« ПредишнаНапред »
transferred to Milan, and afterwards, in The Rev Thomas Dudley Fosbroke, 1164, on Milan being taken by the emM. A. F. A. S., &c. whose “ Encyclopæ- peror Frederick, presented by him to the dia of Antiquities” has been already cited archbishop of Cologne, who put them in from, is the author of “ British Monach- the principal church of that city,“ in ism, or, Manners and Customs of the which place,” says Cressy, “they are to Monks and Nuns of England,” 4to. 1817; this day celebrated with great veneration." a most erudite work, wherein he gives an Patrick quotes a prayer to them from the account, from Du Cange, of the Feast of Romish service, beginning “ O, king Jasthe Star, or Office of the Three Kings, par, king Melchior, king Balthasar ;” and a catholic service performed on this day. he says that the Salisbury Missal states “ Three priests, clothed as kings, with their offerings to have been disposed of their servants carrying offerings, met from in this way :-“ Joseph kept of the gold different directions of the church before as much as him needed, to pay his trithe altar. The middle one, who came bute to the emperor, and also to keep our from the east, pointed with bis staff to a lady with while she lay in childbed, and star: a dialogue then ensued; and after the rest he gave to the poor. The incense kissing each other, they began to sing, he burnt to take off the stench of the staLet us go and inquire; after which the ble there as she lay in; and with the precentor began a responsory, 'Let the myrrh, our lady anointed her child, to Magi come. A procession then com- keep him from worms and disease." menced, and as soon as it began to enter Patrick makes several observations on the the pave, a crown like a star, hanging be- service to these three kings of Cologne, fore the cross, was lighted up, and point- and as to the credibility of their story; and ed out to the Magi, with · Behold the he inquires what good this prayer will do star in the east.' This being concluded, to Jaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar, when two priests, standing at each side of the another tradition says their names were altar, answered, meekly, “We are those Apellius, Amerus, and Damascus ; a whom you seek,' and drawing a curtain third, that they were Magalath, Galga. showed them a child, whom, falling down, lath, and Sarasin; and a fourth, Ator they worshipped. Then the servants Sator, and Peratoras ? which last, Patrick made the offerings of gold, frankincense, says, he should choose in this uncertainty and myrrh, which were divided among to call them by, as having the more kingly the priests. The Magi in the mean while sound, if it had not been that Casaubon continued praying till they dropped represents these three, “ together with asleep; when a boy clothed in an alb, Misael, Achael, Cyriacus, and Stephanus, like an angel, addressed them with, All (the names of the four shepherds that things which the prophets said are ful came to visit our Lord in Bethlehem,) had filled.' The festival concluded with been used (and he telis how) for a charm chanting services, &c."
to cure the biting of serpents and other Mr. Fosbroke adds, that at Soissons a venomous beasts.” Patrick gives other rope was let down from the roof of the prayers to these three kings, one of them church, to which was annexed an iron from the “Hours of the Virgin," and also circle, having seven tapers, intended to quotes this miraculous anecdote ; that represent Lucifer, or the morning star. one John Aprilius, when he was hanged,
The three persons honoured by this implored the patronage of the three kings service, and called kings, were the three of Cologne; the consequence of which wise men who, in catholic works, are seems to have been, that after he had been usually denominated the Three Kings of hung three days and was cut down, he Cologne. Cressy tells us, that the em was found alive ; whereupon he came to press Helena, who died about the year Cologne half naked, with his halter about 328, brought their bodies from the east to his neck, and returned thanks to his Constantinople; from whence they were deliverers.
In London, with every pastrycook in illuminate countless cakes of all prices and the city, and at the west end of the dimensions, that stand in rows and piles town, it is “high change" on Twelfth-day. on the counters and sideboards, and in From the taking down of the shutters in the windows. The richest in flavour and the morning, he, and his men, with addi- heaviest in weight and price are placed tional assistants, male and female, are on large and massy salvers ; one, enorfully occupied by attending to the dress- mously superior to the rest in size, is the ing out of the window, executing orders chief object of curiosity; and all are deof the day before, receiving fresh ones, or corated with all imaginable images of supplying the wants of chance customers. things animate and inanimate. Stars, casBefore dusk the important arrangement tles, kings, cottages, dragons, trees, fish, of the window is completed. Then the palaces, cats, dogs, churches, lions, milkgas is turned on, with supernumerary maids, knights, serpents, and innumeraarzınd-lamps and manifold wax-lights, to ble other forms in snow-white confection
ary, painted with variegated colours, glit- mering! and there's a man with a hamter by “ excess of light" from mirrors mer! against the walls testooned with artificial 18t Boy. Who pinned that woman to “wonders of Flora.” This “paradise of 'the 'gentleman? Why there's a dozen dainty devices,” is crowded by successive pinned together. and successful desirers of the seasonable Courtryman. Constable ! constable ! delicacies, while alternate tapping of ham 2d Boy. Here comes the constable . mers and peals of laughter, from the Hark at him! throng surrounding the house, excite Const. Clear away from the doors! Let smiles from the inmates.
the customers go in! Make way! Let The cause of these sounds may be in- the cakes come out! Go back, boy! ferred from something like this passing 13th Boy. If you please, Mr. Constaoutside.
ble, I'm going to buy a cake! Constable. Make way, make way! Const. Go forward, then ! Clear the way! You boys stand aside ! Man with cakes. By your lea'e ! by
Countryman. What is all this ; Is any your leave. body ill in the shop ?
Const. Clear the way! Ist Boy. Nobody, sir ; it's only Twelfth All the Boys. Huzza! huzza! More day!
people pinned — and plenty nailed 2d Boy. This is a pastrycook’s, up!sir; look at the window! There they To explain, to those who may be ignostand! What cakes!
rant of the practice. On Twelfth3d Boy. What pretty ones these are ! night in London, boys assemble round the 4th Boy. Only see that!
inviting shops of the pastrycooks, and 5th Boy. Why it's as large as the hind- dexterously nail the coat-tails of spectawheel of a coach, and how thick !
tors, who venture near enough, to the 6th Boy. Ah! it's too big to come out bottoms of the window frames; or pin at the door, unless they roll it out. them together strongly by their clothes.
7th Boy. What elegant figures, and Sometimes eight or ten persons find them. what lots of sweetmeats!
selves thus connected. The dexterity and 8th Boy. See the flowers ; they look force of the nail driving is so quick and almost like real ones.
sure, that a single blow seldom fails of Countryman. What a crowd inside! doing the business effectually. With
9th Boy. How the people of the house drawal of the nail without a proper inare packing up all the good things ! strument is out of the question; and, con
Countryman. What a beautiful lady sequently, the person nailed must either that is behind the counter !
leave part of his coat, as a cognizance of 10th Boy. Which?
his attachment, or quit the spot with a Countryman. Why the young one! hole in it. At every nailing and pinning
10th Boy. What her ? oh, she's the shouts of laughter arise from the perpepastrycook's daughter, and the other's trators and the spectators. Yet it often her mother.
happens to one who turns and smiles Countryman. No, no; not her; I at the duress of another, that he also finds mean her, there.
himself nailed. Efforts at extrication in10th Boy. Oh, her ; she's the shop- crease mirth, nor is the presence of a conwoman; all the pastrycooks always try stable, who is usually employed to attend to get handsome ladies to serve in the and preserve free “ ingress, egress, and shop!
regress," sufficiently awful to deter the Ilth Boy. I say, I say! halloo! here's offenders. a piece of work! Look at this gentleman Scarcely a shop in London that offers a dext to me-his coat-tail's nailed to the halfpenny plain bun to the purchase of a window! Look, look !
hungry boy, is without Twelfth-cakes and · Countryman. Aye, what ?
finery in the windows on Twelfth-day. All the boys. Ah! ah ! ah ! Huzza. The gingerbread-bakers—there are not
Countryman. Who nailed my coat-tail? many, compared with their number when Constable !
the writer was a consumer of their manu12th Boy. That's the boy that's got factured goods, even the reduced ginthe hammer!
gerbread-bakers periwig a few plum-buns 2d Boy. What me? why that's the with sugar-frost io-day, and coaxingly inboy--there ; and there's another boy ham- terpolate them among their new made
sixes, bath-cakes, parliament, and ladies' same size, and number each on the back; fingers. Their staple-ware has leaves of taking care to make the king No. 1, and untárnished dutch-gilt stuck on; their up- the queen No. 2. Then prepare and right cylinder-shaped show-glasses, con number the gentlemen's characters. Cause taining peppermint-drops, elecampane, tea and coffee to be handed to your visitsugar-sticks, hard-bake, brandy-balls, and ors as they drop in. When all are asbulls'-eyes, are carefully polished; their sembled and tea over, put as many ladies' loliy-pops are fresh encased, and look characters in a reticule as there are ladies as white as the stems of tobacco-pipes; present; next put the gentlemen's chaand their candlesticks are ornamented racters in a hat. Then call on a gentlewith fillets and bosses of writing paper; man to carry the reticule to the ladies as or, if the candles rise from the bottom of they sit, from which each lady is to draw inverted glass cones, they shine more oné ticket, and to preserve it ninopened. sparkling for the thorough cleaning of Select a lady to bear the hat to the gentheir receivers in the morning.
tlemen for the same purpose.
There will How to eat Twelfth-cake requires no be one ticket left in the reticule, and anorecipe ; but how to provide it, and draw ther in the hat, which the lady and genthe characters, on the authority of Rachel tleman who carried each is to interchange, Revel's “ Winter Evening Pastimes," as having fallen to each. Next, arrange may be acceptable. First, buy your cake. your visitors according to their numbers; Then, before your visitors arrive, buy the king No.1, the queen No. 2, and so your characters, each of which should on. The king is then to recite the verse have a pleasant verse beneath. Next look on his ticket; then the queen the verse on at your invitation list, and count the num- hers; and so the characters are to proceed ber of ladies you expect; and afterwards in numerical order. This done, let the the number of gentlemen. Then, take as cake and refreshments go round, and hey! many female characters as you have in- for merriment ! vited ladies; fold them up, exactly of the
They come ! they come! each blue-eyed sport,
'Tis Mirth fresh crown'd with mistletoe
Joy“ on light fantastic toe,'
Singing and dancing as they go.
A welcome — nor unbidden guest. Twelfth-day is now only commemorated nance of character is essential to the by the custom of choosing king and queen. drawing. Within the personal observa“I went,” says a correspondent in the tion of the writer of these sheets, character Universal Magazine for1774,“ to a friend's has never been preserved. It must be house in the country to partake of some admitted, however, that the Twelfth-night of those innocent pleasures that constitute characters sold by the pastrycooks, are a merry Christmas. I did not return till either commonplace or gross—when genI had been present at drawing king and teel they are inane; when humorous, queen, and eaten a slice of the Twelfth- they are vulgar. cake, made by the fair hands of my good Young folks anticipate Twelfth-night friend's consort. After tea yesterday, a as a full source of innocent glee to their noble cake was produced, and two bowls, light little hearts. Where, and what is containing the fortunate chances for the he who would negative hopes of happidifferent sexes. Our host filled up the ness for a few short hours in the daytickets; the whole company, except the spring of life? A gentle spirit in the king and queen, were to be ministers of London Magazine beautifully sketches a state, maids of honour, or ladies of the scene of juvenile enjoyment tbis evening: bed-chamber. Our kind host and hostess, “I love to see an acre of cake spread out whether by design or accident, became the sweet frost covering the rich earth king and queen. According to Twelfth- below---studded all over with glittering day law, each party is to support their flowers, like ice-plants, and red and green character till midnight.” The mainte- knots of sweetmeat, and hollow yellow
crusted crowns, and kings and queens, them, go round to the female part of the and their paraphernalia. I delight to see society in succession, and what one puts
score of happy children sitting huddled into the uppermost bowl the attendant all round the dainty fare, eyeing the cake collectress slips into the bowl beneath it. and each other, with faces sunny enough All are expected to contribute something, to thaw the white snow. I like to see
but not more than a shilling, and they the gazing silence which is kept so reli are best esteemed who give most. The giously while the large knife goes its men choose two from themselves, and round, and the glistening eyes which follow the same custom, except that as feed beforehand on the huge slices, dark the gentlemen are not supposed to be with citron and plums, and heavy as altogether so fair in their dealings as the gold. And then, when the “Characters" ladies, one of the collectors is furnished are drawn, is it nothing to watch the with pen, ink, and paper, to set down peeping delight which escapes from their the subscriptions as soon as received. little eyes? One is proud, as king; ano If a satirical prophecy in “ Vox Grather stately, as queen; then there are two culi,” 4to. 1623, may be relied on as whispering grotesque secrets which they authority, it bears testimony to the popucannot contain (those are sir Gregory larity of Twelfth-night at that period. On Goose and sir Tunbelly Clumsy.) The the 6th of January the author declares, boys laugh out at their own misfortunes; that “ this day, about the houres of 5, 6, but the little girls (almost ashamed of 7, 8, 9, and 10, yea, in some places till their prizes) sit blushing and silent. It midnight well nigh, will be such a masis pot until the lady of the house goes sacre of spice-bread, that, ere the next day round, that some of the more extravagant at noon, a two-penny browne loafe will fictions are revealed. And then, what a set twenty poore folkes teeth on edge. roar of mirth! Ha, ha! The ceiling Which hungry humour will hold so vioshakes, and the air is torn. They bound lent, that a number of good fellowes will from their seats like kids, and insist on not refuse to give a statute-marchant of seing Miss Thompson's card. Ah! what all the lands and goods they enjoy, for merry spite is proclaimed—what ostenta half-a-crown's worth of two-penny pasrious pity! The little girl is almost in ties." He further affirms, that there will tears, but the large lump of allotted cake be “ on this night much masking in the is placed seasonably in her hands, and Strand, Cheapside, Holbourne, or Fleetthe glass of sweet wine all round' street.” drowns the shrill urchin laughter, and a “The twelve days of Christmas," as the gentler delight prevails." Dots not this extent of its holidays, were proverbial ; make a charming picture ?
but among labourers, in some parts, the
Christmas festivities did not end till CanThere is some difficulty in collecting dlemas. Old Tusser, in his “Five Hunaccounts of the manner wherein Twelfth dred Points of good Husbandry,” would night is celebrated in the country. In have the merriments end in six days; he “Time’s Telescope,” an useful and enter- begins January with this advice to the taining annual volume, there is a short countıyman : reference to the usage in Cumberland, and When Christmas is ended, other northern parts of England. It seems
bid feasting adue, that on Twelfth-night, which finishes their Goe play the good husband, Christmas holidays, the rustics meet in a
thy stock to renue: large room. They begin dancing at seven Be mindful of rearing, o'clock, and finish at twelve, when they
in hope of a gaine, sit down to lobscouse, and ponsondie ;
Dame Profit shall give thee the former is made of beef, potatoes, and
reward for thy paine. onions fried together; and in ponsondie This was the recommendation of prudence we recognise the wassail or waes-hael of tempered by kindness; a desire for diliale, boiled with sugar and nutmeg, into gence in the husbandınan, with an allowwhich are put roasted apples,—the an ance of reasonable pastime to sweeten ciently admired lambs'-wool. The feast his labour. is paid for by subscription : two women From Naogeorgus, in “ The Popish are chosen, who with two wooden bowls Kingdome," a poem before quoted, and placed one within the other, so as to which will be frequently referred to for leave an opening and a space between its lore regarding our ancient customs, it