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A professional architect in the interest of this Association, living permanently in Jerusalem, gives some curious details as to the number of inhabitants of ancient Jerusalem. In his study of the outlines of the city, the mode of building, and the size of the houses, and also the historical traditions, he concludes that ancient Jerusalem, at the time of Titus, had a circumference of thirty-three stadia, and not less than 250,000 inhabitants.
ART. X.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE,
THE “Roman Catholic Directory" for England and Scotland, for 1883, issued under the control of Cardinal Manning, and therefore reliable, gives us some very startling figures. In England and Wales there are seventeen Romish bishops and 2, 112 priests, who labor in 1,888 churches, chapels, and mission-stations. Scotland has six bishops and 306 priests, who have charge of 295 chapels. The English bishops are divided into one archbishop, six suffragan bishops, and two assistant bishops. Scotland lias two arclibishops and four suffragans, and either no congre. gations or very unimportant ones. A comparison with this directory and that of 1850 shows that the statistics are nearly doubled in the present
In the House of Lords there are now twenty-nine Roman Catholic peers with seats and votes, and the privy-council of the Queen con. tains four Roman Catholic members; while in the nobility of the land there are forty-seven baronets who are Catholics. There are no statistics given of the growth of Roman Catholicism in the middle classes; it seems to be only among the higher ranks that High-Churchism and Catholicism have become fashionable.
The “German Review” gives quite an interesting account of the status of the German universities at the close of the year 1882. The attendance is increasing quite out of proportion to the increase of the population. The number of students in the summer semester of 1872 was 15, 113; but in 1882 it was 23,834–in ten years an increase of 57 per cent. This the Germans regard as alarming, because there is no such increased need of trained men, and the supply will therefore be much greater than the demand. An official warning has gone forth in the German Empire against the over-production of lawyers. But the greatest increase is in the philosophical faculty, including all branches not absorbed by the theological, judicial, and medical studies; and the increase is found mainly in the ten Prussian universities. The ratio of increase has been about even in the medical and theological faculties. For a series of years there was a decrease here, but for the last five years there has been quite an increase. In the entire decade the theologians have made an increase of 39 per cent. in the Protestant faculties. In the faculties of Catholic theology there has been a constant decrease in the last decade; in the seven German universities that have Catholic faculties this has reached about 20 per cent.
The seventh issue of the “Encyclopedia of Christian Antiquities,” by Kraus, which is just out, contains several articles of interest on Christian Archæology, though they are evidently tinged with the Catholic views of the author. A very valuable new work in the same line from a Protestant source is “The Catacombs, their History and their Monuments," by the well-known Dr. Victor Schultze, which has just appeared in Leipsic. From the circumstance that Catholic theologians, mainly, such as Kraus and De Rossi, have had the matter of the catacombs mostly in their hands, it has become a sort of tradition to construe what they find with a Romish tendency. This has in some measure been counteracted by Schultze's work, entitled “Archæological Studies concerning Ancient Christian Monuments,” published some two years ago. But Schultze has spent several years in Italy, engaged in diligent work in the Sicilian catacombs, which has enabled him in many instances to give an entirely free and independent judgment. This author has taken very special pains to examine the significance of these relics in their social, political, intellectual, and ethical bearing.
Professor Victor Schultze writes in the highest terms of the Archæological collection of the University of Leipsic, especially with a view to the study of Christian history. Many of the objects are in copies, for the purpose of academic illustration in teaching. This idea was first broached by Dr. Piper, in Berlin, and then extended to Leipsic. The example has lately been followed by Professor Kraus of Strasburg. This famous Leipsic collection was begun by Professor Brockhaus, in accordance with a resolution of the Ministry of Worship, in 1876, and had made fair progress before his death in 1877. The earlier collections were mainly of objects illustrating the Middle Ages, and the collection was to be not so much a museum as an archæologic apparatus for the illustration of study. Its present condition makes quite an additional attraction for theological students at that vigorous and active university.
Ancient Hebrew poetry has been sulojected to a close scrutiny as regards its artistic form, by Professor Bickell, a very learned author in all that relates to Syriac and Hebrew literature. He is a wanderer from his mother Church over into the Roman Catholic fold, and now laboring in that stronghold of the Church, the quaint old town of Innspruck in the Tyrol. He has just published a Latin work, entitled “ Carmina veteris Testamenti metrice,” in which the Psalter, the Song of Solomon, thie Lamentations, Proverbs, and the Book of Job receive particular attention as to their metrical disposition. This work, and his recent “ Poetry of the Hebrews,” will attract the attention of biblical scholars.
The famous Catholic Lexicon of Wetzer and Welte, that a few years ago made such a stir in the Ultramontane world, has now appeared in a new and much enlarged edition. It of course keeps up its ultra-Romish character, and makes some queer work of the Old Catholics, the “Antichrist,” and the “Reformers,” and it is worthy of the attention of Protestant scholars, in order to let them see how the Mother Church regards some of their heroes and tenets. In the article on the “Angsburg Confession," it is extremely mild and peaceful, and condescends to say: That the few deviations from the old doctrines are so vague and general that a mutual understanding ought not to be difficult. But the author wanders a good deal when he speaks of the reticence of Melanchthon in regard to the Confession of Faith; and he is quite out of the way in the affirmation that only the orthodox and the old Lutherans still cling to the Augsburg Confession, or simply maintain it officially while going over to the common faith of the Protestant people. It is natural to expect that a Catholic lexicon shoulil place all the errors of the Catholic Church in the best light; but we suggest whether it is not going too far, as in the article on “ The Apostolate and Episcopate,” to affirm ju the Apostolate, in order to justify it in the Episcopate, such attributes as the following: Universality, unlimited power, infallibility, and the primacy of Peter as a lasting office.
A deputy in the Prussian Diet lately complained, in a pamphlet entitled " Canossa,” of the use, in many of the seminaries for the training of priests, of the text-book of the French Jesuit, Gury, justifying the crimes of perjury, robbery, adultery, and the falsification of documents, and demanded that it should be expelled from these schools. A Catholic journal demanded in a formal manner that the deputy should give the passages alluded to, with page and paragraph. This the deputy does, with a literal translation from the work in question, together with the original Latin. He adds all sorts of polemical spice to the detailed quotations, and every impartial reader cannot fail to see that he maintains bis points. The title of his little book is as follows: “Where in the Manual of Moral Theology, by the Jesuit, Gury, are robbery, falsification of documents, adultery, and perjury declared to be allowable ?” The book is for sale for a shilling, so as to meet the popular demand, and is likely to make a furore in the fatherland.
“ Walcker's Manual of National Economy" appears in stately style, in Leipsic, in the first volume of fire hundred pages, and promises three more volumes to be finished in 1888. It undertakes to treat the Chris. tian idea as well as the politico-economical, and does this with far more vigor than good sense. The author seems to dislike orthodox Protestantism quite as badly as genuine Ultramontanism, and suggests that a commission be formed of theologians, teachers of ecclesiastical jurisprudence, historians, and national economists, in order to place all the arguments of both sides in a convenient form. He also gives a very thorough presentation of the Jewish question, in which he declares the emancipation of the Jews to be complete in Germany, and thinks it now time to secure the emancipation of the Christians. But in this he fol. lows the footsteps of the learned Mommsen, who would effect this
emancipation in the way of mixed marriages between Jews and Christians. It is, of course, simply ridiculous to suppose that any such measure could be made popular and acceptable, and it certainly could not be forced on any community, simply if for no other reason than that people generally like to make such bargains themselves, and could not be induced to do so by any fantastical politico-economists.
The fourth centennial of Luther's birth, which occurs this year, is occupying the minds of German scholars and historians; and besides many other good and proper things, arrangements are being made for a complete edition of Luther's works as a national monument, for this would be quite as much so as the Cathedral of Cologne. This work is to be done by a commission sustained by the generous hand of the German emperor, and supported by the Ministry of Public Worship. To this commission belong three members of the Academy, the Germanist Müllenhof, the historian Waitz, and the theologian Weiss as representative of the ministry. The work will be published in Weimar, under ministerial sanction. Three volumes will be published yearly, of about four hundred pages, and the price will be made as moderate as possible, to make a large circulation easy. It will take from ten to twelve years to finish the work, and already an appeal for subscriptions in advance is being made to patriots, scholars, and Christian theologians. It will be considered a matter of honor for all public libraries to patronize the work, and a duty and a pleasure to have it in the libraries of churches and schools.
ART. XI.-QUARTERLY BOOK-TABLE.
Dorner on the Future State. Being a translation of the Section of his System of
Christian Doctrine comprising the Doctrine of the Last Things. With an Intro. duction and Notes by NEWMAN Smyth, Author of "Orthodox Theology of To
day,” etc. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1883. 16mo, pp. 155. The purpose of the present volume seems to be to bring the high authority of Dorner before us to justify the speculation of a post-mortem probation. In noticing, in a former Quarterly, Dorner's third volume, we called attention to this peculiarity of his Eschatology, specifying at the same time that he relieved the notion from its worst aspect by applying it only, or mainly, to those beyond the reach of the Gospel message.
So held, not as a dogma to be imposed on the Church, but as a hypothesis relieving to the mind of the individual, the notion need create no great commotion. Similarly, the personal suggestion of Rev. Joseph Cook, that there may be cases of eminently conscientious men whose souls are quickened into a living faith at the moment of transition from time to eternity, may be a conception that one might adopt as a relieving hope. There are eminently consciencegoverned men outside the Church whose rectitude of life often shames the members of the Church, skeptics, it may be, yet comparatively ruled by right, upon whom it seems difficult to pronounce the doom of eternal misery. What shall we say to or of such men ? The great Doctor of the Roman Church, Thomas Aquinas, would say: Heaven is the vision of God to which the pure in heart through Christ are alone admitted; while outside the divine vision are varied regions of happiness, which is not blessedness, where the virtuous not holy abide. And all outside the visional heaven is hell. The holy live in the eternal golden sunshine of glory; the virtuous in the silver moonshine of intellectual enjoyment. Personally we would not peremptorily condemn Mr. Cook's hypothesis as a mental relief to those who need it. We cannot, however, elevate the conception to a dogma, nor write it an article in a structural theology. Whichever way private speculation may verge, we should say to the virtuous not holy man, Your position is, nevertheless, precarious and dangerous; "give heed to make your calling and election sure." Leave not the eternal blessedness to a contingency.
We cannot fully admire the finesses of Mr. Smyth in the present and past volumes. His curvelinear periods about the “New England theology," as if New England had but one theology, and as if a narrow local name for a theology were a recommendation instead of a disparagement, we do not intensely admire. And to cover over his emergence from the past Calvinism of New England under such terms as “the New Orthodoxy,” “the New Calvinism,” “the New Theology," seems to us a very superficial showiness. He seems like a fresh spring butterfly who imagines that such an epoch as his emergence into existence is to make all things “new.” It took long centuries and eons for creation to arrive at his advent. Now we say that truth is old. As Dr. Nevins once said, “Old Calvinism is none the worse for being old.” If oldness were Calvinism's only unfortunate point, that point it shares with geometry and with God. The new geometric truth, discovered not invented, never invalidates the old. We are, and are proud to be, traditionalist. Next to the Bible and conscience we believe in the Church. We study the dogmas of the thinkers of past centuries, and especially the nearest to Christ. With Wesley we love to recur to the “Scriptures and the primitive Church.”