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were withdrawn from the Church the latter would need betake itself to its staff and wallet, as it, in former times, commenced. He was not opposed to this if the movement were animated by a Gospel spirit; but he would deprecate it if used to impose . yet more strongly the superstitions of the Church. And he also declared that neither the Church nor the country was prepared for such a transformation, and he undertook to prove it by a series of considerations thus : “ Does the separation of Church and State indicate that these two powers mutually ignore one another? Yes, in the proper sense of the term, such is the meaning of the proposed formula." But this reciprocal ignorance is, in the opinion of Loyson, a chimera and absurdity. In his view the priest has a mission in the state of which he cannot be deprived, and then he asks the question, “By what right can the state issue laws interdicting the religious marriage which is not preceded by the civil marriage ?” And the orator then goes off into a series of assertions, of brilliant stage effect, closing magisterially with the famous utterance of Victor Hugo: “Pity for those who have not a heart in their breast, and in this heart a God!” To all of which we say that it is quite difficult to know what these two great men mean when they talk about their religious or anti-religious convictions. Either one of them seems quite ready to risk an inconsistency, at least, in the absorbing passion to cast off some high-sounding phrase that virtually goes up like a rocket, and falls like a stick.

This irresistible tendency of French statesmen to run off into fine phrases is again illustrated in the article of the July number by Dartigue, on the “Primary School and Laical Morality.” The plain, practical meaning of all this is an endeavor to introduce into the secular primary schools a system of morality to be taught by lay teachers, instead of the religious teaching formerly imparted by the priests. The aim is a very noble one, and the measure of great import, if genuinely and practically carried out. But behind this question, so apparently secular, there lies in reality a religious one which is found in the heart of all the questions now debated by the French Chambers. This Religious Question,” now holding the foreground, is like a Sphinx propounding enigmas to those who are least able to solve them. What is laical morality ? is not very

easily answered, and “all the world," as the French say, is unanimous in pronouncing it at least equivocal, as any question from the Sphinx might be supposed to be. Some pronounce laical morality to be the equivalent of independent morality, whatever that may be, though it is by its adherents defined to be “a morality which is fully sufficient unto itself, finding in itself alone its laws, its sanction, its authority, and its aim, without the aid of any religion or philosophy.” And in giving this we do not speak of those men who make of this expression a war-cry, a political watchword, or an electioneering maneuver, but of men, serious and convinced, within the Chambers-and there are many of them—who hold this language: “Morality comprises two distinct parts--the one clear and the other obscure; the one, evident in itself, obtaining the assent of all minds, and the other which has given rise to interminable debates, and will continue to do so. The principles involved cause the division of men into parties; the applications and the results are less a cause of discord, for on these most men are in accord.” The Liberals would render morality independent; they would separate it from religion and philosophy, and thus put an end to the conflict; that is, they would make their own morality, and thus virtually each man would be a law unto himself. History and experience reveal to us whither this doctrine would lead its adherents.

ART. IX.-FOREIGN RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.

THE LUTHER CELEBRATIONS.

The entire Fatherland will soon be absorbed in the “Luther Celebra-. tions," commemorating the fourth centennial of the great reformer. Many celebrations of like kind have taken place in past time, but this promises to exceed them all, as it will absorb all classes of the community. Already have the zealous friends of the cause been at work informing the people of the significance of this extraordinary jubilee in lectures and reunions of men of manifold interests. The feature of the day is the hostility shown by the Ultramontanism to these efforts and to the grand celebration of itself. Formerly Luther was regarded as among the greatest of Germans, and Döllinger, in spite of his opposition to the Reformation, nevertheless regarded Luther as a hero of the German

nation. To-day the Catholic organ, the “Germania,” ignores his wonderful service to the German language in his Bible in the vernacular, and declares that this centennial celebration will be, it hopes, but a temptation that will soon pass over.

This it will be only to those in whom a servile obedience to Rome has smothered all sense of loyalty to Germany. For the Catholics who are willing to see the historical fact, that the Reformation has exerted a wholesome influence on their own Church, this celebration may bring a clearer conception and a deeper understanding of its influence. Be that as it may, the Protestants of the Fatherland are determined not to be disturbed by the grumblings of the Catholics, and give God the greater glory that a Luther has lived.

In this great event the so-called Luther cities will lead off. Eisleben, the city of his birth, will commence with a statue on the public square, and a grand procession in costume, representing the reception of Luther in this city just before his last sickness. A call has just gone forth from Eisenach for a statue of brass in that old city. In Mansfeld, the city of his youth, his paternal mansion is to be restored and changed into a benevolent institution. In Erfurt, the university city of Luther, the corner-stone of a Luther monument is being laid as we write, which will be unteiled on the day of the great celebration. Wittenberg performs its duty in instituting a grand ecumenical Protestant reunion of Germans of all the different classes, that there, in fraternal harmony, they may thankfully acknowledge the indebtedness of all shades of German nationality to Luther. In Berlin the various committees of manifold Church and civil organizations have decided on the erection of a great monument and a new “Luther Church” in a portion of the city now destitute of

It is the intention of several other cities to found new “ Luther Churches; " this is the case in Hamburg.

The civil authorities are also indorsing the matter. In Saxony there will be on the great days—November 10, 11-a school and church festival. The ruling princes in Thuringia join in a civil festival, and above all, the King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany has ordered the Minister of Public Worship to direct the entire Protestant Church to join in thanks to God for the blessings that the Reformation has conferred on the people. Even in Catholic Bavaria the king has granted to the Superior Protestant Consistory the privilege publicly to join in the grand commemoration of Lnther's birth. Verily, Luther still lives!

one.

THE DISSENTERS IN HUNGARY.

The recent Jewish trials in Hungary and the efforts in the Hungarian Parliament to obtain special repressive legislation against the so-ca ed “Sects” is no honor to the countryınen of Kossuth, who are unusually loud in their cries for liberty when they are the oppressed party. In December last the “Sects” were the subject of some days' discussion; then came the Anti-Semitic movement, and the Ultramontane petitions,

for the government to draw the strings more tightly on all these contemners of the “only true and saving Church.”

Under the name of " Nazarenes,” one of these sects has become quite strong. They are called by the natives “Quaker Baptists,” and profess to be the “followers of Christ,” which one would suppose would not be much of a crime in a Christian country. They reject infant baptism, decline to take the civil vath, refuse military duty, and believe a spiritual order unnecessary and superfluons. We see immediately what they are, and know them to be a zealous and harmless religious people, that would not be likely to be acceptable to haughty and warlike Hungarians.

Next comes the Baptists proper, of whom there are many. The complaint against these people is, that they are not satisfied in enjoying their own religious views quietly, but carry on a propaganda to increase their numbers at the expense of the “true Church." The authorities have long regarded their movements with comparative indifference, but now, with their propaganda, they are becoming dangerous, and have been so brazen as to establish a chapel bearing the modest inscription, “House of Prayer for Baptized Christians." The Minister of Public Worship, in the course of the parliamentary debate, acknowledged that these people seemed to be harmless in themselves, but suggested that their spirit of public rebellion against the Established Church formed a dangerous example, as no one can know where it will stop, seeing that they are alike hostile to both Ca olics and Protestants as they are found in Hungary.

The result was the promulgation of a decree from the Minister of the Interior, announcing that these Baptists must not combine into congregations; they must maintain a strictly private character, and their ministers dispense with all official position toward them as a Church. They are not allowed to hold public religious meetings, and can only bave reunions for lectures or addresses by permission from the police.

Having thus settled the question of the dissenting Protestants, the examination of the Jews was next in order; and this they found a matter of much more difficulty. It was soon seen that the hatred toward the Hebrews had greatly increased within a year. When the question was last brought up before the Parliament, the man who presented offensive measures against the Jews was laughed at, and his arguments were not answered ; and now there is in the Parliament a battle of several days without settling any thing So the Anti-Semitic question exists in Hungary in all its force, as in Germany. All the trouble seems to have arisen from certain emancipatory laws, in the sense of the Berlin Congress, that have not produced good results. The majority now begin to think that equal political rights are dangerous weapons in the hands of the Hebrews, who are inclined to use them with punctuality and dispatch. There would be less trouble if Hungary had to do with her own Jews alone, but the inroad of Russian and Polish Jews complicates the matter. These are alien and clannish in spirit, and do not make acceptable citizens.

GERMAN INFLUENCE IN THE ORIENT.

bly says

The German, and we may say the Protestant, influence in the Orient is growing with such rapid pace as to attract the serious attention of the Vatican. The Moni.eur de Rome, the semi-official organ of the Pope, is Alled with anxiety at the situation, and actually condescends to describe at large the German colonies in Palestine, at Jaffa, the base of Carmel, and even in Jerusalem. Said Moniteur acknowledges the exemplary moral character of these Germans, and the wholesome moral and social influence that they exert on their surroundings. But the trouble and anxiety are found in the fact that they are Protestants, and therefore exert a bad religious influence. Catholicism in its various phases has a bad showing in the presence of a thrifty and zealous band of immigrants, whose object is to give a practical bearing to the Protestant religion.

The special cause of this outburst on the part of the Moniteur is the recent announcement that the sultan has handed over to a colony of these Protestant Germans, who go thither as a religious community, the ancient ruins of the shore city of Cæsarea, with a goodly portion of outlying lap, for agricultural purposes. This old town that has lain so long in ruins, has something of a port or haven, a most desirable thing along the coast of Palestine which, as a whole, is almost unapproachable by large vessels. These Germans propose to restore the city and the port, and introduce agricultural methods around them, and the sultan very sensi

Yes,” while the Vatican groans out “No!" This is a true case of the dog in the manger, for the Catholic missionaries have had abundant opportunity to do all this long ago, and have neglected it.

And again, the Pontiff is troubled that the Protestant bishopric in Jerusalem is not to become extinct. For a goodly period it has been supported by the combined assistance of Germany and England, and it is now announced that the Protestant work in Jerusalem will go on under the supervision of a bishop, either English or German. This, with the present feeling in the Protestant workers throughout Palestine, is indicative of still better things in the future.

Since the triumphant result of the Franco-German War, German influence has been on the increase throughout the Orient, and especially in Palestine. The German explorer of Africa, Dr. Schweinfurt, relates from his own observation the successful efforts of the Prostestant missionary work in the East. This has taken largely the character of Protestant hospitals in Alexandria, Jerusalem, Beirût, Smyrna, and Constantinople; and these only want financial aid to extend their work still farther into very needy places. The Protestant schools are making great headway. The schools for girls are something unheard of in the Orient until lately. Certain establishments for the daughters of wealthy and official persons connected with and representing foreign interests, have existed in a feeble way for some time. These have been greatly improved of late by the Germans, but the movement is now taking a

Fourth SERIES, VOL. XXXV.-49

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