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St. Lawrenre. a single penny, enchased in a ring with

borders of gold, and covered with a crysHis name stands in the church of Eng- tal, so accurately wrought, as to be plainly land calendar. He suffered martyrdom legible, to the great admiration of her at Roine, under Valerian. Mr. Audley majesty, her ministers, and several amrelates of St. Lawrence," that being pecu- bassadors at court. liarly obnoxious, the order for his punish. In 1590, Bales kept a school at the ment was, ' Bring out the grate of iron; upper end of the Old Bailey, and the and when it is red hot, on with him, roast same year published his “Writing Schoolhim, brail him, turn him: upon pain of Master.” 'In 1595, he had a trial of skill our high displeasure, do every man his in writing with a Mr. Daniel (David) office, 0 ye tormentors.' These orders Johnson, for a “golden pen” of £20 were obeyed, and after Lawrence had value, and won it. Upon this victory, been pressed down with fire-forks for a his contemporary and rival in penmanlong time, he said to the tyrant, “ This ship, John Davies, made a satirical, illside is now roasted enough; 0 tyrant, do natured epigram, intimating that penury you think roasted meat or raw the best continually compelled Bales to remove Soon after he had said this he expired. himself and his « golden pen,” to elude The church of St. Lawrence Jewry, in the pursuit of his creditors. The particuLondon, is dedicated to him, and has a lars of the contest for the pen, supposed gridiron on the steeple for a vane, that to be written by Bales himself, are in the being generally supposed the instrument British Museum, dated January 1, 1596. of his torture. The iugenious Mr. Robin So much concerning Peter Bales is son, in his • Eeclesiastical Researches,' derived from the late Mr. Butler's “Chrospeaking about this saint, says, “Philip II. nological Exercises,” an excellent arrangeof Spain, having won a battle on the 10th ment of biographical, historical, and misof August, the festival of St. Lawrence, cellaneous facts for the daily use of young vowed to consecrate a Palace, a CHURCH, ladies. and a MONASTERY to his honour. He Peter Bales according to Mr. D' did erect the Escurial, which is the Israeli, “ astonished the eyes of beholders largest Palace in Europe. This immense by showing them what they could not quarry consists of several courts and see.” He cites a narrative, among the quadrangles, all disposed in the shape of Harleian MSS., of “ a rare piece of work

The bars form several brought to pass by Peter Bales, an Engcourts; and the Royal Family occupy the lishman, and a clerk of the chancery." HANDLE.' Gridirons,' says one, who Mr. D’Israeli presumes this to have examined it,' are met with in every part been the whole Bible, “ in an English of the building. There are sculptured walnut no bigger than' a hen's egg. The gridirons, iron gridirons, painted grid- nut holdeth the book : there are as many irons, marble gridirons, &c. &c. There leaves in his little book as the great Bible, are gridirons over the doors, gridirons in and he hath written as much in one of the yards, gridirons in the windows, grid- his little leaves, as a great leaf of the irons in the galleries. Never was an in- Bible." This wonderfully unreadable copy strument of martyrdom so multiplied, so of the Bible was seen by many thouhonoured, so celebrated : and thus much sands." for gridirons.

Peter Huet, the celebrated bishop of

Avranches, long doubted the story of an CHRONOLOGY.

eminent writing-master having comprised On the 10th of August, 1575, Peter “ the Iliad in a nut-shell,” but, after triBales, one of our earliest and most emi- Aing half an hour in examining the matter, nent writing-masters, finished a perfor- he thought it possible. One day, in commance which contained the Lord's prayer, pany at the dauphin's, with a piece of the creed, the decalogue, with two short paper and a common pen, he demonstraprayers in Latin, his own name, motto, ted, that a piece of vellum, about ten ihe day of the month, year of our Lord, inches in length, and eight in width, and reign of the queen, (Elizabeth,) to pliant and firm, can be folded up and whom he afterwards presented it at enclosed in the shell of a large walnut; Hampton-court, all within the circle of that in breadth it can contain one line of

thirty verses, perfectly written with a • Companion to the Almanac,

crow-quill, and in length two hundred




and fifty lines; that one side will then of Latin to cast at a dog, or say · Bo !' to contain seven thousand five hundred a goose !” The goose was mentioned, verses, the other side as much, and that perhaps, in allusion to Michaelmas-day, therefore the piece of vellum will hold the 1595, when the trial commenced before whole fifteen thousand verses of the Iliad. five judges ; an “ ancient gentleman"

The writing match between Peter Bales intrusted with “ the golden and David Johnson, mentioned by Mr. pen." The first trial was for the manner Butler,“ was only traditionally known, of teaching scholars; this terminated in till, with my own eyes,” says Mr. D'favour of Bales. The second, for secretary Israeli

, “ I pondered on this whole trial and clerk-like writing, dictated in Engof skill in the precious manuscript of the lish and in Latin, was also awarded to champion hiniself; who, like Cæsar, not Bales; Johnson confessing that he wanted only knew how to win victories, but also the Latin tongue, and was no clerk. On to record them.” Johnson for a whole the third and last trial, for fair writing in year gave a public challenge, “ To any sundry kinds of hands, Johnson prevailed one who should take exceptions to this in beauty and most authentic propormy writing and teaching. Bales was tion," and for superior variety of the inagnanimously silent, till he discovered Roman hand; but in court-hand, and that since this challenge was proclaimed, set-text, Bales exceeded, and in bastard he was doing much less in writing and secretary was somewhat perfecter than teaching." Bales then sent forth a chal- Johnson. For a finishing blow, Bales lenge, "To all Englishmen and strangers,” drew forth his “master-piece," and, offerto write for a gold pen of twenty pounds ing to forego his prerious advantages if value, in all kinds of hands,“ best, Johnson could better this specimen, his straightest, and fastest," and most kind antagonist was struck dumb. In comof ways;

a full, a mean, a small, with passion to the youth of Johnson, some of line and without line; in a slow-set the judges urged the others not to give hand, a mean facile hand, and a fast run- judgment in public. Bales remonstrated ning hand;" and further, “ to write against a private decision in vain, but he truest and speediest, most secretary and obtained the verdict and secured the prize. clerk-like, from a man's mouth, reading Johnson, however, reported that he had or pronouncing, either English or Latin.” won the golden pen, and issued an “ ApWithin an hour, Johnson, though a young peal to all impartial Penmen,” wherein friend of Bales, accepted the challenge, he affirmed, that the judges, though his and accused the veteran of arrogance.

own friends, and honest gentlemen, were “ Such an absolute challenge,” says he, unskilled in judging of most hands, and "was never witnessed by man, without ex- again offered forty pounds to be allowed ception of any in the world !" Johnson, six months to equal Bales's “ mastera few days after, met Bales, and showed piece.” Finally, he alleged, that the him a piece of “ secretary's hand,” which judges did not deny that Bales possessed he had written on fine parchment, and himself of the golden pen by a trick: he said, “ Mr. Bales, give me one shilling relates, that Bales having pretended that out of your purse, and, if within six his wife was in extreme sickness, he demonths you better or equal this piece of sired that she might have a sight of the writing, I will give you forty pounds for golden pen, to comfort her, that the “anit.”. Bales accepted the shilling, and the cient gentleman," relying upon the kind parties were thereby bound over to the husband's word, allowed the golden pen trial of skill. The day before it took to be carried to her, and that thereupon place, a printed paper posted through the Bales immediately pawned it, and aftercity taunted Bales's “ proud poverty," wards, to make sure work, sold it at a and his pecuniary motives as “ ungentle, great loss, so that the judges, ashamed of base, and mercenary, not answerable to their own conduct, were compelled to the dignity of the golden pen!" Johnson give such a verdict as suited the occasion. declared that he would maintain his chal- Bales rejoined, by publishing to the unilenge for a thousand pounds more, but verse the day and hour when the judges that Bales was unable to make good a brought the golden pen to his house, and thousand groats. Bales retorted by af- painted it with a hand over bis door for a Arming the paper a sign of his rival's sign.* This is shortly the history of a weakness, “yet who so bold,” says Bales, " as blind Bayard, tbat hath not a word * Mr. D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature

long contest, which, if it has not been The edifice was erected by order of king paralleled in our own time, we have been Charles II., at the instance of sir Jonas reminded of by the open challenges of Moor, under the direction of sir Christoliving calligraphers.

pher Wren; and it is worthy of record here, that the celebrated Flamsteed, con

structed a “ Scheme of the Heavens," at John Flaisteed.

the very minute when the foundation On the 10th of August, 1675, the foun- stone was laid. It has never appeared in dation stone of the Royal Observatory, any work, and as the public are wholly for watching and noting the motions of unacquainted with its existence, it is the celestial bodies, was laid on the hill subjoined exactly as Flamsteed drew it where it now stands, in Greenwich Park. with his own hand.

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“ Few men rightly temper with the stars.”—Shakspeare. Flamsteed was the first astronomer- ground plan of the Observatory. On the royal, and from him the Observatory at following, being the fourth page, is a list Greenwich derives its popular name, of “Angles, betwixt eminent places ob« Flamsteed-house." His is Scheme of served with the sextant in the months of the Heavens," may be found there in a February and March, 1679–80." The refolio vellum-bound manuscript on the mainder of the book consists of about one second page. Opposite to it, also drawn hundred and seventy pages of “ Observaby himself, with great exactness, and tions,” also in Flamsteed's hand-writing. signed by his own name within it, is a Whatever astrological judgment he may

have exercised upon the positions of the Isaac Newton. The whole of these mestars in his horoscope, he has not left his moirs, with the astrological scheme, a opinion in writing ; but the circum- scientific gentleman was permitted by stance of his having been at some pains Dr. Maskelyne, the late astronomer-royal, to ascertain and set them down among to transcribe from the MSS. at the Obhis other “ Observations,” may be taken servatory. Until now, they have been unas presumptive that this great astronomer printed, and having been obligingly com. practised astrology.

municated to the Editor of the Every-Day In another folio manuscript in calf Book, the latter conceives that the public binding, containing also one hundred and will be gratified by their perusal, and thirty-two pages of his “ Observations," therefore preserves them in the pages of there is a document of more general im- this work without comment. Without portance; namely, a series of notices or any view of detracting sir Isaac Newton, memoranda also in his own hand-writing of or Mr. Flamsteed, by their publication, circumstances in his life which he deemed he offers the singular statements as most worthy of committing to paper. Flamsteed wrote them. His birth is The most curious portion of this labour stated at their commencement; he died at relates to a difference which is well known Greenwich, on the 31st of December, to have existed between himself, and sir 1719.

Memoirs of Mr. John Flamsteed, by himself. I was borne At Denby, 5 miles from Moor; bought telescope glasses, and Derby, August 19, 1646-my father ha- had Mr. Townly's Micrometer presented ving removed his family thither because to me by Sir Jonas Moor. the Sickness was then in Derby.

Set a Pole up to raise my glasses, March Educated in the free school at Derby 21, 1671, at Derby. till 16 years old

Began to measure distances in the At 14 years of Age 1660, Got a great heavens, Octo. 17, 1672. cold-was followed by 5 years sickness Continued them there till Jan. 1677 a Consumption.

1672. Sept. Observed -deduced his Recovered, by God's blessing, on a

parellax from the Observations = to his journey into Ireland 1665, in the months

diameter of August and Sept.

1674. May the 2d. came to London. Began to study Mathematics in 1662. The first book I read was Sacrobusco de

29, went to Cambridge.

June the 5th. My degree. Sphæra, which I turned into English.

July 13, returned to London. In 1665 Calculated Eclipses and the

Aug. 13, left London, planets, places from Street's Caroline tables, and wrote my Treatise of the æqua

29, Got to Derby. tion of Days.

1674. First acquaintance with Sir I. N. In 1666 observed the Eclipse of ye there the Microscope, which he could

at Cambridge, occasioned by my fixing Sun. In 1669 observed a Solar Eclipse and

not; the object glass being forgot by him.

1675. feb. 2. Came to London Again. some appulses, and presented the prædictions of more for the year 1670 to the

Mar. 4. Warrant for my Sallary. R. S. * this brought on a Correspondence Longitude by Observations of the De.

Sieur de St. Piex proposes to find the with Mr. Oldenburg-Collins.

* Letters hereon.* Mr. Oldenburg's first letter to me is dated Jan. 14. 1669–70.

1675. June 22. Warrant dated for

building the Royl. Observatory. Mr. Collins 2° Feb. 3. 1669–70. My Predn. of Appulses 1670, printed

^ August 10. foundation layd. in ye Ph. Tr. No. 55 for Jan. 1669–70.

1676. July 10. entred into it to inhabit Mr. N's.t The. of light and Colors, wth T. Smith, and Cutler Denton Servant. 80. Feb. 19. 1671-2.

Sept. 19. began to measure disI was in London after Whitsuntide tances in the heavens win the sextant. 1670; came acquainted with Sir. Jo.

76. Sir Jonas Moor gave me the sex

tant, some books, and glasses, with charge * (Royal Society.] [Newtou's Theory.l

. (Distances of the stars ? !

to dispose of them by my Will: all the observations made with the Sextant, other instruments and tubes provided at which were not so exact as those taken my own charge.

with the Murall Arch; that I had now 1679. Aug. 17. Sir Jonas Moor died. gotten a good stock of observations of His Sonn Sir J. M. thrown from his the fixed ** s, should make a larger and horse, died,

much exacter Catalogue, that the ('s 1680. Made the Voluble [?]Quadrant at observed places should be derived from my own Charge.

the places of the stars in my New Cata1680. Dec. 12. O first saw and obser- logue, and then I would impart them to ved ye great Comet ; observed it till Feb. him, which he approved, and by a Letter 5, (80–81.)

of his dated

confest. 1680. Mr. Newton's first Letter to me Nevertheless he imparted what he deabout the Comet.

rived from them both to Dr. Gregory and 81. Imparted my observations of the Mr. H:* contra datam fidem. Comet with ye

may After he had got the 3 Synopses of [be] derived from them.

D's observations to him he desired more 85 or 86. gave him* the diamecers of of them, and this caused an Intercourse the planets in all Positions of the earth, of letters betwixt us, wherein I imparted and them in their orbits: got it back to him about 100 more of ye ) places, but with much difficulty after 2 years deten- finding this took up much time, and tion.

being now entered in my Rectification of He disputed against the comets of the places of the fixed stars, and very Nov. and Dec. being the same, in 2 long busy in it, I was forced to leave off my letters in Feb. and March 81°; now, in correspondence wth him at that time, 85, he owned they might be so as I had having found that his corrections of my asserted, and slightly mentioned me as numbers still gave ye Moon's places 8 disputing for their being the same as in

or 9 minutes erroneous, tho' Dr. G. and ye 4th book of his principles ; whereas I Dr. Halley had boasted they would agree affirmed it, and himself disputed against it. wtb in zi or 3'—I was ill of the stone

1687. his principles published : little very oft and had [illegible) ye head ach notice taken of her Maties. Observatory.

till Sept. when freed of it by a violent fit 1688 & 9. made the New large Arch of ye stone and my usualí medicineand Staff * * * Sharp.

Deo Laus. 89. Began my observations of the *

1695 or 1696. Sir I. N.+ being made au distances from our vertex with it.

Officer in the Mint came to London. I Sept. 12. § & 13 4s got the Clock sometimes visited him there or at his removed by Nov. 15 ľ:

own house in Jermin Street: we con89. Dec. 10. first observation of the tinued civil, but he was not so friendly D's place compared with my lunar Ta- as formerly, because I could bles in ye 4th book of calculations, pag.5.

Mr. H. and Dr. G. assertions conAfter this I observed the į and cerning his corrections of y. Horroccian planets frequently wth the New Arch;

lunar theorys. examined the lunar observations, com

1696. A Correspondence begun web monly the morning after they were got,

Mr. Bosseley an Apothecary of Bakewell and compared them with my Tables, till in Derbyshire and Mr. Luke Leigh a April, 1692, whereby I saw the faults of poor Kinsman of Mr. Halleys of the same the Tables sometimes were near one-third clan, and myself. Mr. Bosseley wanted obof a degree.

servation for correcting the planets places 1694. Sept. 1 h Mr. Newton come

I furnished him, and set him on h and 4. to visit me; I shewed him these Collations Mr. Leigh I hired to calculate the drawn up in 3 large Synopses, and on places of the fixed Stars from their Right his request gave him copys of them, Ascentions and distances from the Northhe promising me not to impart or coin

ern Pole determined by myself. municate them to any body; this

1696. Dec. 11 I received from him

promise I required of him because, as I then the places of the Stars in the Constellatold him, I made use of some places of tions of 1% and 12, which whilst he the fixed Stars which I had derived from had been doing the same, were done by

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