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Cranmer“ against superstitious prac- and endeavour to bring one up in the tices,” wherein“ the vigil and ringing of mouth. They suspend a cord with a bells all the night long upon Allhallow- cross stick, with apples at one point, and day at night,” are directed to be abo- candles lighted at the other; and endealished; and the said vigil to have no vour to catch the apple, while it is in a watching or ringing. So likewise a circular motion, in the mouth. These, subsequent injunction, early in the reign and many other superstitious ceremonies,
Elizabeth, orders “ that the su the remains of Druidism, are observed on perfluous ringing of bels, and the super- this holiday, which will never be eradistitious ringing of bells at Alhallowntide, cated while the name of Saman
perand at Al Soul's-day, with the two nights mitted to remain." next before and after, be prohibited.” It is mentioned by a writer in the
General Vallancey says, concerning this “Gentleman's Magazine,” that lamb's-wool night, “On the Oidhche Shamhna, (Ee Ow- is a constant ingredient at a merryna,) or vigil of Samam, the peasants in Ire- making on Holy Eve, or on the evening land assemble with sticks and clubs, (the before All Saints-day in Ireland. It is emblems of laceration,) going from house made there, he says, by bruising roasted to house, collecting money, bread-cake, apples, and mixing them with ale, or butter, cheese, eggs, &c. &c. for the feast, sometimes with milk. “Formerly, when repeating verses in honour of the solem- th superior ranks were not too refined nity, demanding preparations for the fes- for these periodical meetings of jollity, tival in the name of St. Columb Kill, de white wine was frequently substituted for siring them to lay aside the fatted calf, ale. To lamb's-wool, apples and nuts and to bring forth the black sheep. The are added as a necessary part of the engood women are employed in making the tertainment; and the young folks amuse griddle cake and candles; these last are themselves with burning nuts in pairs on sent from house to house in the vicinity, the bar of the grate, or among the warm and are lighted up on the (Saman) next embers, to which they give their name day, before which they pray, or are sup- and that of their lovers, or those of their posed to pray, for the departed soul of friends who are supposed to have such the donor. Every house abounds in the attachments; and from the manner of best viands they can afford. Apples and their burning and duration of the flame, nuts are devoured in abundance; the &c. draw such inferences respecting the put-shells are burnt, and from the ashes constancy or strength of their passions, many strange things are foretold. Cab as usually promote mirth and good hubages are torn up by the root. Hemp- mour.” Lamb's-wool is thus etymolo seed is sown by the maidens, and they gized by Vallancey :-“ The first day of believe that if they look back, they will November was dedicated to the angel see the apparition of the man intended presiding over fruits, seeds, &c. and was for their future spouse. They hang a therefore named La Mas Ubhal, that is, shift before the fire, on the close of the the day of the apple fruit, and being profeast, and sit up all night, concealed in a nounced lamasool, the English have corcorner of the room, convinced that his rupted the name to lamb's-wool." apparition will come down the chimney So much is said, and perhaps enough and turn the shift. They throw a ball for the present, concerning the celebraof yarn out of the window, and wind it tion of this ancient and popular vigil. on the reel within, convinced that if they repeat the paternoster backwards, and
FLORAL DIRECTORY, look at the ball of yarn without, they Fennel-leaved. Tickseed Corcopsis feruile will then also see his sith, or apparition.
folia. They dip for apples in a tub of water, Dedicated to St. Quiniin.
This is the eleventh month of the year. the visible approach of winter, is unThe anglo-saxons gave names in their doubtedly a gloomy month to the gloomy; own tongue to each month, and “No- but to others, it brings but pensiveness, a vember they termed wint-monat, to wit, feeling very far from destitute of pleasure; wind-moneth, whereby wee may see that and if the healthiest and most imaginaour ancestors were in this season of the tive of us may feel their spirits pulled yeare made acquainted with blustring down by reflections connected with earth, Boreas; and it was the antient custome its mortalities, and its mistakes, we for shipmen then to shrowd themselves at should but strengthen ourselves the more home, and to give over sea-faring (note to make strong and sweet music with the withstanding the littlenesse of their then changeful but harmonious movements of used voyages) untill blustring March had nature." This pleasant observer of the bidden them well to fare."* They like- months further remarks, that, “There are wise called it blot-monath. In the saxon, many pleasures in November if we will “ blot”-means blood; and in this month lift up our matter-of-fact eyes, and find they killed great abundance of cattle for that there are matters-of-fact we seldom winter-store, or, according to some, for dream of. It is a pleasant thing to meet purposes of sacrifice to their deities. the gentle fine days, that come to contra
Bishop Warburton commences a letter dict our sayings for us; it is a pleasant to his friend Hurd, with an allusion to the thing to see the primrose come back evil influence which the gloominess of again in woods and meadows; it is a this month is proverbially supposed to pleasant thing to catch the whistle of the have on the mind. He dates from Bed- green plover, and to see the greenfinches ford-row, October 28th, 1749:-“ I am congregate; it is a pleasant thing to listen now got hither," he says, “to spend the to the deep amorous note of the woodmonth of November: the dreadful month pigeons, who now come back again; and of November! when the little wretches it is a pleasant thing to hear the deeper hang and drown themselves, and the voice of the stags, making their triumgreat ones sell themselves to the court phant love amidst the falling leaves. and the devil.”
“ Besides a quantity of fruit, our “ This is the month," says Mr. Leigh gardens retain a number of the flowers Hunt, “ in which we are said by the of last month, with the stripped lily in Frenchman to hang and drown ourselves. leaf; and, in addition to several of the We also agree with him to call it the flowering trees and shrubs, we have the gloomy month of November;' and, above fertile and glowing china-roses in flower : all, with our in-door, money-getting, and in fruit the pyracantha, with its and unimaginative habits, all the rest of lustrous red-berries, that cluster so beauthe year, we contrive to make it so. Not tifully on the walls of cottages. This is all of us, however: and fewer and fewer, the time also for domestic cultivators of we trust, every day. It is a fact well flowers to be very busy in preparing for known to the medical philosopher, that, those spring and winter ornaments, which in proportion as people do not like air used to be thought the work of magic. and exercise, their blood omes darker They may plant hyacinths, dwarf tulips, and darker: now what corrupts and polyanthus-narcissus, or any other modethickens the circulation, and keeps the rately-growing bulbous roots, either in humours within the pores, darkens and water-glasses, or in pots of light dry clogs the mind; and we are then in a earth, to flower early in their apartments. state to receive pleasure but indifferently If in glasses, the bulb should be a little or confusedly, and pain with tenfold pain- in the water; if in pots, a little in the fulness. If we add to this a quantity of earth, or but just covered. They should unnecessary cares and sordid mistakes, it be kept in a warm light room. is so much the worse. A love of nature “The trees generally lose their leaves is the refuge. He who grapples with in the following succession : – walnut, March, and has the smiling eyes upon mulberry, horse-chesnut, sycamore, lime, him of June and August, need have no ash, then, after an interval, elm, then fear of November. And as the Italian beech and oak, then apple and peachproverb says, every medal has its reverse. trees, sometimes not till the end of NoNovember, with its loss of verdure, its vember; and lastly, pollard oaks and frequent rains, the fall of the leaf, and young beeches, which retain their wither
ed leaves till pushed off by their new * Verstegan.
Dr. F. Sayer.
ones in spring. Oaks that happen to be
stripped of their leaves by chaffers, will “ Among our autumnal pleasures, we often surprise the haunter of nature by ought not to have omitted the very falling being clothed again soon after midsumo of the leaves : mer with a beautiful vivid foliage. To view the leaves, thin dancers upon air, “ The farmer endeavours to finish his Go eddying round.
C. Lamb ploughing this month, and then lays up “ Towards the end of the month, under his instruments for the spring. Cattle the groves and other shady places, they are kept in the yard or stable, sheep begin to lie in heaps, and to rustle to the turned into the turnip-field, or in bad foot of the passenger; and there they weather fed with hay ; bees moved under will lie till the young leaves are grown shelter, and pigeons fed in the dove- overhead, and spring comes to look down house,
upon them with their flowers :-
Disturbing not the leaves, which are her winding sheet. Shelley
“ The first day of November was con
sidered (among the ancient Welsh) as the All Saints. St. Cæsarius, A. D. 300. St. conclusion of summer, and was celebrated
Mary. M. St. Marcellus, Bp. of Paris, with bonfires, accompanied with ceremo5th Cent. St. Benignus, Apostle of nies suitable to the event, and some parts Burgundy, A. D. 272. st. Àustremo- of Wales still retain these customs. Irenius, 3d Cent. St. Harold VI., King land retains similar ones, and the fire that of Denmark, A. D. 980.
is made at these seasons, is called Beal All Saints.
teinidh, in the Irish language, and some
antiquaries of that country, in establishThis festival in the almanacs and the ing the eras of the different colonies church of England calendar is from the planted in the island, have been happy church of Rome, which celebrates it in enough to adduce as an argument for their commemoration of those of its saints, to Phænician origin this term of Beal whom, on account of their number, par- teinidh. ticular days could not be allotted in their “ The meaning of tàn, (in Welsh), like individual honour.
the Irish teinidh, is fire, and Bal is simply On this day, in many parts of England, a projecting springing out or expanding, apples are bobbed for, and nuts crack- and when applied to vegetation, it means ed, as upon its vigil, yesterday; and we a budding or shooting out of leaves and still retain traces of other customs that we blossoms, the same as balant, of which it had in common with Scotland, Ireland, is the root, and it is also the root of bala and Wales, in days of old.
and of blwydd, blwyddyn and blynedd,
a year, or circle of vegetation. So the To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. signification of bài dân, or tấm bal, would Sir,
be the rejoicing fire for the vegetation, or Should the following excerpt relative for the crop of the year.” to the first of November be of use The following seven triplets by Llyto you, it is at your service, extracted warch Hên, who lived to the surprising from a scarce and valuable work by Dr. age of one hundred and forty years, and W. Owen Pughe, entitled “ Translations wrote in the sixth century, also relate to the of the Heroic Elegies of Llywarch Hên, subject. The translations, which are strictly London, 1792."
literal, are also from the pen of Dr. Pughe. Triplets.
Y bore cya noi fyned,
Gwae a ymddiried i estrawn
2. All Saints day, a time of pleasant gossiping, Calangauaf cain gyfrin, The gale and the storm keep equal pace,
Cyfred awel a drychin : It is the labour of falsehood to keep a secret Gwaith celwydd yw celu rhin. 3.
3. On All Saints day the stags are lean, Calangauaf cul hyddod Yellow are the tops of birch ; deserted is the Melyn blaen bedw, gweddw hafod : summer dwelling :
Gwae a haedd melyi er bychod! Woe to him who for a trifle deserves a curse.
4. On All Saints day the tops of the branches Calangauaf crwm blaen gwrysg : are bent ;
Gnawd o ben diried derfysg ; Ja the mouth of the mischievous, disturbance Lle ni bo dawn ni bydd dysg.
is congenial : Where there is no natural gift there will be no learning 5.
5. On All Saints day blustering is the weather, Calangauaf garw hin, Very unlike the beginning of the past fair Annhebyg i gyntefin :
Namwyn Duw nid oes dewin. Besides God there is none who knows the
6. On All Saints day 'tis hard and dry,
Calangauaf caled cras, Doubly black is the crow, quick is the arrow Purddu bran, buan o fras: from the bow,
Am gwymp hen chwerddid gwen gwas. For the stumbling of the old, the looks of the young wear a smile. 7.
7. On All Saints day bare is the place where Calangauaf Uwn goddaith, the heath is burnt,
Aradyr yn rhych, ych yn ngwaith : The plough is in the furrow, the ox at work :
O'r cant odid cydymmaith. Amongst a hundred 'tis a chance to find a
friend. It will be perceived that each triplet, as was customary with the ancient Britons is accompanied by a moral maxim, without relation to the subject of the song.
Dedicated to St. Fortunatus.
this day in his own monastery; and the
like practice was partially adopted by All Souls ; or the Commemoration of the other religious houses until the year 998,
Faithful departed. St. Victorinus Bp. when it was established as a general fesA. D. 304. St. Marcian, A. D. 387. St. tival throughout the western churches. Vulgan, 8th Cent.
To mark the pre-eminent importauce of
this festival, if it happened on a Sunday All Souls.
it was not postponed to the Monday, as
was the case with other such solemnities, This day, also a festival in the almanacs, but kept on the Saturday, in order that and the church of England calendar, is the church might the sooner aid the suffrom the Romish church, which celebrates fering souls and, that the dead might it with masses and ceremonies devised have every benefit from the pious exerfor the occasion. “ Odilon, abbot of tions of the living, the remembrance of Cluny, in the 9th century, first enjoined this ordinance was kept up, by persons he ceremony of praying for the dead on dressed in black, who went round the