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notice of cock-fighting in England is by crowned as king of christmas, on horse-
Fitz-Stephens, who died in 1191. He back, having his horse bedizened with
mentions this as one of the amusements tinsel and flauntery, and preceded by the
of the Londoners, together with the game twelve months of the year, each month
of foot-ball. The whole passage is worth habited as the season required ; after
transcribing “ Yearly at Shrove-tide, him came Lent, clothed in white and her-
the boys of every school bring fighting- ring-skins, on a horse with trappings o
cocks to their masters, and all the fore- oyster-shells, “ in token that sadnesse
noon is spent at school, to see these cocks shulde folowe, and an holy tyme;" and
fight together. After dinner, all the youth in this sort they rode through the city,
of the city goeth to play at the ball in the accompanied by others in whimsical
fields; the scholars of every study have dresses, “makyng myrth, disportes, and
their balls; the practisers also of all the playes.” Among much curious observa-
trades have every one their ball in their tion on these Shrove-tide mummings, in
hands. The ancienter sort, the fathers, the “ Popish Kingdome" it is affirmed,
and the wealthy citizens, come on horse that of all merry-makers,
back, to see these youngsters contending
at their sport, with whom, in a manner,

The chiefest man is he, and one

that most deserveth prayse they participate by motion; stirring their own natural heat in the view of the active

Among the rest, that can finde out

the fondest kinde of playes. youth, with whose mirth and liberty they On him they look, and gaze upon, seem to communicate."

and laugh with lustie cheere, Cock-fighting was prohibited in Eng

Whom boys do follow, crying foole, land under Edward III. and Henry VIII.,

and such like other geare. and even later : yet Henry himself in He in the mean time thinkes himselfe dulged his cruel nature by instituting

a wondrous worthie man, &c. cock-fights, and even James I. took great delight in them; and within our own

It is further related, that some of the time, games have been fought, and at

rout carried staves, or fought in armour; tendance solicited by public advertise others, disguised as devils, chased all the ment, at the Royal Cock-pit, Whitehall

, people they came up with, and frightened which Henry VIII. built.

the boys : men wore women's clothes, Beckmann says, that as the cock roused and women, dressed as men, entered their Peter, so it was held an ecclesiastical duty neighbours' or friends' houses ; some were “ to call the people to repentance, or at apparelled as monks, others arrayed least to church;" and therefore, in the themselves as kings, attended by their ages of ignorance, the clergy frequently guards and royal accompaniments; some called themselves the cocks of the Al disguised as old fools, pretended to sit on mighty.”

nests and hatch young fools; others wear-
ing skins and dresses, became counterfeit

bears and wolves, roaring lions, and
Old Shrove-tide Revels.

raging bulls, or walked on high stilts, with On Shrove Tuesday, according to an

wings at their backs, as cranes : old author, “ men ate and drank, and abandoned themselves to every kind of

Some like filthy forme of apes,

and some like fools are drest, sportive foolery, as if resolved to have

Which best beseeme those papistes all, their fill of pleasure before they were to

that thus keep Bacchus' feast die."

The preparing of bacon, meat, and the Others are represented as bearers of an making of savoury black-puddings, forunsavoury morselgood cheer after the coming Lent, preceded the day itself, whereon, besides

a cushion soft they lay, domestic feasting and revelry, with dice

And one there is that, with a flap and card-playing, there was immensity of

doth keepe the flies away mumming. The records of Norwich tes- Some stuffed a doublet and hose with tify, that in 1440, one John Gladman, rags or strawwho is there called “a man who was ever Whom as a man that lately dyed trewe and feythfull to God and to the

of honest life and fame, kyng" and constantly disportive, made In blanket did they beare about, a public disport with his neighbours,

and streightways with the same

that on

They hurl bim up into the agre,

and thus furiously they, drove without not suff'ring him to fall, And this they doe at divers tymes,

stopping for people to get out of their the citie over all.

way: The Kentish “ holly boy,” and “ ivy girl” Yea, sometimes legges or arms they breake,

and horse and cart and all àre erroneously supposed (at p: 226,) to They overthrow, with such a force, have been carried about on St. Valentine's

they in their course do fall! day. On turning to Brand, who also cites the circumstance, it appears they The genteel“ wagon”-drivers ceased not were carried the Tuesday before Shrove with the cessation of the vulgar sports on Tuesday, and most probably were the un- foot, recognised remains of the drest mawkin But even till midnight holde they on, of the “ Popish Kingdome,” carried their pastimes for to make, about with various devices to represent Whereby they hinder men of sleepe, the “ death of good living," and which

and cause their heades to ake our catholic neighbours continue. The But all this same they care pot for, Morning Chronicle of March the 10th,

nor do esteemne a beare, 1791, represents the peasantry of France So they may have their pleasure, &c. carrying it at that time into the villages,

APPRENTICES' HOLIDAY. collecting money for the “funeral," and, “after sundry absurd mummeries,” com Shrove Tuesday was until late years mitting the body to the earth.

the great holiday of the apprentices; why

it should have been so is easy to imagine, Neogeorgus records, that if the snow on recollecting the sports that boys were lay on the ground this day, snow-ball allowed on that day at school. The incombats were exhibited with great vigour, dulgencies of the ancient city 'prentices till one party got the victory, and the other were great, and their licentious disturbran away: the confusion whereof trou ances stand recorded in the annals of bled him sorely, on account of its disturb- many a fray, Mixing in every neighance to the “ matrone olde,” and “sober bouring brawl to bring it if possible to man," who desired to pass without a cold open riot, they at length assumed to de salutation from the “wanton fellowes." termine on public affairs, and went in

The “rabble-rout,” however, in these bodies with their petitions and remonprocessions and mockeries, had the ho- strances to the bar of the house of comnour of respectable spectators, who seem mons, with as much importance as their to have been somewhat affected by the masters of the corporation. A satire of popular epidemic. The same author says 1675 says, that, the noble men, the rich

They'r mounted high, contemn the humble and men of hie degree,

play Least they with common people should

Of trap or foot-ball on a holiday not seeme so mad to bee,

In Finesbury-fieldes. No, 'tis their brave

intent, came abroad in “ wagons finely framed Wisely t' advise the king and parliament. before" drawn by “a lustie horse and wift of pace,” having trappings on him But this is not the place to notice their from head to foot, about whose neck, manners further. The successors to their and every place before,

name are of another generation, they have A bundred gingling belles do hang,

been better educated, live in better times, to make his courage more,

and having better masters,will make better and their wives and children being seated is to be viewed with anxiety, are the out

men. The apprentices whose situation in these “wagons,” they

door apprentices of poor persons, who -behinde themselves do stande

can scarcely find homes, or who being orWell armde with whips, and holding faste phans, leave the factories or work-rooms the bridle in their hande.

of their masters, at night, to go where Thus laden and equipped

they can, and do what they please, withWith all their force throughout the streetes

out paternal care, or being the creatures and market place they ron

of any one's solicitude, and are yet exAs if some whirlwinde mad, or tempest pected to be, or become good members of

great from skies should come society

PANCAKES.

crow

is supposed to have had its origin in the A MS. in the British Museum quoted days of chivalry; when an Italian is by Brand states, that in 1560, it was a reported to have come into this part of custom at Eton school on Shrove Tues- the country challenging all the parishes, day for the cook to fasten a pancake to a under a certain penalty in case of declin

upon the school door; and as crowsing his challenge. All the parishes de* usually hatch at this season, the cawing clined this challenge except Scone, which of the young ones for their parent, beat the foreigner, and in commemoration heightened this heartless sport. From a of this gallant action the game was instiquestion by Antiquarius, in the “Gentle- tuted. Whilst the custom continued, man's Magazine," 1790, it appears that it every man in the parish, the gentry not is a custom on Shrove Tuesday at West- excepted, was obliged to turn out and minster school for the under clerk of the support the side to which he belonged, college, preceded by the beadle and the and the person who neglected to do his other officers, to throw a large pancake part on that occasion was fined; but the over the bar which divides the upper custom being attended with certain inconfrom the lower school. Brand mentions veniences, was abolished a few years bea similar custom at Eton school. Mr. fore Sir Frederick wrote. He further Fosbroke is decisive in the opinion that mentions that on Shrove Tuesday there is pancakes on Shrove Tuesday were taken a standing match at foot-ball in the parish from the heathen Fornacalia, celebrated of Inverness, county of Mid Lothian, de on the 18th of February, in memory of tween the married and unmarried women, making bread, before ovens were invented, and he states as a remarkable fact that the by the goddess Fornax.

married women are always successful. FOOT-BALL.

Crowdie is mentioned by sir F. M. This was, and remains, a game on Eden, (“ State of the Poor,") as a never Shrove Tuesday, in various parts of Eng- failing dinner on Shrove Tuesday, with all land.

ranks of people in Scotland, as pancakes Sir Frederick Morton Eden in the are in England ; and that a ring is put into “Statistical account of Scotland,” says that the basin or porringer of the unmarried at the parish of Scone, county of Perth, folks, to the fivder of which, by fair means, every year on Shrove Tuesday the bacbe it was an omen of marriage before the rest lors and married men drew themselves up of the eaters. This practice on Fasten's at the cross of Scone, on opposite sides ; à Eve, is described in Mr. Stewart's “ Po ball was then thrown up, and they played pular Superstitions of the Highlands," from two o'clock till sun-set. The game with little difference; only that the ring was this; he who at any time got the ball instead of being in “ crowdie" is in into his hands, run with it till overtaken “brose,” made of the “bree of a good fat by one of the opposite party; and then, if iigget of beef or mutton.” This with he could shake himself loose from those on plenty of other good cheer being desthe opposite side who seized him, he run on; patched, the Bannich Junit, or sauty if not, he threw the ball from him, unless bannocks" are brought out. They are it was wrested from him by the other made of eggs and meal mixed with salt party, but no person was allowed to kick to make them“ sauty," and being baked it. The object of the married men was to or toasted on the gridiron," are regarded by hang it, that is, to put it three times into old and young as a most delicious treat." a small hole in the moor, which was the They have a charm" in them which endool or limit on the one hand : that of ables the highlander to “spell” out his the bachelors was to drown it, or dip it future wife : this consists of some article three times in a deep place in the river, being intermixed in the meal-dough, and the limit on the other the party whó he to whom falls the “sauty bannock" could effect either of these objects won which contains it, is sure-if not already the game; if neither won, the ball was married to be married before the next cut into equal parts at sun-set. In the anniversary. Then the Bannich Brauder, course of the play there was usually some or “ dreaming bannocks” find a place. violence between the parties; but it is They contain a little of that substance a proverb in this part of the country that which chimney-sweeps call soot." In "All is fair at the ball of Scone." Sir baking them “the baker must be as mute Frederick goes on to say, that this custom as a stone-one word would destroy the

Tush,

whole concern;" Each person has one, neva, being at Rome on Ash Wednesday, slips off quietly to bed, lays his head on he fell at the feet of pope Boniface VIII., his bannoek, and expects to see his sweet- who blessed and gave out the ashes on heart in his sleep.

that day, in order to be signed with the blessed ashes as others had been. Think

ing him to be his enemy, instead of utterShakspeare in King Henry IV. says, ing the usual form,“ Remember, O man, Be merry, be merry,

because thou art dust, thou shalt return to 'Tis merry in hall, when beards wag all

dust,” &c., the pope parodied the form And welcome merry Shrovetide.

and said “Remember thou art a Gibelline, Be merry, be merry, &c.

and with the Gibellines thou shalt return

to ashes," and then his holiness threw the It is mentioned in the “ Shepherd's Al- ashes in the archbishop's eyes. manack" of 1676, that“ some say, thunder It is observed by Mr. Fosbroke that on Shrove Tuesday foretelleth wind, store ladies wore friars' girdles in Lent. This of fruit, and plenty. Others affirm that gentleman quotes, from “ Camden's Reso much as the sun shineth on that day, mains," that sir Thomas More, finding his the like will shine every day in Lent.” lady scolding her servants during Lent,

endeavoured to restrain her.

tush, my lord,” said she, look, here is FLORAL DIRECTORY.

one step to heavenward,” showing him Cloth of Gold. Crocus sulphureus.

a friar's girdle. “I fear me," said he, Dedicated to St. Sigifride.

“ that one step, will not bring you up one step higher.” There are various instances

of belief in the virtues of garments that February 16.

had been worn by monks and friars; St. Onesimus. Sts. Elias, Jeremy, Tsaias,

some of them almost surpassing belief. Samuel, and Daniel, A. D. 309. St. Ju- church of England by reading publicly

Ash Wednesday is observed in the liana. St. Gregory X. Pope, A. D. 1276. the curses denounced against impenitent St. Tanco, or Tatta, of Scotland, A. D,

sinners; to each malediction the people 815.

being directed to utter, amen. Many Ash Wednesday.

who consider this as cursing their neigh

bours, keep away from church on the ocHoliday at the Public Offices; except the Stamps, casion; which absence from these motives Customs, and Excise.

Mr. Brand regards as “a folly and superThis is the first day of Lent. It is stition worthy of the after-midnight, the called Ash Wednesday, because in the Ro- spirit-walking time of popery." On this man catholic church the priest blesses eloquent remark, and Mr. Brand is selashes on this day, and puts them on the dom warmed to eloquence, it may be ohheads of the people. These ashes are served, that persons far removed from made of the branches of brushwood or superstition and who have never appalms, consecrated the year before. The proached “the valley of the shadow of poashes are cleaned, and dried, and sifted, pery," deem the coinmination of the “Comfit for the purpose. After the priest mon Prayer Book," a departure from the has given absolution to the people, he christian dispensation, and its injunctions prays “ Vouchsafe + to bless and sanctify of brotherly kindness. + these ashes - that whosoever shall sprinkle these ashes upon them for the redemption of their sins, they may obtain health of body and protection of soul,”

Lilac Primrose. Primula acaulis plena.

Dedicated to St. Juliana. &c. Prayers ended, the priest sprinkles the ashes with holy water, and perfumes them thrice with incense, and the people

February 17. coming to him and kneeling, he puts ashes on their heads in the form of a cross with St. Flavian, Archbishop of Constantiother ceremonies.

nople, A. D. 449. Sts. Theodulus and Platina, a priest, and librarian to the Julian. St. Silvin of Auchy, A. V Vatican, who wrote the lives of the popes 718. St. Loman, or Luman, Bishop relates that Prochetus, archbishop of Gen $t. Fintan, Abbot.

FLORAL DIRECTORY.

CHRONOLOGY.

FLORAL DIRECTORY

application brought him nearer to excel. Scotch Crocus. Crocus Susianus. lence. By the merit of a sleeping cupid Dedicated to St. Flaviun.

from his chisel, which was stained and buried by a dealer to be dug up as an

antique, and purchased by cardinal On the 17th of February, 1563, died Giorgio under the persuasion that it was Michael Angelo Buonarroti, as an artist one, he was invited to Rome. and a man one of the most eminent On the elevation of Julius II. to the ornaments of the times wherein he lived. pontificate he desired a mausoleum for A bare record of his decease is not suffi- his remains, and commissioned Michael cient. Thousands of readers have heard Angelo to execute it. The design was his name; some know his works; few magnificent and gratified Julius. He know his character.

inquired the cost of completing it, “A Michael Angelo was born in Tuscany, hundred thousand crowns," answered on the 6th of March, 1474. Fascinated Michael; the pope replied, “ It may be by art at an early age, he executed a twice that sum,” and gave orders accordfacsimile of a picture in his thirteenth ingly. The pontiff further determined on year, which he presented to the owner rebuilding the cathedral of St. Peter on a instead of the original, who did not dis- plan of corresponding grandeur wherein cover the deception till a confidant of the mausoleum should be erected. It Michael's began to laugh. He afterwards was for the prosecution of this vast strucstudied under Ghirlandaio, and at fifteen ture for Romish worship, that Leo X. sold drew an outline round a drawing by his the indulgencies against which Luther master which showed its defects and his inveighed, and by establishing the right own superiority. Studying in a garden of private judgment shook the papacy to supplied by the celebrated Lorenzo de its foundations. While Michael was enMedici with antique statues and other gaged on the mausoleum, Julius caused a forms, he saw a student modelling figures covered bridge to be crected by which he in clay, and emulous of excelling in the might pass from the Vatican to Michael's same branch, begged a piece of marble, study unobserved. Envy was excited in and the use of implements, from one of the papal dependents by this distinction, the workmen employed in making orna and insinuated so much to Michael's disadments for Lorenzo's library. With these vantage that his unrestrained visits to the he imitated an old head, or mask, of a Vatican were suddenly interrupted. “I laughing faun, supplying the deficiencies have an order not to let you enter,” said effected by time, by his own invention, the groom of the chamber: a prelate and making other additions. Lorenzo inquired if he knew to whom he spoke; saw it, and good humouredly remarked, “Well enough," answered the officer, “You have restored to the old faun alí “and it is my duty to obey my orders." his teeth, but don't you know that a man “Tell the pope," said Michael indignantly, of such an age has generally lost some ?" “ if he wants me, he shall have to seek As soon as Lorenzo departed, Michael “me in another place.” He returned home, broke a tooth from the upper jaw, and ordered his servants to sell his furniture drilled a hole in the gum to denote that immediately, and follow him to Florence, it had decayed. Lorenzo at his next and the same evening left Rome. visit was delighted by this docility, and The pope sent couriers to force his to encourage Michael assigned him an return, but before he was overtaken he apartment in his palace for a workroom, had reached a territory wherein the papal seated him at his table, and introduced mandate was without authority. “Imhim to the men of rank and talent who mediately relurn to Rome on pain of our daily resorted to Lorenzo, as the munifi- disgrace," was the pope's letter. Michael's cent patron of learning and the arts. He answer was, that having been expelled justified this distinction by labouring his holiness's antichamber without havwith intense ardour. A seventeen years ing merited disgrace, he had left Rome to of age he sculptured in brass the battle preserve his character, and that he would of Hercules with the Centaurs; a work not return; for if he had been deemed of which he said at seventy, “When I see worthless one day, he could be little it now, I repent that I did not entirely valued the next, unless by a caprice that devote myself to sculpture.” His repue would neither be creditable to the pope tation increased with his application, for nor to himself. Having despatched the

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