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Mr. Jefferson recommends an Esploring Expedition across the Continent. Meriwether Lewis. Amendments to the Constitution. Error of its Framers. Ohio admitted into the Union. Proposed Retrocession of the District of Columbia. Repeal of Discriminating Duties, and Discontinuance of the Mint proposed. Dry Docks. Yazoo Purchase. Purchase of Louisiana-Its supposed tendency to a Separation of the Western States falsified by time. Constitutionality of admitting Louisiana into the Union. Objections finally waived. Difficulties created by Spain. Meeting of Congress. President's Annual Message. Treaty with France ratified, and possession taken of Louisiana. Professorship of Agriculture.

129

CHAPTER VII.

1804–1805.

The President recommends a repeal of the Bankrupt Law. Bank of the United States. Statistics of Louisiana. Amendment to the Constitution. Naturalization Law. Judge Pickering impeached and removed. Yazoo claims. Loss of the Frigate Philadelphia. His increasing popularity. Views of the Federal Party. Death of Mrs. Eppes. Correspondence with Mrs. Adams. Mr. Jefferson vindicates his course. Letter to Mazzei. Various speculations to which the acquisition of Louisiana gave rise. Mr. Jefferson's view of the consequences of a separation. Expedition against Tripoli. Presidential Election. Meeting of Congress. President's Message. Gun Boats. Impeachment of Judge Chase-his trial and acquittal.

157

CHAPTER VIII.

1805–1806.

The President's Inaugural Address. Discontent of Spain. Eaton's

success against Tripoli. Mr. Jefferson's account of the Climate of America. Complaints of the Trade with St. Domingo. Schisms in the Republican Party. Message to Congress. John Randolph. Relations with Spain. Views of Parties. Appropriation for the purchase of Florida. The course pursued by the Administration assailed and defended. Interruptions to American Commerce by Great Britain. Impressment. Non-intercourse, and other plans of retaliation.

Non-importation Act. Trade with St. Domingo probibited. Cumberland Road. Importation of Slaves. Removal of Judges. Expedition under Lewis and Clark. State of Parties.

181

CHAPTER IX.

1806-1807.

Efforts to make the purchase of Florida. Embassy to France. Letter

to Wilson C. Nicholas. Disposition of parties towards England and France. Policy of the Administration. Letter to William DuaneTo the Emperor of Russia. Rival Candidates for the Presidency. Letter to Mr. Monroe. Negotiation with England. The appropriation of two millions. Letter to Mr. Gallatin. Annual Message. Proposes amendments to the Constitution. Repeal of non-importation law. Burr's Projects. Measures of the Administration to defeat them. Bill for suspending the Habeas Corpus passes the SenateRejected by the House. System of National Defence. Suppression of African Slave Trade, Letter to John Dickinson-To Wilson C. Nicholas.

202

CHAPTER X.

1807.

Negotiations and Treaty with England. Character of the Treaty.

The President declines submitting it to the Senate. Further negotiations. Burr's Conspiracy. His Arrest and Trial. The President's Correspondence with the Attorney of the United States. The right to summon the President. Conduct of the Federalists. Burr's Acquittal. The British ship Leopard attacks the Frigate Chesapeake. Popular excitement-measures of the Administration.-Demand of satisfaction.-Prudent course pursued. Impost on wines. Appointment to Offices. Abuses of the Press. Cabinet Consultations. Letter to Governor Sullivan. Sends his grandson to Philadelphia. His Opinions on the Medical Science.-On removals from Office. The Emperor Alexander.

223

CHAPTER XI.

1807-1808.

The President's Message to Congress. The attack on the Chesapeake,

and measures of the Administration. Proceedings of Congress. The President sends a confidential Message to Congress, and recommends an Embargo-adopted by Congress. Communicates proceedings in

Burr's trial. John Smith, Senator from Ohio. Correspondence between Mr. Monroe and Mr. Canning on the affair of the Chesapeake. Arrival of Mr. Rose from England. Correspondence between him and the Secretary of State. Party views. British Orders in Council. Milan Decree. Mr. Madison and Mr. Monroe rival candidates for the Presidency. Mr. Jefferson's course. His correspondence with Mr. Monroe. British Orders in Council and French Decrees. Report of Committee of Congress. Effects of the Embargo. Its policy considered. Policy of the Administration.

246

CHAPTER XII.

1808-1809.

The President's Message to Congress. The Foreign Relations of the

United States. Correspondence between the American Minister at Paris and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Madison's Correspondence with Mr. Pinkney. Proceedings of Congress. The Embargo. Inquiry as to the two millions appropriated for the purchase of Florida. Effects of the Embargo. Measures of Defence. Embargo taken off. Communication from Mr. J. Q. Adams. State of public affairs. Review of Mr. Jefferson's Administration,

271

CHAPTER XIII.

1809-1810.

Mr. Jefferson returns to Monticello. Friendship between the President

and Ex-President. Complimentary Addresses. Schemes of passing his time-how far successful. Pecuniary difficulties, and their cause. His studies. Address from the Legislature of New York. Orders the dismission of a prosecution for a libel against him. Mr. Erskine's arrangement-its disavowal-bis letter to the President. Vocabularies of Indian Languages. Letter to the Spanish Minister. To Mr. Gallatin. To Mr. Rodney. Kosciusko. His workshop. To Dr. Jones on Cabinet consultations. His views of Napoleon's successes -on the English Constitution-on British Policy. To J. B. Colvin.

296

CHAPTER XIV.

1813.

Poplar Forest. Mr. Jefferson's sentiments towards Great Britain. Let

ter to Mr. Law. National Debt of England. Letter to Dr. Rush. Renewal of Intercourse with Mr. Adams. Letter to Dextu11 Tracy.

Thoughts on the Federal and State Governments. Separation. Correspondence with Mr. Adams." Letter to Mr. Maury-to the President. Common Law of England. On his return to public life.

Thoughts on Vanufactures. On the party divisions of the United States. General Washington. Letter to Madame de Stael. On a Navy. Publication of his Letters to Dr. Priestley. Explanation to Mr. Adams.

316

CHAPTER XV.

1813–1815.

Correspondence with Mr. Adams. On party divisions. On the true

principles of Christianity. On Aristocracy. His frank disclosure of his opinions. His opinion of Napoleon. Letter to Dr. W. Jones. Character of General Washington. To Mr. Cabell on the qualifications of Members of Congress. On the importance of Education, and the division of the country into Wards. The latter policy examined. Napoleon. Plato. Letter to Mr. Monroe. Capture of Washington. Public Finances. To La Fayette. Political condition of France. His feeling towards the English government and nation. Resigns the office of President of the American Philosophical Society.

340

CHAPTER XVI.

1815-1816.

Letter to the President. To Mr. Adams. Napoleon's return to Paris.

Manufactures of the United States. Letter to Benjamin Austin. To John Adams-the good and evil of life-the benefits of grief. To John Tyler. Republican Government. Instructions to Representatives. Independence of the Judiciary. County Courts of Virginia. Exten

of Suffrage. Federal Executive and Senate. Letter to Mr. Crawford. The Drawback System-Regulation of the Militia-Paper Money-Mcans of National Defence.

364

sion of the Right of

CHAPTER XVII.

1815–1817.

Mr. Jefferson's views of the Constitution of Virginia. Letter to Mr.

Kercheval. Distribution of power. Supposed wisdom of ancestors. Periodical revisions of the Constitution. The subsequent Constitution of Virginia compared with his views. Independence of the Judiciary, County Courts. Amendments of the Constitution. Public Debts. The right of representation for Slaves. Letter to Mr. Adams. System of Morals. Efforts to improve Education in Virginia. Central College. Legislative Measures. Location of the University. Letter to Mr. Adams. Spanish America. Letter to Mr. Gallatio. Power to make Roads and Canals considered. Construction of the power to lay Tases.

386

CHAPTER XVIII.

1818–1820.

Letters to Mr. Adams. The people of Kentucky-Spanish America

Condolence with Mr. Adams. Letter to Mr. Walsh. Dr. Franklin.
Mr. Jefferson's domestic habits. Letter to Mr. Adams. Mechlenburg
Declaration of Independence-his doubts vindicated. Letter to Judge
Roane. Relative powers of the Federal and Siate Judicial Depart-
ments. The question of permitting Slavery in Missouri. Letter to
Mr. Adams-Neologisms-Matter and Spirit.

408

CHAPTER XIX.

1819-1823.

The University of Virginia. Massachusetts Constitution. Political

views of Spanish America. His applications to the Legislature in behalf of the University, Letters to Mr. Nicholas. Resolutions of Kentucky. Nullification. His fears of the Judiciary--Examined. Letter to Mr. Morse-against extensive voluntary associations. Arguments considered. His extensive correspondence. Letter to Mr. Barrx.on 1

the Judiciary powers To Mr. Adams-On the Navy of the United States. Dry Docks. Letter to Mr. Adams. Napoleon at St. Helena. Natural Theology. Letter to President Monroe. On the Foreign Policy of the United States.

430

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CHAPTER XX.

1823-1824.

Letter to Judge Johnson. History of parties in the United States. Gene

ral Washington's Farewell Address. Decisions of the Supreme Court. How constitutional questions are to be settled. Letter to Mr. Adams on the progress of civil liberty. Publication of Cunningham's correspondence. Letter to Mr. Adams. Mr. Pickering's review. Letter of vindication to Mr. Monroe. Letter to the President on resisting the interference of the Holy Allies in the affairs of Spanish America. To La Fayette on government. Universal political parties. To Mr. Sparks-on colonization in Africa. Exempling imported books from

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