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broader turn, and reaching the better classes of the natives, who are overjoyed at the opportunity of securing educational advantages for their children, and especially their daughters. The more success these enterprises secure, the more distasteful are they to the French Catholics who would smother them in embryo. But their natural foes, the Germans, see the open door, and are entering into the work of evangelizing the Orient in their way.


The so-called “Luther literature” is just now absorbing all the attention of the German theologians. At the head of these publications may be placed a famous work by Dr. König, entitled “Martin Luther, the German Reformer.” This is an illustrated edition for the scholars and the people, and is inimitable in its successful delineations of the man and his surroundings. In Köstlin's great work the investigations are mainly for scholars, and still even this is a work for German youth. Never have the Germans succeeded in being more practical and popular in their efforts than on this their greatest occasion. Wilhelm Rein has, however, written especially for the young men of Germany, and given them a lively and concise book, with illustrations after Kranach. Burk has written a book, of a more independent and popular character, for the German man in the strictest sense, that is, for the patriot and lover of country above all else. This is a history of the Protestant Church among the German people, and is largely adapted for the students of the land, in the gymnasia, universities, and theological seminaries. Professor Plitt takes a prominent place among the biographers of Luther in his work on Martin Luther's life and deeds. This is very highly recommended by Professor Luthardt, to theological students, as giving the logical development of the great reformer's life, in telling how he became a reformer of the Church. And finally an extraordinary effort is being made to place the best information regarding Luther in the hands of the poor and needy. To this end the Protestant Association, of Fravkfort-on-the-Main, announces the speedy appearance of a popular and cheap work by Enders; two volumes are to follow the one already appearing in the announcements. And again comes Luther Complete, in a full edition of all the works of Luther himself, both in German and Latin. The German works pumber sixty-eight, and the Latin thirty-three. These are to be sold, during the present year, for the merest trifle, that all may obtain them. In the line of a good sclection from all of Luther's works, for those who cannot obtain or read them entire, the edition by Velhagen and Klasing is recommended, entitled “The Minor Writings of Martin Luther.” The earlier volumes of tliis edition give the polemical, and the later ones the characteristic, writings.

The literary event of the moment, in Italy, is the magnificent gift of Prince Corsini, of Rome, of his very rich library and large picturegallery to the state. This is so valuable that it cannot be computed in money. The library alone has 60,000 printed volumes and 2,600 manuscripts. The oldest go back as far as the twelfth century, and many of these are celebrated for their highly artistic miniature pictures and ornaments. Many of these manuscripts are of high value to the history of the country, referring largely to the relations of the Vatican to the princes of Europe. Among the printed volumes are some of the finest and most valuable of the ancient classics, especially the best and most celebrated of Italy; for example, an edition of Ariosto, for which a bibliophile offered 25,000 francs. To this may be added a collection of 60,000 engravings, among them some very old ones from Germany as well as Italy. The artists' names contain those of Baldwin, Botticelli, Mantegna, and Bramante. The gallery contains specimens of Vandyke and Salvator Rosa. It is considered as one of the signs of the times that a member of the highest aristocracy should make so princely a present to the New Italy, instead of passing it over to the library and gallery of the Vatican.

The philanthropists of Germany are raising the cry of warning about the demoralization of the young. Halben, of Hamburg, has just given to the public a book, bearing the title, “ The Public Guardianship of Neglected Youth," quoting largely from the works of Pestalozzi, Fellenberg, and Wichern. He depicts the depth of the calamity by giving the percentage of the children that seem to have no protectors, and thus become the prey of vice and degradation. He sees the best remedy for this evil in better and more conscientious teaching, and suggests that it should not be left, in a spirit of indifference, to religious bodies or private benevolence. It is, in his opinion, rather the duty of the educational authorities of the State to perform the work, but in a way that should not bear the appearance of a compulsory reformatory character. So far as possible the children ought to be placed in families well adapted to perform this work, though under the control and inspection of the authorities. The directors of reformatory institutions should be trained and skillful teachers who could continue the work of instruction, and combine it with the reformatory methods adopted, that reform might arise from instruction.

The famous German savant, Richthofen, has signalized his entry into the University of Leipsic by a very interesting work on China, of a geological character. He thinks he has found some very important coal-fields that will have a great effect on the trade and commerce of the country by giving to it a facile motive power. His investigations have been somewhat hampered by the hostile attitude of the population, the people having invented all sorts of reasons for preventing him from very exhaustive explorations. These obstructions were more marked in Southern than in Northern China. He has, however, sufficient data to aid future investigations, which cannot fail soon to be made in view of the wealth that is anticipated in this enterprise. The value of this author's work on China is being every-where acknowledged, and this is the fourth volume that now appears. Many of his finest specimens have been brought to the Museum of Berlin, and are there attracting the attentions of capitalists and scholars. And the intelligent Chinese must themselves soon see the importance of these discoveries, and continue these explorations, by force, if necessary, against the prejudice or superstition of the masses.

For twenty years there has appeared in Naples a serial publication, entitled a “ Collection of Religious and Entertaining Books," and one of the latest of these is a work called “A Romish Catechism concerning Protestantism," and which proposes to inform the Catholics of Italy of the character and tendency of Protestantism in popular style. In the preface the anonymous author designates Protestantism as the invention of a barbarian, and promises to show it up in all its monstrosity. The first chapter treats of the origin of Protestantism, which is here characterized as a rebellion of conceited men against the Christ. An apostate monk, by the name of Martin Luther, was the originator of it, because the Holy Father had granted the right of issuing indulgences to the Dominicans, and not to the order to which Luther belonged. The author grants that this rebellion was caused by certain abuses in this matter, but declares that the Church was on the point of correcting these when the rebellion began as a “proclamation of liberty of the flesh," etc. It is affirmed that it is difficult to give the doctrines of Protestantism, because they vary with the moon; but, on the whole, they may be defined as terrible in theory, immoral in practice, hostile toward God and man, destructive to the entire human race, and in contradiction with common sense and natural modesty, for instance, God forces men to sin, and he is thus the originator of sin. Men do good or evil from inevitable necessity. No wonder, then, that the inquirer declares that these teachings fill him with horror, and are, in some regards, worse than those of the heathens. You are right, says the priest, neither the heathens nor the Turks have such godless doctrines as these. Naturally the men who originated such teachings were of the worst sort. Their end corresponded to their accursed lives; for Calvin died in despair of a shameful disease, being devoured by worms, cursing God, and calling on the devil. The book seems to be written mainly to influence the people in regard to the supporters of Protestantism in Italy, who are declared to be only bad Catholics, and to come from the dregs of society. Protestantism in their hands is declared to be only a means to an end, which is to introduce into Italy irreligion, libertinism, and unbelief, and thus communism and socialism. Under these circumstances it is asserted that the men that go over to the Protestants are of the worst sort, “the scum of rascality and immorality. If these men gain the upper hand Italy would become the arena of a civil war; blood would flow, and the proud monuments of the land would be razed to the ground."

The literary event of the period in France is the publication of the Souvenirs of Renan. Pressensé is very severe on them, ard says: “I frankly confess that I feel myself a barbarian in reading such a book, except the admirable portion devoted to Brittany and St. Sulpice. I am completely insensible to the exquisite beauties of this style, more euchanting than grand, and I would willingly trample all these perfumed flowers under my feet, so much do I detest their moral poison. I can no longer resign myself to this enchanting negation of the truth and virtue, and to this philosophical legerdemain which makes to appear and disappear before our eyes the good and the true with the giddy rapidity of the jugglers playing with an orange.”

In the French theological line there is a goodly number of new books announced: “Fifty Years of the Life of the Protestant Church of Lyons," by Leopold Monod. “The Beauty of the Protestant Ministry,” by Lacheret, pastor at the Hague. “The Idea of the Pre-existence of the Son of God,” by a member of the Theological Faculty of Strasburg. “The Republic of Christ, and the Monarchy of the Pope,” by Charles Picot. Christianity and the Experimental Method,” by Lagrange, preceded by a letter from Naville.

In addition to these, we notice several English theological works announced as on sale at the Protestant book-store of Paris, showing an increasing tendency in France toward the study of English scholars in theological literature.


Religion, Theology, and Biblical Literature. The Relation of Children to the Fall, the Atonement, and the Church. By N. BUR

WASH, S.T.D., Professor of Theology in Victoria University. 12mo, pp. 31.

Toronto. 1882. This brochure, delivered before a ministerial body as a lecture, is an important utterance ; alike so from its timeliness, its theological, exegetical, and rhetorical ability, and the position of the author as a Canadian Methodist theological professor. It is a timely manifesto as containing a virtual repudiation of the questionable dogma of “HEREDITARY Guilt.” And it is a cheering sign that we receive such a manifesto almost simultaneously from Professor Tillett and from Professor Burwash-from the South and from the North, from the Vanderbilt and from Victoria.

Dr. Burwash gives in full, from the Ninth Article of the English Church, the statement of the doctrine of original sin and its results. We wish he had placed it side by side with our own Wesleyan-Arminian Seventh Article, that the Calvinism and the Methodism of the subject might stand face to face. We say the Calvinism of the subject, for there can be no reasonable doubt that the dogma of “ hereditary guilt” was interpolated into that article by the advocates of Genevan predestination.



ORIGINAL SIN standeth not in the ORIGINAL SIN standeth not in the following of Adam, (as the Pelagians following of Adam, (as the Pelagians do vainly talk,) but it is THE FAULT and do vainly talk,) but it is the (fault and corruption of the nature of every man, omitted] corruption of the nature of that naturally is engendered of the off- every man that naturally is engendered spring of Adam, whereby man is very of the offspring of Adam, whereby man far gone from original righteousness, is very far gone from original rightand is of his in nature inclined to eousness, and is of his own nature inevil, and, therefore, IN EVERY PERSON clined to evil, and that continually. BORN INTO THIS WORLD IT DESERVETU GOD'S WRATH AND DAMNATION.

It will be seen, on comparison, that Wesley struck out the word Fault, thereby repudiating the idea that our inborn nature is our own responsible FAULT. Second, he struck out, and thereby repudiated, the dogma that for being born of Adam every born descendant of Adam DESERVES GOD'S WRATH AND


We may say, therefore, conclusively, that these dogmas are not Methodism; and no authority has a right to teach them as Methodism. We may say more-that Methodism does not merely ignore this dogma, but gives it a positive rejection and expulsion; so that it may be pronounced as, relative to Methodism, scarce less than a HERESY. We may say still more—that it stands in direct contradiction to the fundamental axiom of our Arminianism, that all responsibility and ill desert take their immediate or remote origin in a previous free, voluntary act, the act, namely, of the inculpated agent and no other; and it thereby nullifies all our arguments and protests against fatalistic reprobation; and, finally, it furnishes full justification for the abhorrent dogma of infant damnation.

It is true that our Twentieth Article, after the Anglican, attributes to Christ a “perfect ... satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, both original and actual.” And this term original is susceptible of both a Calvinistic and Arminian interpretation. It might be made to coincide with the universalinborn desert of damnation which Wesley repudiated; and that meaning is, of course, to be by us rejected. It might mean that only Adam's own and

original sin,” and pot that of his posterity, was expiated by Christ's satisfaction. But, more acceptably, it may mean that this


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