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in long boats fro.n the Orkneys, and wasted way from building the church of Glastonthe coasts of Cambria. He invited St. bury he went to Bath, cured an infection Kined to this synod, who answered that of the waters, and by his prayers and behe had grown crooked, distorted, and too nediction gave them the perpetual heat weak for the journey; whereupon ensued they still retain. On the same authority, “ a double miracle," for “St. Kined hav- St. David's posthumous virtue, in the reign ing been restored to health and straight- of king Stephen, occasioned the brook ness by the prayers of St. David, by his above the church-yard of St. David's own prayers he was reduced again to his church to run wine, by miracle: the well former infirmity and crookedness." After near it, called Pisteldewy or the conduit this synod he journeyed to the monastery of David. sent forth milk instead of of Glastonbury, which he had built there
Also a boy, that endeavoured to and consecrated, with intent to repair it, take pigeons from a nesi in St. David's and consecrate it again; whereupon “our church at Lhannons, had his fingers miLord appearing to him in his sleep, raculously fastened to the stone, till by his and forbidding him to profane the friends' watching, fasting, and praying sacred ceremony before performed, he, in before the altar three days and nights, the testimony, with his finger pierced a hole stone fell from his hand. “ Manie thou, in the bishop's hand, which remained open sands of other miracles have been wrought to the view of all men till the end of the by the meritts of this holy man, which for next day's mass.” Before his death “the brevities sake we omitt. I only desire all angel of the lord appeared to him, and true hearted Welchmen allwaies to hosaid to him, Prepare thyself.” Again: nour this their great patrone and protec“ When the hour of his departure was tor, and supplicate the divine goodnes to come, our Lord Jesus Christ vouchsafed reduce his sometimes beloved countrey out his presence, to the infinite consolation of of the blindnes of Protestancie, groveling our holy father, who at the sight of him in which it languisheth. Not only in exulted." More to the same purpose is Wales, but all England over is most faalleged by the catholic writers respecting mous in memorie of St. David. But in him. Such as, that at his death being these our unhappie daies the greatest part associated to a troop of angels, he with of his solemnitie consisteth in wearing of them mounted up to heaven," and that a greene leeke, and it is a sufficient theme the event was known “hy, an angel die for a zealous Welchman to ground a quarvulging it." This is Cressy's account. rell against him, that doeth not honour
According to another biographer of St. his capp with the like ornament that David, he was uncle to the famous prince day.” So saith Porter. Arthur, or, strictly speaking, half uncle, if This legend has been the theme of sucSt. David's illegitimacy be authentic. The cessive writers, with more or less of variasame author relates of him, that on his tion, and much of addition.
Inscription for a monument in the Vale of Ewias.
Here was it, stranger, that the Patron Saint
St. Dabid's Dap.
Wearing the Leek.
Mr. Brady, in the “Clavis Calendaria," memory, an't please your majesty, and your affirms that the custom of wearing the great-uncle, Edward, the black prince, as leek on St. David's day is derived from I have read in the chronicles, fought a St. David; who, according to him, caused most prave pattle here in France. the Britons under king Cadwallader to K. Henry. They did, Fluellen. distinguish themselves from their enemies F. Your majesty says very true: if your during a great battle, wherein they con- majesties is remembered of it, the Welchquered the Saxons by virtue of his prayers men did goot service in a garden where and that regulation. Uptortunately he leeks did grow, wearing leeks in their Monlays no ground for this positive statement, mouth caps ; which, your majesty knows, and the same misfortune attends almost is an honourable padge of the service: every representation in his book, which and, I do believe, your majesty takes no would really be useful if he had pointed scorn to wear the leek upon Saint Tavy's day. to his sources of information. A work K. H. I wear it for a memorable professing to state facts without referring honour : for I am a Welch, you know, good to authorities has no claim to confidence, countryman. whoever may be its author.
This allusion by Fluellen to the Welch For any thing in the shape of ancient having worn the leek in a battle under the and authentic statement to the contrary, black prince, is not, perhaps, as some the institution of wearing the leek on St. writers suppose, wholly decisive of its David's day by the saint himself, may having originated in the fields of Cressy or rest on a Jeffrey of Monmouth authority, Poictiers; but it shows that when Shakor on legends of no higher estimation speare wrote, Welchmen wore leeks. In with the historian, than “ The famous the same play, the well-remembered History of the Seven Champions of Chris. Fluellen's enforcement of Pistol to eat tendom,” by Richard Johnson.
the leek he had ridiculed, further establishes
the wearing it as a usage. Fluellen wears Shakspeare, whose genius appropriated his leek in the battle of Agincourt, which every thing that his extraordinary faculty it will be recollected takes place in this of observation marked for its own, intro- play, and is there mentioned, as well as duces this custom of the Welch wearing in the chronicles, to have been “fought leeks upon St. David's day into his play on the day of Crispin Crispianus," in the of King Henry V.
month of October. The scene between Énter Pistol to King Henry. Fluellen and Pistol takes place the day Pistol. Qui va là ?
after this battle. K. Henry. A friend.
Enter Fluellen and Gower. P. What's thy name?
Gower. Why wear you your leek toK. H. Harry le Roy.
day? St. David's day is past. P. Le Roy! a Cornish name : art thou Fluellen. There is occasions and causes of Cornish crew ?
why and wherefore in all things. The K. H. No, I am a Welchman,
rascally, scald, peggarly, pragging knave, P. Knowest thou Fluellen?
Pistol, a fellow look you now of no merits, K. H. Yes.
he is come to me with pread and salt yes P. Tell him, I'll knock his leek about terday, look you, and pid me eat my leek.
it was in a place where I could not preed Upon St. David's day.
no contentions with him, but I will be so K. H. Do not you wear your dagger in pold as to wear it in my cap till I see him your cap that day, lest he knock that about once again, and then (Enter Pistol) yours.
Got pless you, ancient Pistol ! you scurvy It is again referred to in a dialogue be- knave, Got pless you ! tween Henry V. and Fluellen.
P. Hence! I am qualmish at the smell Fluellen. Your grandfather of famous of leek.
G. I peseech you heartily scurvy knave, onions were also deposited in the sacred at my desires, and my requests, and my chests of the mysteries both of Isis and detitions, to eat, look you, this leek. Ceres, the Ceudven of the Druids ; leeks
P. Not for Cadwallader, and all his are among the Egyptian hieroglyphics; goats.
sometimes a leek is on the head of Osiris; F. There is one goat for you. (strikes and at other times grasped in an extended him.) Will you be so goot, scald knave, as hand; and thence, perhaps, the Italian eat it?
proverb, “ Porro che nasce nella mano,” P. Base Trojan, thou shalt die.
a leek that grows in the hand, for a virtue. F. I desire you to live in the mean Porrus, a leek, is derived by Bryant from time, and eat your victuals; come there is the Egyptian god Pi-orus, who is the sauce for it. -(strikes him.) If you can same as the Beal Peor of the Phænicians, mock a leek, you can eat a leek.
and the Bel or Bellinis of the Druids. By beating and taunt, Fluellen forces These accordances are worth an ancient Pistol to eat the leek, and on its being Briton's consideration. wholly swallowed, Flúellen exhorts him
Ridicule of national peculiarities was “ when you take occasions to see leeks formerly a pleasantry that the English hereafter, I pray you, mock at them, that freely indulged in. They seemed to think is all !” Having thus accomplished his that different soil was good ground purpose, Fluellen leaves Pistol to digestion, for a laugh at a person, and that it and the consolation of Gower, who calls justified coarse and insolent remarks. In him “counterfeit cowardly knave: will an old satirical tract there is the following you mock at an ancient tradition, begun sneer at the Welch: upon an honourable aspect, and worn as a “A WELCHMAN, Is the Oyster that memorable trophy of predeceased valour, the Pearl is in, for a man may be pickt and dare not avouch in your deeds any of out of him. He hath the abilities of the your words ?"
mind in potentiâ, and actu nothing but Here we have Gower speaking of the boldnessé. His Clothes are in fashion custom of the Welch wearing leeks as before his Bodie; and he accounts boldancient tradition,” and as memorable nesse the chiefest vertue. Above all men trophy of predeceased valour." Thoroughly he loves a Herrald, and speakes pediversed in the history of the few reigns pre- grees naturally. He accompts none well ceding the period wherein he lived, it is descended that call him not Cosen, and not likely that Shakspeare would make a prefers Owen Glendower before any of character in the time of Henry V. refer to the nine worthies. The first note of his an occurrence under the black prince, familiaritie is the confession of his valour; little more than half a century before the and so he prevents quarrels. Hee battle of Agincourt, as an affair of “ an- voucheth Welch a pure, an unconquered cient tradition.” Its origin may be fairly language; and courts Ladies with the referred to a very early period.
storie of their Chronicle. To conclude, A contributor to a periodical work* he is pretious in his own conceit, and rejects the notion, that wearing leeks on St. upon St. David's day without comDavid's day originated at the battle be- parison."* tween the Welch and the Saxons in the
Not quite so flouting is a poetical satire sixth century; and thinks it more probable called, that leeks were a druidic symbol employ
The Welchman's Song in praise of Wales. ed in honour of the British Ceudven or Ceres. In which hypothesis, he thinks,
I's come not here to tauke of Prut, there is nothing strained or far-fetched, From whence the Welse dos take hůr root ;
Nor tell long pedegree of Prince Camber, presuining that the Druids were a branch
Whose linage would fill full a chamber; of the Phænician priesthood. Both were
Nor sing the deeds of ould Saint Davie, addicted to oak worship; and during the The Ursip of which would fill a navie, funereal rites of Adonis at Byblos, leeks But hark you me now, for a liddell tales and onions were exhibited in “pots with Sall make a great deal to the creddit of Wales, other vegetables, and called the gardens of that deity.” The leek was worshipped at Asculon, (whence the modern term of
“A wife, now the widdow of sir Thomas Overburye, Scallions,) as it was in Egypt. Leeks and being a most exquisite and singular poem of ile
choice of a wife, whereunto are added many wilty
characters,” &c. London, printed for Lawrence “Gazette of Fashion," March 9, 1822. Lisle, 4to. 1614.
For hur will tudge your eares,
tablished in 1714; they celebrate it with With the praise of hur thirteen seers; festivity in behalf of the Welch charity And make you as glad and merry, school in Grays-inn-road, which was As fourteen pot of perry.
instituted in 1718 for boarding, clothThere are four other stanzas; one of ing, and educating 80 boys and 25 theni mentions the leek :
girls, born of Welch parents, in or withBut all this while was never thiuk
in ten miles of the metropolis, and not A word in praise of our Welse drink:
having a parochial settlement within Yet for aull that is a cup of bragat
those limits. This institution has the Aull England seer may cast his cap at.
king for patron as prince of Wales, and And what you say to ale of Webley, is supported by voluntary contributions. Toudge him as well , you'll praise him trebly
The « Ancient Britons,” according to As well as metheglin, or syder, or meath, annual custom, go in procession to the Sall sake it your dagger quite out o' the seath. royal residence on St. David's day, and
And oat cake of Guarthenion, receive the royal bounty. The society
are in carriages, and each wears an To give as sweet a rellis
artificial representation of the leek in his As e'er did Harper Ellis. *
hat, composed of ribbands and silver foil. In “Time's Telescope," an annual vo- They have been sometimes accompanied lume already mentioned for its pleasant by horsemen decorated in the same way, varieties and agreeable information, there and are usually preceded by marshals, is a citation of routing lines from “ Poor also on horseback, wearing leeks of larger Robin's Almanac," of 1757, under the dimension in their hats, and ornamented month of March :
with silk scarfs. In this state they pro
ceed from the school-house to some adjaThe first of this month some do keep,
cent church, and hear a discourse delivered For honest Taff to wear his leek;
on the occasion, by a prelate or other Who patron was, they say, of Wales, And since that time, cuts-plutter-a nails,
dignified clergyman. The day is conAlong the street this day doth strut
cluded by an elegant dinner under the With hur green leek stuck in hur hat,
regulation of stewards, when a collection And if hur meet a shentleman
is made for the institution, and a handSalutes in Welch ; and if hur can
some sum is generally contributed. Discourse in Welch, then hur shall be Amongst the green-horned Taffy's free.
Leek. Album Porrum. The lines that immediately succeed the
Dedicated to St. David. above, and follow below, are a versified record of public violence to the Welch character, which Englishmen in this day
March 2. will read with surprise :
St. Ceada, or Chad. Martyrs under the But it would make a stranger laugh
Lombards, 6th Cent. St. Simplicius, Pope To see th' English bang poor Taff;
A. D. 483. St. Marnan, A. D. 620. St. A pair of breeches and a coat,
Charles the Good, Earl of Flanders, a. D. Hat, shoes and stockings, and what not ; 1124. St. Joavan, or Joevin. All stuffed with hay to represent
St. Chad, a. D. 673. The Cambrian hero thereby meant ;
His name is in the calendar of the With sword sometimes three inches broad,
church of England. He was founder of And other armour made of wood,
the see, and bishop of Lichfield. . AcThey drag bur to some publick tree, And hang hur op in effigy.
cording to Bede, joyful melody as of per
sons sweetly singing descended from These barbarous practices of more heaven into his oratory for half an hour, barbarous times have disappeared as and then mounted again to heaven. This knowledge has advanced.
was to presage bis death, and accordingly he died, attended by his brother's
soul and musical angels. St. David's day in London is the An
St. Chad's Well niversary of “ the most Honourable and
Is near Battle-bridge. The miraculous Loyal Society of Ancient Britons," es water is aperient, and was some years ago
quaffed by the bilious and other invalids, • " An Antidote against Melancholy," 4to 1661.
who flocked thither in crowds, to drink at
the cost of sixpence, what people of these 18. 6d. weekly. You qualify ior a single latter days by “ the ingenious chemists' visit by paying sixpence, and a large art,” can make as effectual as St. Chad's glass tumbler full of warm water is handed virtues " at the small price of one half- to you. As a stranger, you are told, that penny."
“ St. Chad's well was famous at one time." If any one desire to visit this spot of Should you be inquisitive, the dame will ancient renown, let him descend from instruct you, with an earnest eye, that Holborn-bars to the very bottom of Grays “people are not what they were," " things inr-lane. On the left-hand side for are not as they used to be," and she merly stood a considerable bill, whereon “can't tell what'll happen next.” Oracles were wont to climb and browze certain have not ceased. While drinking St. mountain goats of the metropolis, in com Chad's water you observe an immense mon language called swine; the hill was
copper into which it is poured, wherein the largest heap of cinder-dust in the it is heated to due efficacy, and from neighbourhood of London. It was formed whence it is drawn by a cock, into the by the annual accumulation of some glasses. You also remark, hanging on thousands of cart loads, since exported to the wall, a “ tribute of gratitude" versiRussia for making bricks to rebuild Mos-fied, and inscribed on vellum, beneath a cow,
after the conflagration of that capital pane of glass stained by the hand of time on the entrance of Napoleon. Opposite and let into a black frame : this is an to this unsightly site, and on the right- effusion for value received from St Chad's hand side of the road is an angle-wise invaluable water. But, above all, there faded inscription :
is a full-sized portrait in oil, of a stout, comely personage, with a ruddy countenance, in a coat or cloak, supposed scarlet, a laced cravat falling down the breast,
and a small red night cap carelessly ST
placed on the head, conveying the idea
that it was painted for the likeness of CHAD'S WELL.
some opulent butcher who flourished in the reign of queen Anne. Ask the dame
about it, and she refers you to “Rhone.” It stands, or rather dejects, over This is a tall old man, who would be elderly pair of wooden gates, one where- taller if he were not bent by years. “I of opens on a scene which tbe unaccus am ninety-four,” he will tell
you, tomed eye may take for the pleasure- present year of our Lord, one thousand ground of Giant Despair. Trees stand as eight hundred and twenty-five." All that if made not to vegetate, clipped hedges he has to communicate concerning the seem willing to decline, and nameless portrait is, “ I have heard say it is the weeds straggle weakly upon unlimited portrait of St. Chad.” Should you venborders. If you look upwards you per ture to differ, he adds, “this is the opinion ceive painted on an octagon board of most people who come here." You “Health Restored and Preserved.” Fur- may gather that it is his own undoubted ther on towards the left, stands a low, belief. On pacing the garden alleys, old-fashioned, comfortable-looking, large and peeping at the places of retiremeni, windowed dwelling; and ten to one, you imagine the whole may have been but there also stands, at the open door, improved and beautified for the last time an ancient ailing female, in a black by some countryman of William III., bonnet, a clean coloured cotton gown, and who came over and died in the same a check apron; her silver hair only year with that king, and whose works in part tucked beneath the narrow border here, in wood and box, have been followof a frilled cap, with a sedate and patient, ing him piecemeal ever since. yet, somewhat inquiring look. This is “the St. Chad's well is scarcely known in Lady of the Well.” She gratuitously the neighbourhood, save by its sign-board informs you, that “the gardens” of of invitation and forbidding externals. “ St. Chad's well” are “ for circulation" An old American loyalist, who has lived by paying for the water, of which you in Pentonville ever since “the rebellion" may drink as much, or as little, or nothing, forced him to the mother country, enters as you please, at one guinea per year, to “ totter not unseen" between the 98. 6d. quarterly, 4s. 6d. monthly, or stunted hedgerows; it was the first “ place