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factured at the royal establishment in the good year. In the hilarity of the season neighbourhood of Versailles during the let him not forget that to the needy it is preceding year.

a season of discomfort. Undoubtedly, new year's gifts originated in heathen observances, and were

There is a satisfaction grossly abused in after ages; yet latterly

In doing a good action : they became a rational and pleasant mode and he who devises liberal things will of conveying our gentle dispositions to find his liberality return to him in a full wards those we esteem. Mr. Audley, in tide of happiness. An economist can his compendious and useful “Companion afford to be generous.

.“ Give me neither to the Almanack," says, with truth, that poverty nor riches,” prayed the wise man. they are innocent, if not praiseworthy; To him who is neither encumbered by and he quotes this amiable sentimeut from wealth, nor dispirited by indigence, the Bourne: “ If I send a new year's gift stores of enjoyment are unlocked. to my friend, it shall be a token of my

He who holds fast the Golden Mean, friendship; if to my benefactor, a token

And lives contentedly between of my gratitude ; if to the poor, which at

The little and the great, this season must never be forgot, it shall

Feels not the wants that pinch the poor, be to make their hearts sing for joy, and

Nor plagues that haunt the rich man's door, give praise and adoration to the Giver of

Embitt'ring all his state. all good gifts.” The Jews on the first day of their new year give sumptuous enter

The tallest pines feel most the pow'r

Of wintry blasts; the loftiest tow'r tainments, and joyfully wish each other

Comes heaviest to the ground; "a happy new year."

This salutation

The bolts that spare the mountain's side, is not yet obsolete even with us; but the

His cloud-capt eminence divide, new year's gift seldom arrives, except to

And spread the ruin round. honest rustics from their equals; it is

The well-inform’d philosopher scarcely remembered with a view to its use but by young persons, who, “ unvexed

Rejoices with a wholesome fear,

And hopes, in spite of pain ; with all the cares of gain," have read or

If Winter bellow from the North, heard tell of such things, and who, with

Soon the sweet Spring comes dancing innocent hearts, feeling the kindness of

And Nature laughs again. the sentiment, keep up the good old cus

If hindrances obstruct thy way, tom among one another, till mixture with the world, ard “ long experience, makes

Thy magnanimity display,

And let thy strength be seen; them sage,” and sordid.

But oh! if fortune fill thy sail New year's day in London is not ob With more than a propitious gale, served by any public festivity ; but little Take half thy canvass iu. social dining parties are frequently formed

Cowper. amongst friends; and convivial persons

CHRONOLOGY. may be found at taverns, and in publicans' parlours, regaling on the occasion. Dr 1308. On the 1st of January in this Forster relates, in his “ Perennial Calen- year, William Tell, the Swiss patriot, asdar,” that inany people make a point to sociated himself on this day with a band wear some new clothes on this day, and of his countrymen, against the tyranny of esteem the omission as unlucky: the their oppressors. For upwards of three practice, however, from such motives, centuries the opposition was carried on, must obviously be confined to the unin- and terminated by the treaty of Westformed. The only open demonstration phalia in 1648, declaring the independof joy in the metropolis, is the ringing of ence of Switzerland. merry peals from the belfries of the nu 1651. On the 1st of January Charles II. merous steeples, late on the eve of the was crowned at Scone king of the Scots. uew year, and until after the chimes of Charles, when a child, was weak in the the clock have sounded its last hour. legs, and ordered to wear steel - boots.

On new year's day the man of business Their weight so annoyed him that he opens new account-books.

“ A good be- pined till recreation became labour. An ginning makes a good ending." Let every old rocker took off the steel-boots, and man open an account to himself; and concealed them; promising the countess so begin the new year that he may expect of Dorset, who was Charles's governess, to say at its termination-it has been a that she would take any blame for the act

on herself. Soon afterwards the king, in. It is very cold this morning, is it Charles I., coming into the nursery, and not?“ Very cold, sir.'— Very cold seeing his boy's legs without the boots, indeed, isn't it?— Very cold indeed, angrily demanded who had done it?" It sir.'— More than usually so, isn't it, was I, sir," said the rocker, “ who had even for this weather?' (Here the serthe honour, some thirty years since, to at vant's wit and good nature are put to a tend on your highness, in your infancy, considerable test, and the inquirer lies on when you had the same infirmity where- thorns for the answer.) Why, Sir ... with now the prince, your very own son .. I think it is.' (Good creature! There is troubled ; and then the lady Cary, is not a better, or more truth-telling ser(afterwards countess of Monmouth) com vant going.) I must rise, howevermanded your steel-boots to be taken off, Get me some warm water.:-Here comes who, blessed be God, since have gathered a fine interval between the departure of strength, and arrived at a good stature.” the servant and the arrival of the hot Clare, chaplain to Charles II., at the time water; during which, of course, it is of the affair happened, related this anecdote 'no use' to get up. The hot water to old Fuller, who in 1660, contemplating comes. "Is it quite hot ?'-'Yes, sir.' “ the restoration," tells the story, and — Perhaps too hot for shaving: I must quaintly exclaims, “ the nation is too wait a little ? —No, sir; it will just do.' noble, when his majesty shall return from (There is an over-nice propriety someforeign parts, to inipose any other steel times, an officious zeal of virtue, a little boots upon him, than the observing the troublesome.)

« Oh — the shirt - you laws of the land, which are his own stock- must air my clean shirt :-linen gets very ings, that so with joy and comfort he may damp this weather.'— Yes, sir. Here enter on what was his own inheritance." another delicious five minutes. A knock The nation forgot the “ steel-boots," and at the door. • Oh, the shirt—very well, Charles forgot the stockings."

My stockings—I think the stockings had 1801. January 1. The Union of Great better be aired too.'— Very well, sir.' Britain with Ireland commenced accord- —Here another interval. 'At length every ing to act of parliament, and the event thing is ready, except myself

I now was solemnized by the hoisting of a cannot help thinking a good deal who new royal fag on the Tower of London, can ?-upon the unnecessary and villainaccompanied by the firing of guns there ous custom of shaving; it is a thing so and in St. James's Park. On the 3d the unmanly (here I nestle closer)-so effeking received the great seal of Great minate, (here I recoil from an unlucky step Britain from the lord chancellor, and into the colder part of the bed.)-No woncausing it to be defaced, presented to him der, that the queen of France took part a new great seal for the United Kingdom. with the rebels against that degenerate On the same day, January 1st, 1801, king, her husband, who first affronted her Piazzi, the astronomer at Palermo, dis- smooth visage with a face like her own. covered a new primary planet, making an The emperor Julian never showed the eleventh of that order: he called it Ceres, luxuriancy of his genius to better advanfrom the goddess of that name, who was tage than in reviving the flowing beard. highly esteemed by the ancients of Sicily. Look at cardinal Bembo's picture—a

Michael Angelo's—at Titian's—at Shakspeare's—at Fletcher's—at Spenser's at

Chaucer's at Alfred's-at Plato's. I Usually at this period the rigour of cold could name a great man for every tick of is severely felt. The indisposition of lie-a- my watch. Look at the Turks, a grave beds to face its severity is pleasantly pic- and otiose people—Think of Haroun Al tured by Mr.Leigh Hunt, in a paper in the Raschid and Bed-ridden Hassan—Think Indicator. He imagines one of those of Wortley Montague, the worthy son of persons to express himself in these terms: his mother, a man above the prejudice of

“ On opening my eyes, the first thing his time-Look at the Persian gentlemen, that meets them is my own breath rolling whom one is ashamed of meeting about forth, as if in the open air, like smoke out the suburbs, their dress and appearance of a cottage-chimney. Think of this are so much finer than our own-Lastly, symptoin. Then I turn my eyes side- think of the razor itself-how totally opways and see the window all frozen over. posed to every sensation of bed-how Think of that. Then the servant comes cold, how edgy, how hard ! how utterly

different from any thing like the warm may help you to cut yourself, a quivering and circling amplitude, which

body, a frozen towel, and an ewer full of Sweetly recoinmends itself ice; and he that says there is nothing to Unto our gentle senses.

oppose in all this, only shows, at any rate, Add to this, benuinbed fingers, which that he has no merit in opposing it."


Gymnastics for Youth. Tuis engraving represents simple me- plates to his work, for teaching which thods by which, at this season especially, his explanations are numerous and clear. the health of young persons may be maintained, and the constitution invigorated. Two round parallel bars at two

An unseasonable occurrence in the feet distance from each other, on round cellar of the late sir Joseph Banks may be standards three or four feet high, firmly acceptable in the mention, and excite fixed in the ground, will afford boys the particular sympathy in persons who remeans of actively exerting their limbs and create with the juice of the vine: as a fact, muscles : and if the ends of a pole be let it may tend to elucidate the origin and into opposite walls or fastened to trees, nature of vegetable fungi, particularly of the boys may be taught to climb single that species termed mushroom. The ropes, and hold on while swinging by worthy baronet had a cask of wine rattier them. The engraving is placed before too sweet for immediate use ; he therefore the eyes of parents and teachers with the directed that it should be placed in a celhope of directing their attention to gym- lar, in order that the saccharine matter it nastic exercises, as diversions for youth, contained might be more perfectly decomand they are referred to a practical trea- posed by age. At the end of three years, he tise on the subject by Mr. Clias, that may directed his butler to ascertain the state of be safely used. His judicious reasoning the wine, when, on attempting to open

the must convince every reader of their im- cellar door, he could not effect it, in conseportance th the rising generation, and quence of some powerful obstacle. The that it is within the means of all classes door was cut down, and the cellar found of persons to let boys acquire a know to be completely filled with a firm fungous ledge of the feats represented in the vegetable production--so firm that it was

necessary to use the axe for its removal. anticipate with calm delight the entrance This appeared to have grown from, or of the new year, and lift his eyes to the have been nourished by, the decomposed living lustres of the firmament with grateparticles of the wine: the cask was empty, ful feelings. They shine out their prismatic and carried up to the ceiling, where it colours through the cold thin air, keeping was supported by the surface of the watch while man slumbers, or cheering fungus.

him, who contemplates their fires, to purAt the close of this day he who can poses of virtue. In this season reflect with satisfaction on the past, may

The night comes calmly forth,
Bringing sweet rest upon the wings of even :
The golden wain rolls round the silent north,
And earth is slumbering 'neath the smiles of heaven.


January 2.

the devil answered, to give drink to the

hermits; and that the phials contained a St. Macarius; St. Concordius ; St.

variety of liquors, that they might have Adalard or Alard.

a choice, and so fall into temptation. On St. Macarius. A.D. 394. Alban Butler the devil's return, the saint inquired how says he was a confectioner of Alexandria, he had sped; and the devil answered very who, in the flower of his age, spent evil, for they were so holy that only one upwards of sixty years in the deserts in Theodistus would drink : on this informlabour, penance, and contemplation. “Ouration Macarius found Theodistus under saint,” says Butler, “happened one day the influences of the phial, and recovered inadvertently to kill a gnat, that was biting him. Macarius found the head of a pagan, him in his cell; reflecting that he had lost and asked where the soul of its body the opportunity of suffering that mortifi was: in hell, said the head: he asked the cation, he hastened from his cell for the head if hell was deep ;-the head said marshes of Scete, which abound with deeper than from heaven to earth : he degreat flies, whose stings fierce even wild manded again, if there were any there boars. There he continued six months, lower than his own soul-the head said exposed to those ravaging insects; and to the Jews were lower than he was: the such a degree was his whole body dis- saint inquired if there were any lower figured by them, with sores and swellings, than the Jews-the head answered, the that when he returned he was only to be false Christian-men were lower than the known by his voice." The Golden Legend Jews, and more tormented: there the relates of him, that he took a dead pagan dialogue between the saint and the head out of his sepulchre, and put him under appears to have ended. Macarius seems, his head for a pillow; whereupon certain by the Golden Legend, to have been much devils came to affright the saint, and called annoyed by the devil. In a nine days' the dead pagan to go with them; but the joumey through a desert, at the end of body under the saint said he could not, every mile he set up a reed in the earth, because a pilgrim lay upon him, so that, to mark his track against he returned; he could not move; then Macarius, no but the devil pulled them all up, made a thing afraid, beat the body with his fist, and bundle of them, and placed them at Matold him to go if he would, which caused carius's head, while he lay asleep, so that the devils to declare that Macarius had the saint with great difficulty found his vanquished them. Another time the way home again. devil came with a great scythe on his St. Adalard, according to Butler, was shoulder, to smite the saint, but he could grandson of Charles Martel, brother to not prevail against him, on account of his king Pepin, and cousin-german to Charle virtues. Macarius, at another time, being magne, who created him a count: he left tempted, filled a sack with stones, and his court in 773, became a monk at Corbie bore it many journies through the desert. in Picardy, died in 827, aged seventySeeing a devil before him in the shape of three, and wrought miracles, which proa man, dressed like “a herawde,” with cured his body to be enshrined with great his clothing full of holes, and in every hole pomp in 1010, a history of which solema phial, he demanded of this devil whither nity is written by St. Gerard, who comhe went; and why he had so many phials? posed an office in St. Adalard's honour, be

" The

fame was


cause through his intercession he had mission to return to Rome. Whatever been cured of a violent head-ache.- subject Ovid wrote on, he exhausted; he The same St. Gerard relates seven other painted nature with a masterly hand, and oiracles by St. Adalard of the same nature. his genius imparted elegance to vulgarity; Butler says, his relics are still at Corbie, but he defiled the sweetness of his numin a rich shrine, and two smaller cases, bers by impurity, and though he ranks except a small portion given to the abbey among the splendid ornaments of ancient of Chelles.

literature, he sullied his fame by the

grossest immorality in some of his finest The first Monday after new year's day

productions. is called Handsel Monday in some parts

Livy, the Roman historian, died at Padua of Scotland, and is observed by merry, Ovid. His history of the Roman Empire

on the same day and in the same year with making. In sir J. Sinclair's “ Statistical Account,” it is related of one William which only thirty-five are extant.

was in one hundred and forty books, of

Five of Hunter, a collier, that he was cured in these were discovered at Worms in 1431, the year 1758 of an inveterate rheumatism or gout, by drinking freely of new

and some fragments are said to have been ale, full of barm or yeast.

lately discovered at Herculanæum. Few

poor man had been confined to his bed for a

particulars of his life are known, but his year and a half, having almost entirely his history has rendered him immortal.

great even while he lived, and lost the use of his limbs. On the evening He wrote some philosophical treatises of Handsel Monday, as it is called, some of his neighbours came to make merry the merit of authors, which Dr. Lem

and dialogues, with a letter to his son on with him. Though he could not rise, yet he always took his share of the ale, as it priere says, ought to be read by young passed round the company; and, in the end, became much intoxicated. The consequence was, that he had the use of his limbs the next morning, and was abie to

In the Literary Pocket Book there are walk about. He lived more than twenty

some seasonable facts which may be years after this, and never had the smallest transplanted with advantage to the reader, return of his old complaint." This is a and, it is hoped, without disadvantage tó fact worth remembering, as connected the writer of the articles. He says that with chronical complaints.

å man is infinitely mistaken, who thinks there is nothing worth seeing in winter

time out of doors, because the sun is not CHRONOLOGY.

warın, and the streets are muddy. “Let On the 2d of January, a. D. 17, Ovid him get, by dint of good exercise, out of the celebrated Roman poet died; he was the streets, and he shall find enough. In born at Sulmo on the 20th of March, the warm neighbourhood of towns he may forty-three years before the Christian era. still watch the field-fares, thrushes, and His father designed him for the bar, and blackbirds; the titmouse seeking its food he became eminently eloquent, but every through the straw-thatch; the red-wings, thing he wrote was expressed in poetical field-fares, sky-larks, and tit-larks, upon numbers; and though reminded by his the same errand, over wet meadows; the father, that even Homer lived and died sparrows and yellow-hammers, and chafin poverty, he preferred the pleasures of finches, still beautiful though mute, gleanimagination to forensic disputation Heing from the straw and chaff in farmgained great admiration from the learned. yards; and the ring-dove, always poetical, Virgil, Horace, Tibullus, and Propertius, coming for her meal to the ivy-berries. were his friends, and Augustus became About rapid streams be may see the vahis liberal patron, till be banished him for rious habits and movements of herons, some unknown cause. In his exile he wood-cocks, wild-ducks, and other waterwas cowardly, and prostituted his pen to fowl, who are obliged to quit the frozen tatter baseness; and though he desired marshes to seek their food there. The the death of the emperor, he fawned upon red-breast comes to the windows, and him in his writings to meanness. He died often into the house itself, to be rewarded at Tomos on the Euxine sea, the place of for its song, and for its far-famed painhis banishment, under the reign of Tibe- ful' obsequies to the Children in the rius, who had succeeded Augustus, and Wood.” was deaf to the noot's ontreaties for per

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