bourbons, of Death. It is stated by sir Henry Piers, but that instead of it the royal family in genl. Vallancey's “ Collectanea,” that, washed the feet of some people and gave at Westmeath,“ on Twelve-eve in Christthem alms.
mas, they use to set up as high as they
can a sieve of oats, and in it a dozen of There is a difference of opinion as to candles set round, and in the centre one the origin of Twelfth-day. Brand says, larger, all lighted; this in mnemory of our " that though its customs vary in different saviour and his apostles, lights of the countries, yet they concur in the same world.” Sir Henry's inference may reasonend, that is, to do honour to the Eastern abiy be doubted; the custom is probably Magi.” He afterwards observes," that of higher antiquity than he seems to have the practice of choosing 'king,' on suspected. Twelfth-day, is similar to a custom that A very singular merriment in the Isle existed among the ancient Greeks and of Man is mentioned by Waldron, in his Remans, who, on the festival days of history of that place. He says, that Saturn, about this season of the year, “ during the whole twelve days of Christ.
inas, there is not barn unoccupied, and hemisphere. At the beginning of Januthat every parish hires fiddlers at the ary the earth is at its least distance from puhlic charge. On Twelfth-day, the the sun, which is proved by measuring fiddler lays his head in some one of the the apparent magnitude of that luminary girls' laps, and a third person asks, who by means of an instrument called a such a maid, or such a maid shall marry, micrometer, bis disc being now about naming the girls then present one after 32 minutes of a degree; whereas another; to which he answers according at the opposite season, or at the beginto his own whim, or agreeable to the ning of July, near our Midsummer, his intimacies he has taken notice of during apparent diameter is only about 31 this time of merriment. But whatever minutes. The coldness of winter therehe says is as absolutely depended on as fore does not depend on the distance an oracle; and if he happens to couple of the earth from the sun, but on the two people who have an aversion to each very oblique or slanting direction of his other, tears and vexation succeed the rays; less heat falling on any given part mirth. This they call cutting off the of the earth, than when the rays fall more fiddler's head; for, after this, he is dead direct. From the slanting direction of for the whole year."
his rays they pass through a more dense It appears from the Gentleman's Ma- region of the atmosphere, and are somegazine, that on Twelfth-day 1731, the what intercepted; while another cause king and the prince at the chapel royal, of the cold is the shortness of our days St. James's, made their offerings at the and the length of our nights; the sun altar, of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, continuing only about seven hours and a according to custom, and that at night half above the horizon, while he is absent their majesties, &c. played at hazard for for about sixteen hours and a half. the benefit of the groom-porter. These This position of the earth relatively to offerings which clearly originate from the sun is exemplified in the Popular the Roman church, and are not analogous Lectures on Astronomy, now delivering to any ceremony of the church of Eng- at the Assembly-room, Paul's Head, land, continue to be annually made; with Cateaton-street, by Mr. John Wallis, on this difference, however, that the king is Tuesday and Thursday evenings. His represented by proxy in the person of explanations of this noble science some distinguished officer of the house- familiarly and beautifully illustrated, by hold. In other respects the proceedings an original and splendid apparatus deare conducted with the usual state. vised and constructed by his own hands.
It consists of extensive mechanism and numerous brilliant transparencies._Mr. Wallis's lectures on Tuesday and Thursday next, the 18th and 20th of January, 1825, are under the patronage of the Lord Mayor. Here is a sure mode of acquiring astronomical knowledge, accompanied by the delightful gratification of witnessing a display of the heavens more bewitching than the mind can con
ceive. Ladies, and young persons espeMidwinter is over. According to as- cially, have a delightful opportunity of tronomical reckoning, we have just passed being agreeably entertained by the novelty that point in the earth's orbit, where the and beauty of the exhibition and the north pole is turned most from the sun. eloquent descriptions of the enlightened This position is represented in the dia- lecturer. gram above, by the direction of the terminator, or boundary line of light and darkness, which is seen to divide the The holly with its red berries, and globe into two equal parts; the north the “fond 'ivy,” still stick about our pole, which is the upper pole in the houses to maintain the recollection of the figure, and all parts within 324 degrees, seasonable festivities. Let us hope that we being enveloped in constant darkness. may congratulate each other on having, We now trace the sun among the stars while we kept them, kept ourselves within of the constellation Capricorn or sea-goat, compass. Merriment without discretion and it is winter in the whole northern is an abuse for which nature is sure to
punish us. She may suffer our violence of rustic life than to the comparative
1772. “An authentic, candid, and cir
cumstancial narrative of the astonishing St. Lucian. St. Cedd. St. Kentigerna. transactions at Stockwell, in the county St. Aldric. St. Thillo. St. Canut.
of Surry, on Monday and Tuesday, St. Lucian.
the 6th and 7th days of January, 1772, This saint is in the calendar of the
containing a series of the most surchurch of England on the following day,
prising and anaccountable events that 8th of January He was
ever happened ; which continued from Syrian. According to Butler, he cor
first to last upwards of twenty hours, rected the Hebrew version of the Scrip
and at different places. Published with tures for the inhabitants of Palestine,
the consent and approbation of the during some years was separated from
family, and other parties concerned, to the Romish church, afterwards con
authenticate which, the original Copy formed to it, and died after nine years
is signed by them." imprisonment, either by famine or the lished in “ London, printed for J. Marks,
This is the title of an octavo tract pubsword, on this day, in the year 312. It bookseller, in St. Martin's-lane, 1772." further appears from Butler, that the Arians afirmed of St. Lucian, that to him It describes Mrs. Golding, an elderly Arius was indebted for his distinguish
lady, at Stockwell, in whose house the ing doctrine, which Butler however unblemished honour and character; her
transactions happened, as a woman of denies. ST. DISTAFF'S DAY, OR ROCK-DAY.
niece, Mrs. Pain, as the wife of a farmer
at Brixton-causeway, the mother of seveThe day after Twelfth-day was
so ral children, and well known and recalled because it was celebrated in ho- spected in the parish; Mary Martin nour of the rock, which is a distaff held
as an elderly woman, servant to Mr. in the hand, from whence wool is spun and Mrs. Pain, with whom she had lived by twirling a ball below. It seems that two years, having previously lived four the burning of the flax and tow belonging years with Mrs. Golding, from whom to the women, was the men's diversion in she went into Mrs. Pain's service; and the evening of the first day of labour Richard Fowler and Sarah, his wife, as an after the twelve days of Christmas, and honest,industrious, and sober couple, who that the women repaid the interruption to lived about opposite to Mr. Pain, at the their industry by sluicing the mischief- Brick-pound. These were the subscribmakers. Herrick tells us of the custom ing witnesses to many of the surprising in his Hesperides :
transactions, which were likewise wit
nessed by some others. Another person St. Distaff's day, or the morrow after who bore a principal part in these scenes Twelfth-day.
was Ann Robinson, aged about twenty Partly work, and partly play,
years, who had lived servant with Mrs. Ye must on S. Distaff's day:
Golding but one week and three days. From the plough soone free your teame, The “astonishing transactions” in Mrs. Theu come home and fother them.
Golding's house were these : If the maides a spinning goe,
On Twelfth-day 1772, about ten o'clock Burne the flax, and fire the tow;
in the forenoon, as Mrs. Golding was in Bring in pailes of water then,
her parlour, she heard the china and Let the maides bewash the men :
glasses in the back kitchen tumble down Give S. Distaffe all the right,
and break; her maid came to her and Then bid Christmas sport good-night.
told her the stone plates were falling And next morrow, every one
from the shelf; Mrs. Golding went into To his owne vocation.
the kitchen and saw them broke. Pre
sently after, a row of plates from the In elder times, when boisterous diver- next shelf fell down likewise, while she Nons were better suited to the simplicity was there, and nobody near them; this
astonished her much, and while she was to Mr. Gresham's was
a tray fuil of thinking about it, other things in different china, &c. a japan bread-basket, some places began to tumble about, some of mahogany waiters, with some bottles of them breaking, attended with violent liquors, jars of pickles, &c. and a pier noises all over the house; a clock tum- glass, which was taken down by Mr. bled down and the case broke; a lan- Saville, (a neighbour of Mrs. Golding's ;) tern that hung on the staircase was he gave it to one Robert Hames, who thrown down and the glass broke to laid it on the grass-plat at Mr. Gresham's; pieces ; an earthen pan of salted beef, but before he could put it out of his broke to pieces and the beef fell about; hands, some parts of the frame on each all this increased her surprise, and side flew off; it raining at that time, Mrs. brought several persons about her, among Golding desired it might be brought whom was Mr. Rowlidge, a carpenter, into the parlour, where it was put under who gave it as his opinion that the a side-board, and a dressing-glass along foundation was giving way and that the with it; it had not been there long before house was tumbling down, occasioned by the glasses and china which stood on the the too great weight of an additional side-board, began to tumble about and room erected above: “so ready,” says fall down, and broke both the glasses to the narrative, “ are we to discover natu- pieces. Mr. Saville and others being ral causes for every thing!"
asked to drink a glass of wine or rum, Mrs. Golding ran into Mr. Gresham's both the bottles broke in pieces before house, next door to her, where she fainted, they were uncurked. and in the interim, Mr. Rowlidge, and Mrs. Golding's surprise and fear inother persons, were removing Mrs. Gold- creasing, she did not know what to do ing's effects from her house, for fear of or where to go; wherever she and her the consequences prognosticated. At maid were, these strange, destructive cirthis time all was quiet; Mrs. Golding's cumstances followed her, and how to maid remaining in her house, was gone help or free herself from them, was not up stairs, and when called upon several in her power or any other person's pretimes to come down, for fear of the dan- sent: her mind was one confused chaos, gerous situation she was thought to be lost to herself and every thing about her, in, she answered very coolly, and after drove from her own home, and afraid time
down deliberately, there would be none other to receive her, without any seeming fearful apprehen- she at last left Mr. Gresham's, and went sions.
to Mr. Mayling's, a gentleman at the Mrs. Pain was sent for from Brixton- next door, here she staid about three causeway, and desired to come direetly, quarters of an hour, during which time as her aunt was supposed to be dead ; nothing happened. Her maid staid at this was the message to her. When Mrs. Mr. Gresham's, to help put up what few Pain came, Mrs. Golding was come to things remained unbroken of her mistress's, herself, but very faint from terror. in a back apartment, when a jar of
Among the persons who were present, pickles that stood upon a table, turned was Mr. Gardner, a surgeon, of Clapham, upside down, then a jar of raspberry jam whom Mrs. Pain desired to bleed her broke to pieces. aunt, which he did; Mrs. Pain asked Mrs. Pain, not choosing her aunt should him if the blood should be thrown away; stay too long at Mr. Mayling's, for fear he desired it might not, as he would of being troublesome, persuaded her to examine it when cold. These minute go to her house at Rush Common, near particulars would not be taken notice of, Brixton-causeway, where she would enbut as a chain to what follows. For the deavour to make her as happy as she next circumstance is of a more astonish- could, hoping by this time all was over; ing nature than any thing that had as nothing had happened at that gentlepreceded it; the blood that was just man's house while she was there. This congealed, sprung out of the basin upon was about two o'clock in the afternoon. the floor, and presently after the basin Mr. and Miss Gresham were at Mr. broke to pieces; this china basin was Pain's house, when Mrs. Pain, Mrs. the only thing broke belonging to Mr. Golding, and her maid went there. It Gresham; a bottle of rum that stood by being about dinner time they all dined it broke at the same time.
together; in the interim Mrs. Golding's Among the things that were removed servant was sent to her house to see how