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was also called Rogation flower, and waste lands near abbeys, and on dungwas carried by maidens in the processions hills, &c.
Modern botanists, however, in Rogation week, in early times. The have ascribed its introduction to gipsies, monks discovered its quality of producing although it has never been seen among milk in nursing women, and hence it was that wandering people, nor used by them called milkwort. Indeed so extensive as a drug. I could adduce many other was the knowledge of botany, and of the instances of the same sort. But vain medical power
of herbs among the monks indeed would be the endeavour to overof old, that a few examples only can be shadow the fame of the religious orders adduced in a general essay, and indeed it in medical botany and the knowledge of appears that many rare species of exotics plants; go into any garden and the comwere known by them, and were inhabit mon name of marygold, our lady's seal, ants of their monastery gardens, which our lady's bedstraw, holy oak, (corrupted Beckmann in his “Geshiete der Erfin- into holyhock,) the virgin's thistle, St. dungen,' and Dryander in the ‘Hortus Barnaby's thistle, herb Trinity, herb St. Kewensis,' have ascribed to more modern Christopher, herb St. Robert, herb St. introducers. What is very remarkable is, Timothy, Jacob's ladder, star of Bethlethat above three hundred species of medi- hem, now called ornithogalum; star of cal plants were known to the monks and Jerusalem, now made goatsbeard ; passion friars, and used by the religious orders flower, now passiflora ; Lent lilly, now in general for medicines, which are now daffodil; Canterbury bells
, (so called in to be found in some of our numerous honour of St. Augustine,) is now made hooks of pharmacy and medical botany, into Campanula ; cursed thistle, now by new and less appropriate names; just carduus; besides archangel, apple of Jeas if the Protestants of subsequent times rusalem, St. Paul's betony, Basil, St had changed the old names with a view perbe, herb St. Barbara, bishopsweed, lo obliterate any traces of catholic science. herba Christi, herba Benedict, herb St. Limæus, however, occasionally restored Margaret, (erroneously converted into the ancient names. The following are la belle Marguerite,) god's flower, flos some familiar examples which occur to Jovis, Job's tears, our lady's laces, our me, of all medicinal plants, whose names lady's mantle, our lady's slipper, monk's have been changed in later times. The hood, friar's cowl, St. Peter's herb, and rirgin's bower, of the monastic physi- a hundred more such.-Go into any garcians, was changed into flammula Jovis, den, I say, and these names will remind by the
new pharmaciens; the hedge every one at once of the knowledge of hyssop, into gratiola ; the St. John's wort plants possessed by the monks. Most of (so called from blowing about St. John ihem have been named after the festivals the Baptist's day) was changed into and saints' days on which their natural hypericum; fleur de St. Louis, into iris; time of blowing happened to occur; ana palma Christi
, into ricinus; our master others were so called, from the tendency wort, into imperatoria; sweet bay, into of the minds of the religious orders of laurus; our lady's smock, into cardamine; those days to convert every thing into a Solomon's seal, into convallaria ; memento of sacred history, and the holy lady's hair, into trichomanes ; balm, into religion which they embraced.” melissa ; marjorum, into origanum; crow It will be perceived that Crito is a foot, into ranunculus; herb Trinity, into Catholic. His Aoral enumeration is viola tricolor; avens into caryophyllata; amusing and instructive; and as his bias coltsfoot, into tussilago; knee holy, into is natural, so it ought to be inoffensive rascus; wormwood, into absinthium; Liberality makes a large allowance for rosemary, into rosmarinus; marygold, educational feelings and habitual mis. into calendula, and so on. Thus the an take; but deceptive views, false reasoncient names were not only changed, but ings, and perverted facts, cannot be used, in this change all the references to religi- by either Protestant or Catholic, withi ous subjects, which would have led people impunity to himself, or avail to the cause to a knowledge of their culture among he espouses. the monastic orders, were carefully left out. The THORN APPLE, datura stramo Leo the XII. the present pope, on the nrum, is not a native of England; it was 24th of May, 1824, put forth a bull from introduced by the friars in early times of St. Peter's at Rome. “We have resolved," pilgrimage; and hence we see it on old he savs, “by virtue of the authority given
to us by heaven fully to unlock the sacred 8,400 before the ensuing New Year's day. treasure composed of the merits, suffer- This time (Christmas, 1824) they had no ings, and virtues of Christ our Lord, and more than thirty-six pilgrims at the openof his Virgin Mother, and of all the saints, ing of the holy gate, and in the course of which the author of human salvation has Christmas week, that number increased intrusted to our dispensation. Let the only to 440. This is explained by the earth therefore hear the words of his strict measures adopted in the Italian mouth. We proclaim that the year of states with respect to the passports of pilAtonement and Pardon, of Redemption grims. The police have taken into their and Grace, of Remission and Indulgence heads, that a vast number of individuals is arrived. We ordain and publish the most from all parts of Europe wish to bring solemn Jubilee, to commence in this holy about some revolutionary plot. They becity from the first vespers of the nativity lieve that the Carbonari, or some other of our most holy saviour, Jesus Christ, Italian patriots, assemble here in crowds next ensuing, and to continue during the to accomplish a dangerous object. The whole year 1825, during which time we passports of simple labourers, and other mercifully give and grant in the Lord a inferior classes, are rejected at Milan, and Plenary Indulgence, Remission, and Par- the surrounding cities of Austrian Italy, don of all their Sins to all the Faithful of when they have not a number of signaChrist of both sexes, truly penitent and tures, which these poor men consider confessing their sins, and receiving the quite unnecessary. They cannot enter the holy communion, who shall devoutly visit Sardinian states without great difficulty. the churches of blessed Peter and Paul, These circumstances are deplorable in the as also of St. John Lateran and St. Mary eyes of religious men. We are all grievMajor of this city for thirty successive ed at this place." days, provided they be Romans or inha On this, the Journal des Debats rebitants of this city; but, if pilgrims or marks, “ Notwithstanding the excuse for strangers, if they shall do the same for so great a reduction of late years in the fifteen days, and shall pour forth their number of these devotees, it has evidently pious prayers to God for the exaltation been produced by the diffusion of knowof the holy church, the extirpation of ledge. Men, in 1825, are not so simple heresies, concord of catholic princes, and as to suppose they cannot be saved, withthe safety and tranquillity of christian out a long and painful journey to Jerusapeople.” The pope requires “all the earth” lem (Rome.)" to “ therefore ascend, with loins girt up, to holy Jerusalem, this priestly and
FLORAL DIRECTORY. royal city.”—He requires the clergy to Peach. Amygdalus Persica. explain the power of Indulgences, what Dedicated to St. Walburg. is their efficacy, not only in the remission of the canonical penance, but also of the February 26. temporal punishment,” and to point out
St. Alexander St. Porphyrius, Bishop the succour afforded to those “now puri
of Gaza, A. D. 420. St. Victor, or Vilfying in the fire of Purgatory.” However,
tre, 7th Cent. in February, 1825, one of the public journals contains an extract from the
St. Alexander. French Journal des Debats, which states
This is the patriarch of Alexandria so that there was “a great falling off in the famous in ecclesiastical history for his devotion of saints and pilgrims,” and it opposition to Arius whom, with St. proves this by an article from Rome, Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra, as dated January 25, 1825, of which the his especial colleagues, he resisted at the following is a copy :
council of Nice, till Arius was banished, “ The number of pilgrims drawn to
his books ordered to be burnt, and an Jerusalem (Rome) by the Jubilee is re
edict issued denouncing death to any who markably small, compared with former
secreted them. On the death of St. AlexJubilees. Without adverting to those of ander in 420, St. Athanasius succeeded 1300 and 1350, when they had at least a
to his patriarchal chair. million of pilgrims; in 1750, they had 1,300 pilgrims presented on the 24th of The fogs of England have been at all December, at the opening of the holy times the complaint of foreigners. Gon. gate. That number was increased to domar, the Spanish ambassador, when
some one who was going to Spain waited on him to ask whether he had any com
Time is the stuff that life is made of,' mands, replied, “Only my compliments to the sun, whom I have not seen since says Young. I came to England.”—Carraccioli, the
“Begone about your business," says the Neapolitan minister here, a man of a good dial in the Temple: a good admonition to deal of conversation and wit, used to say,
a loiterer on the pavement below. that the only ripe fruit he had seen in The great French chancellor, d'AguesEngland were roasted apples ! and in a seau, employed all his time. Observing that conversation with George II. he took the madame d'Aguesseau always delayed ten liberty of preferring the moon of Naples or twelve minutes before she came down to the sun of England.
to dinner, he composed a work entirely in
this time, in order not to lose an instant; On seeing a LADY walking in the Snow.
the result was, at the end of fifteen years,
a book in three large volumes quarto, I saw fair JULIA walk alone,
which went through several editions. When feather'd rain came softly down, 'Twas Jove descending from his tower, To court her in a silver shower, A wanton flake flew on her breast, As happy dove into its nest,
Lungwort. Pulmonaria Oficinalis. But rivalla by the whiteness there,
Dedicated to Leander.
Martyrs to the Pestilence in Alexandria, FLORAL DIRECTORY
261, &c. St. Proterius, Patriarch of AlexLesser Periwinkle. Vinca minor.
andria, 557. Sts. Romanus and LupiDedicated to St. Victor.
Sts. Romanus and Lupicinus.
These saints were brothers, who founded February 27. the monastery of Condate with a nunnery,
in the forest of Jura. St. Lupicinus preSt. Leander, Bishop, A. D. 596. St. Ju- scribed a hard regimen. He lived himself
lian, Chronion, and Besas. St. Tha- on bread moistened with cold water, used lilæus. St. Galmier, or Baldomerus, a chair or a hard board for a bed, wore no A. D. 650. St. Nestor, A. D. 250. St. stockings in his monastery, walked in Alnoth.
wooden shoes, and died about 480. St. Thalilæus.
FLORAL DIRECTORY. This saint was a weeper in Syria. He hermitized on a mountain during sixty
Purple Crocus. Crocus vernus.
Dedicated to St. Proterius.
Five Sundays in February.
The February of 1824, being leap-year, Was a locksmith at Lyons, and lived in consisted of twenty-nine days; it congreat poverty, for he bestowed all he got tained five Sundays, a circumstance which on the poor, and sometimes his tools. An cannot again occur till another leap-year, abbot gave him a cell to live in, he died wherein the first of February shall fall on a subdeacon about 650, and his relics Sunday. worked miracles to his fame, till the Hugonots destroyed them in the sixteenth century. St. Alnoth
Old Memorandum of the Months.
Thirty days hath September, Was bailiff to St. Wereburge, became
, June, and November, an anchoret, was killed by robbers, and All the rest have thirty and one, had his relics kept at Stow, near Wedon, Except February, which hath twenty-eight in Northamptonshire.
FOR THE MEMORY
March is the third month of the year; meet him firmly, the less he will shake with the ancients it was the first : ac- you; and the more smiles you will have cording to Mr. Leigh Hunt, from Ovid, from the fair months that follow him." the Romaris named from Mars, tlie god Perhaps the ascription of this month to of war,
because he was the father of their Mars, by the Romans, was a compliment first prince.
“ As to the deity's nature, to themselves; they were the sons of March has certainly nothing in common War, and might naturally deduce their with it; for though it affects to be very origin from the belligerent deity. Minerva rough, it is one of the best natured months was also patroness of March. in the year, drying up the superabundant Verstegan says of our Saxon ancestors, moisture of winter with its herce winds, that “the moneth of March they called and thus restoring us our paths through Lenct-monat, that is, according to our new the fields, and piping before the flowers orthography, Length-moneth, because the like a bacchanal. He sometimes, it must dayes did then first begin in length to be confessed, as if in a fit of the spleen, exceed the nights. And this moneth hinders the buds which he has dried from being by our ancestors so called when blowing; and it is allowable in the less they received Christianity, and conserobust part of his friends out of doors, to quently therewith the ancient christian vbject to the fancy he has for coming in custome of fasting, they called this chiefe such a cutting manner from the east. But season of fasting the fast of Lenct, because it may be truly said, that the oftener you of the Lenct-monat, whereon the most
part of the time of this fasting alwayes Now, Winter, dispossessed of storms, fell; and hereof it cometh that we now and weak from boisterous rage, cal it Lent, it being rather the fast of Lent, thogh the former name of Lenct
Ling'ring on the verge of Spring, monat be long since lost, and the name of Retires reluctant, and from time to time March borrowed in stead thereof." Lenct,
Looks back, while at his keen and chilling
breath or Lent, however, means Spring; hence Fair Flora sickens. March was the Spring-month. Dr. Sayer says the Saxons likewise called it Rhedmonath,a word derived by some from one of
March 1. their deities, named Rheda, to whom sacri- St. David, Archbishop, A. D. 544. St. fices were offered in March; others derive it from ræd, the Saxon word for council,
Swidbert, or Swibert, A. D. 713. St. March being the month wherein wars or
Albinus, Bishop, A. D. 549. St. Mo
nan, A. D. 874. expeditions were usually undertaken by the Gothic tribes, The Saxons also called it Hlyd-monath, from hlyd, which means
Patron of Wales. stormy, and in this sense March was the
St. David, or, in Welch, Dewid, was Stormy month.
son of Xantus, prince of Cardiganshire, No living writer discourses so agreea- the Isle of Wight, afterwards preached to
a priest, became an ascetic in bly on the “ Months” as Mr. Leigh Hunt the Britons, founded twelve monasteries, in his little volume bearing that title. He says of March, that—"The animal creation
ate only bread and vegetables, and drank
milk and water. now exhibit unequivocal signs of activity. at Brevy, in Cardiganshire, A. D. 519, in
A synod being called The farmer extends the exercise of his order to suppress the heresy of Pelagius, plough; and, if fair weather continues,
« St. David confuted and silenced the begins sowing barley and oats. Bats and reptiles break up their winter sleep: the infernal monster by, his learning, elolittle smelts or sparlings run up the soft- quence, and miracles.” After the synod, ened rivers to spawn: the field-fare and St. Dubritius, archbishop of Caerleon, rewoodcock return to their northern
signed his see to St. David, which see is
quarters; the rooks are all in motion with St. Kentigern saw his soul borne by angels
now called St, David's. He died in 544. building and repairing their nests; hens sit; geese and ducks lay ; pheasants crow;
to heaven; his body was in the church of
St. Andrew. In 962, his relics were the ring-dove coos; young lambs come tottering forth in mild weather; the
translated to Glastonbury.*
Butler conceals that St. David's mother throstle warbles on the top of some naked
was not married to his father, but Cressy tree, as if he triumphed over the last lingering of barrenness; and, lastly, forth is- tells the story out, and that his birth was sues the bee with his vernal trumpet, to prophecied of thirty years before it haptell us that there is news of sunshine and
pened. the flowers. In addition to the last
One of the miracles alleged of St. David month's flowers, we now have the crown
is, that at the anti-Pelagian synod he re
stored a child to life, ordered it to spread a imperial, the dog's-tooth violet, fritillaries, the hyacinth, narcissus, (bending its face
napkin under his feet, and made an oration;
that a snow white dove descended from like its namesake,) pilewort, scarlet ranun
heaven and sat on his shoulders; and that culus, great snow-drop, tulips, (which turned even the Dutch to enthusiasts,) and
the ground whereon he stood rose under
him till it became a hill,“ on the top of violets, proverbial for their odour, which were perhaps the favourite flowers of which remains to this day.” He assem
which hill a church was afterwards built, Shakspeare. The passage at the begin- bled a provincial
synod to confirm the dening of Twelfth Night,' in which he compares their scent with the passing sweet
crees of Brevy; and wrote the proceedings ness of inusic is well-known, and proba
of both synods for preservation in his bly suggested the beautiful one in lord churches of the province ; but they were
own church, and to be sent to the other * Bacon's Essays,' about the superiority of lost by age, negligence, and the incursions flowers in the open air, where the scent comes and goes like the warbling of
of pirates, who almost every summer camo
• Butler's Saints.