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devil offered him, that he could hardly his house till he put more pictures of the speak for a fortnight after. Another saint upon the doors, and several parts tíme whilst he was in his bed, two devils of the house, when the molestation fell upon him, and whipped him most wholly ceased.” Of the numerous decruelly, and brother John Paul Castelan, vilries raised and abolished by the who lay nigh him, and afterwards told saint's holiness, these specimens may it me, heard the blows, and rose up suffice. twice that night to help him." In the To so distinguished and efficient a year 1545, the college of the society (of member of the Romish Church, as IgJesuits) which we have at our blessed natius, the gift of prophecy is, of course, Lady's of Loretto, was first begun, and awarded, and the power of working the devils presently began to make war miracles, of necessity, follows; accordagainst our fathers in that college, and to ingly we find instances of them,“ too molest and disquiet them both by day numerous to mention in this particular." and by night, making a most terrible It is to be expected that his relics were clatter and noise, and appearing in sun- equally miraculous, and hence Ribadedry shapes and forms, sometimes of a neira's account is seasoned sufficiently blackamoor, then of a cat and bear, and high, for the most discriminating palate other beasts, and neither by saying holy of the most miracle-loving epicure. mass, praying, sprinkling holy water, using Water wherein a bit of a bone of Ignaexorcisms, applying relics of saints and the tius's body had been dipped, cured the like, could they rid themselves of that sick at the hospital at Burgos. The molestation, wherefore St. Ignatius, by letters he wrote were preserved as relics letters, recommended a firm and strong for miraculous purposes; and a later confidence, and that he on his part would saint carried the autograph of Ignatius not be wanting to recommend it in his about him as a relic. If one of Ignaprayers; and from that very hour, (a tius's autographs be coveted in England, very remarkable thing,) all those troubles it may probably be discovered in the ceased, nor were there seen any more reliquary of Mr. Upcott at the London spirits. This happened whilst St. Ig- Institution. natius was living." To this, Ribadeneira Enough has certainly been said of St adds story upon story, of women and Ignatius Loyola; yet less space could maids being tormented by devils, who hardly have been devoted to the founder were discomfited by the mere sight of of the celebrated order of the Jesuits, a Ignatius's picture, which kept off all body which perforates and vermiculates the blows and assaults of the ghostly through every part of the civilized world enemy, yet so great was his malice and wherein the Romish religion predomidesire of doing mischief, that he fell nates, or has ever prevailed. Concernfuriously, upon the chamber walls, and ing the present state of an order, comcupboards, chests, coffers, and what- posed of men of talent under a vow of soever else was in the room, beating poverty; devoted to the papacy, and upon them with horrible strokes, though possessing more wealth than any other he never touched any box wherein was catholic fraternity; wearing or not wearkept a picture of the saint.” He affirms, ing a habit to distinguish them from that the like happened in the year 1599, ordinary citizens in catholic and protestto a schoolmaster of Ancona :“ These ant countries, as may suit their private damned spirits," says Ribadeneira, purposes; prowling unknown, and se
opened the doors of his house when cretly operating; there can be little gathey were locked, and shut them when thered, and therefore little to communithey were left open, swept the chambers, cate. The coexistence of a free governmade the beds, lighted the lamps, and ment and a free press is a sure and safe then on a sudden put all into disorder defence from all their machinations. and confusion, and removed things from One circumstance, however, related by one room into another; but when the all the biographers of Ignatius, must not good man had hung up a picture of be forgotten. It stands in Ribadeneira's our blessed father in his house, all was life of him thus: “ As he was sitting quiet within doors, yet a most terrible one day upon the steps of St. Domitumult there was without, for they flung nick's church, and reading our blessed to and fro the doors and windows, and lady's office with much devotion, our beat as it were, the drum round about Lord on a sudden illustrated his under
standing, and represented to him a figure the distinction and propriety of the perof the most blessed trinity, which ex- sons, that he noted in a treatise which teriourly expressed to him what inte- was found after his death, written in his riourly God gave him to understand. own hand, that he could not have learnt This caused in him so great comfort and so much with many years' study.” This spiritual joy, that he could not restrain pretended revelation with figments his sobs and tears, nor speak of any equally edifying has employed the penthing but this holy mystery, delivering cil of the painter. Rubens has left a the high conceit he had of it with so well-known picture representing Ignamany similitudes and examples, that all tius in bis rapture. From a fine print of who heard him were amazed and asto- it, by Bolswert, the engraving at the head nished, and from that time forward, this of this article has been taken; the picineffable mystery was so imprinted in ture is in the collection at Warwick his soul, that he writ a book of this pro- Castle. found matter which contained fourscore leaves, though at that time he had never studied, and could but only read and write ; and he always retained so clear and distinct a knowiedge of the trinity
Great Mullen. Verbuscum Virgatum. of persons, of the divine essence, and of Dedicated to St. Ignatius.
August is the eighth month of the year. flowers, they sung, they shouted, they It was called Sextilis by the Romans, danced, they invited each other, or met from its being the sixth month in their to feast, as at Christmas, in the halls of calendar, until the senate complimented rich houses; and what was a very amnithe emperor Augustus by naming it after able custom, and wise beyond the comhim, and through them it is by us denom- moner wisdom that may seem to lie on inated August.
the top of it, every one that had been Our Saxon ancestors called it “ Arn- concerned, man, woman, and child, remonat, (more rightly barn-moneth,)intend- ceived a little present-ribbons, laces, or ing thereby the then filling of their barnes sweatmeats. with corne.
Arn is the Saxon word for 1“ The number of flowers is now senharvest. According to some they also sibly diminished. Those that flower called it Woedmonath, as they likewise newly are nigella, zinnias, polyanthuses, called June. +
love-apples, mignionette, capsicums, MiThe sign of the zodiac entered by the chaelmas daisies, auriculus, asters, or sun this month is Virgo, the Virgin. stars, and China-asters. The additional Spenser's personation of it above is pen- trees and shrubs in Mower are the tamcilled and engraved by Mr. Samuel Wil- arisk, altheas, Venetian sumach, pomeliams.
granates, the beautiful passion-flower, the “ Admire the deep beauty of this alle- trumpet-flower, and the virgin's bower, gorical picture,” says Mr. Leigh Hunt. or clematis, which is such a quick and
Spenser takes advantage of the sign of handsome climber. But the quantity of the zodiac, the Virgin, to convert her fruit is considerably multiplied, espeinto Astrea, the goddess of justice, who cially that of pears, peaches, apricots, seems to return to earth awhile, when the and grapes. And if the little delica:é exuberance of the season presents enough wild Howers have at last withdrawn from for all.”
the hot sun, the wastes, marshes, and Mr. Leigh Hunt notes in his Months, woods are dressed in the luxuriant attire that,-“This is the month of harvest. Thé of ferns and heaths, with all their variecrops usually begin with rye and oats, ties of green, purple, and gold. A piece proceed with wheat, and finish with peas of waste land, especially where the and beans. Harvest-home is still the ground is broken up into little inequal, greatest rural holiday in England, be- ities, as Hampstead-heath, for instance, is cause it concludes at once the most labo now a most bright as well as picturesque rious and most lucrative of the farmer's object; all the ground, which is in light, employments, and unites repose and giving the sun, as it were, gold for gold. profit. Thank heaven there are, and Mignonette, intended to flower in the must be, seasons of some repose in agri- winter, should now be planted in pots, cultural employments, or the countryman and have the benefit of a warm situation. would work with as unceasing a mad- Seedlings in pots should have the mornness, and contrive to be almost as disc ing sunshine, and annuals in pots be eased and unhealthy as the citizen. But frequently watered here again, and for the reasons already « In the middle of this month, the mentioned, our holiday-making is not young goldfinch broods appear, lapwings what it was. Our ancestors used to congregate, thistle-down floats, and birds burst into an enthusiasm of joy at the resume their spring songs :-a little afterend of harvest, and appear even to have wards flies abound in windows, linnets mingled their previous labour with con- congregate, and bulls make their shrill siderable merry-making, in which they autumnal bellowing; and towards the imitated the equality of the earlier ages. end the beech tree turns yellow,-the They crowned the wheat-sheaves with first symptom of approaching autumn."
The garden blooms with vegetable gold,
Her racy fruits now glory in the sun,
To cooling brooks the panting cattle run :
Visits his dreams and multiplies the grain.
Dr. F. Saver.
More hot it grows ; ye fervours of the sky
Your sultry radiance.-Now the god of day
On silver pinions to salute his ray ;
They bend, they toil across the wide champaign,
Por shelter, sated with the golden grain,
you can meet with a better.” Baronius,
the great Romish luminary and authority St. Peter ad Vincula, or St. Peter's chains. in the affairs of papal martyrs, relics, and
The seven Machabees, Brothers, with miracles, says, "Truly the bonds of St. their Mother. Sts. Faith, Hope, and Peter seem not without reason to be worCharity. St. Etholwold, Bp. A.D. 984. shipped, though the bonds of the other St. Pellegrini, or Peregrinus, A. D. 643. apostles are not: for it is but fit, that
since he has the chief power in the church St. Peter ad Vincula, or the Feast of St. of binding and loosing other men's bonds, Peter's chains.
that his bonds also should be had in The Romish church pretending to honour of all the faithful.” This is a suffiDossess one of the chains wherewith Peter cing reason to the believers in the “ bind. was bound, and from which the angel de- ing and loosing” according to the gloss livered him, indulges its votaries with a put upon that power by Romish writers. festival in its honour on this day.
The empress Eudocia is affirmed to gan Rome,” says Alban Butler, “ never have brought the two chains of St. Peter derived so much honour from the spoils from Jerusalem, in the year 439, one and trophies of a conquered world, as whereof she gave to a church in Constanchristian Rome receives from the corporal tinople, and sent the other to Rome, where remains of these two glorious apostles, the old lady's chain has yielded, or not (Peter and Paul,) before which the greatest yielded, to the raspings of the file from emperors lay down their diadems, and time immemorial. This chain was pleased prostrate themselves.” Be it observed, to part with some of its particles to the that the papacy also pretends to possess emperor Justinian, who sent ambassadors the chains of Paul: pope Gregory writing begging to the pope for a small portion, to the empress Constantia tells her he “The popes,” says Butler, “ were accuswill quickly send her some part of Pau tomed to send the filings as precious relics chains, if it be possible for him to file any to devout princes they were often instruoff ;-“ for," says Gregory, “ since soments of miracles--and the pope himself many frequently come begging a bene- rasped them off for king Childebert, and diction from the chains, that they may enclosed them in a golden key to be hung receive a little of the filings thereof, there about the neck.” Childebert, no doubt, fore a priest is ready with a file; and experienced its aperient qualities. They when some persons petition for it, pre- would be very serviceable to the papal sently in a moment something is filed off interest at this period. for them from the chains; but when others petition, though the file be drawn a great
Gule of August. while through the chains, yet cannot the The first day of August is so called. least jot be got off.” Upon this, bishop Pa- According to Gebelin, as the month of trick says, “ One may have leave to ask, August was the first in the Egyptian why should not this miraculous chain of year, it was called Gule, which being St. Paul have a festival appointed in me- latinized, makes Gula, a word in that mory of it, as well as that of St. Peter ?, language signifying throat.
“ Our le you may take Baronius's answer to it till gendaries,” says Brand,“ surprised at
seeing this word at the head of the month unwilling any thing should be forgotten, or of August, converted it to their own pur- trodden down under the feet of thoughtpose.” They made out of it the feast of less and passing generations, that has the daughter of the tribune Quirinus, who pleasant speculation in it, pray remember they pretend was cured of a disorder in that on the first day of August, Francisco the throat, (Gula,) by kissing the chain of Petrarca was born.-But remember also, St. Peter on the day of its festival. Forc. that on that same day, in 1578, was born ing the Gule of the Egyptians into the our Juliet Capulet. “On Lammas eve throat of the tribune's daughter, they at night shall she be fourteen. That shall instituted a festival to Gule upon the she, marry ; I remember it well. "Tis festival-day of St. Peter ad Vincula since the earthquake now eleven years,
and she was weaned." Shakspeare's Lammas-day.
characters, as we all know, be they of So stands the first of August in our what country or of what age they may, English almanacs, and so it stands in the speak as an Englishman would have done printed Saxon Chronicle. “ Antiqua in his own times, and the earthquake here
Brand, are divided in their referred to was felt in 1580. That Juliet, opinions concerning the origin of Lam our Juliet, should have been born on the mas-Day; some derive it from Lamb- very same day as Petrarch was certainly Mass, because on that day the tenants accidental; yet it is a coincidence worth who held lands under the cathedral observing; and if a calendar of birthdays church in York, which is dedicated to be to recall pleasant recollections, over St. Peter ad Vincula, were bound by our chirping cups,” why may not Juliet their tepure to bring a live lamb into the be remembered, and her sweetly poetical church at high mass: others derive it existence be associated with the reality of from a supposed offering or tything of Petrarca's life. And where is the diflambs at this time.” Various other de- ference? Petrarca is, rivations have been imagined. Blount,
-nor hand nor foot the glossographer, says, that Lammas is called Hlaf-Mass, that is Loaf-Mass, or
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. Bread-Mass, which signifies a feast of thanksgiving for the first fruits of the And what are all the great men that have
It was observed with bread of ever lived but such mocking names ? new wheat, and in some places tenants Montaigne, who translated a theological are bound to bring new wheat to their work by Raimondi di Sibondi, on being lord, on, or before, the first of Au- told by some learned friend that he susgust. New wheat is called Lammas- pected it was but an abstract of St. ThoWheat. Vallancey affirms that this day mas of Aquin, says “ 'tis a pity to rob was dedicated, in Ireland, to the sacrifice Sibondi of his honours on such slight auof the fruits of the soil ; that La-ith-mas thority:"-what honours ? when are they the day of the obligation of grain, is offered ? to whom? it is not known that pronounced La-ee-mas, a word readily such a man ever had existence! Not corrupted to Lammas; that ith, signifies love, nor reverence, nor idolatrous admiall kinds of grain, particularly wheat, and ration can stay the progress of oblivion : that mas signifies fruit of all kinds, espe- the grave shuts us out for ever from our cially the acorn, whence the word mast.*
fellows, and our generation is the limit of From these explications may easily be our personal and real existence :mind derived the reasonable meaning of the only is immortal. Francisco Petrarca word Lammas.
was dead, and buried, and forgotten, five
hundred years ago : he is now JULIET, CAPULET, AND PETRARCH. more in reality than Juliet; nay, to my
self, not so much so. The witches in To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.
Macbeth, though pure creations, have Sii,
more of flesh and blood reality, are more As in your little calendar of worthy familiar to the thoughts of all, than the observancies you sometimes notice the Lancashire witches that lived cotempo birthdays of those whom we most desire, rary with the poet
, and suffered death and who most deserve to be remembered, from the superstition of the age. There and as I am one, who like yourself, am have been many Shakspeares, we know
but one; that one indeed, from association