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THE CELTIC SUBSTRATUM OF ENGLAND.
I. CELTIC SANCTUARIES OVERSHADOWED.
It has been lately asked (6th S. vi. 269, 293) concerning two parishes in Herefordshire, St. Deverenx and St. Weonards, whether the family name Devereux was derived from the first, and what wns the origin of each of the two names of the places. These places are both in the territory which forms the deanery of Irchingfield or Archenfield, now in the county and diocese of Hereford, bat formerly belonging to the see of LlandatT. It is a district on the western or Welsh shore of the Wye, at that part of the river which seems to have been accepted as a substitute for Offa'a Dyke, at the interval where it rendered the continuity of the dyke unnecessary.
As to St. Devereux, it is very far more likely that the family name is derived from the place than the contrary, except that the present, apparently Norman, complection of the place-name may be a reflection back upon it of a Norman affectation in the family name. The district of Archenfield, of which the ante-Saxon name was "Ergyng," was one of the scenes of the most active of the missionary labours of St. Dyfrig=Dubricius, reputed first British Bishop of LlandatT; and the chapel of St. Devereux is one of at least four
dedications in this limited district which still preserve his name. One of them is Hentland, where he is said to have founded a famous college, another is Whitchurch, and Ballingham another; all within about ten miles. St. Dyfrig was a contemporary of St David, and one of the most conspicuous agents of the Davidian apostolate. St. David has also several dedications in Archen field, one of them at Kilpeck, close to St. Devereux; besides these, traces of David's name, Dewi, remain in the secular names of several neighbouring parishes, where most likely his earlier dedication has been usurped by others, less national.
The influence of the name of St. David, although, very great in South Wales, has left no trace in the north. His dedications are, of course, very numerous in the south-western diocese which bears his name, and only less so in LlandatT, including the anciently subject deanery of Archenfield in Herefordshire; but his name is not found among those of either of the two northern dioceses of Bangor and St. Asaph. It extends, however, across the Severn sea, being several times found in Cornwall, Devon, and even Somerset. The less frequent dedications of St. Dyfrig have the same geographical limitation to South Wales and one in Somerset. In the legendary lives of Dyfrig he has, however, been said to have finally retired from his bishopric of LlandatT into the famous seclusion of Bardsey Island, off Carnarvonshire ; but there is no other trace of his name in North Wales, and it may be worth looking into whether there has not been some textual confusion of "Enlli," the ancient name of the Carnarvonshire island, with "Echni," now known as the "Flat Holm," in his own diocese of LlandatT, which, although only ten miles south of his see, is almost as inaccessible a seclusion, and was often adopted as a Patmos—by St. Gildas, for example. It may be worth noting, too, that this island in the Severn estuary is as if a steppingstone across the channel from his Silurian territory to his only remaining dedication on the southern promontory, at Porlock, to which port he may have made missionary visits. The dedications of those early times often indicate a spot frequented by a missionary in his preaching visits, afterwards commemorated by a cross and then a church. The dedications to St. Aldhelm at Bishopstrow=tree, and other outskirts of his forest diocese of Sherborne or Selwood are such a case. As a more famous example of this motive, the site of "Augustine's Oak" is believed to be now covered by a St. Augustine's Church. The ancient names of the two islands will be seen to have some external, though not satisfactory, likeness, and, so far as I see, can only be identified by that last subterfuge, an assumed early mistranscription.
Like St. Devereux, the name St Weonai* repeats, disguised in an English orthography, the name of its chapel or church. In the Liber Llandavensis (pp. 262, 546) it appears as "Llan sant Guainerth," although in Pope Nicholas's Taxation, A.d. 1291, it is "Eccl'ia S'ci Waynard," and in King Henry VIII.'s Valor it also appears as "Sanct' Waynard." The Welsh form enables us to identify Guainerth with another dedication, "Gwinnear," among the crowd of Irish dedications—so freely mixed with Damnonian, Armorican, and Cambrian ones —in West Cornwall, which, more remote from English influence than that in Herefordshire, has not suffered o much change, but, like the Herefordshire one, continues to be the most common secular name of the parish. The Cornish one does, however, appear in the Taxation of A.d. 1291 as " Wynyery," and the place is now sometimes written " Winniar," " Wynnear," &c. Archbishop Usher writes of this saint as "Fingar sive Guigner," one of the associates of St. Patrick (Primord., Dublin, 1639, pp. 851,868,1113). The equivalence of Irish / and Cambrian gw or w is well known, as may be seen in Prof. Khys's Sixth Lecture, or even in the talk of the Highlanders— "fite" for white, &c—in Scott's novels. There is a St. Gwineur at Llangeinor in Glamorgan, and some others both under the Bees of Llandaff and St. Davids, besides Borne others there which have probably been corrupted into similar names. Lobineau mentions several existing dedications of " S. Guignier, autrement S. Fingar," in Armorica.
There is, indeed, one otherwise well-known name which may possibly be identified with Fingar or Guigner. This is St. Cyngar or Cungar, also a follower of Dubricius, usually noted with the alias or surname "Docwin." His name seems to have an equal etymological claim with that of Guigner to identity with Fingar, and the topographical distribution of the two sets of names is remarkably concurrent and of equal nautical access, although their legendary history is divergent. The name of Cyngar remains in Somerset in the name of Congresbury, and is the actual surviving dedication of the church of the neighbouring parish of Badgworth. One of each of these two places is on what must have been the shores of the two adjoining estuaries of the Yeo and the Axe, which, now alluvial, flank the two sides of the western tail of Mendip. Harpsfield (p. 43), quoting Capgrave, also says that this "Cvngarvs, quern Docuinum appellant," founded a monastery on the opposite coast of Glamorgan, no doubt the same as in the Gwentian Caradoc is reported (a.d. 987) as a choir with his name, ravaged by the Danes. This must have been the "Docunni" of the three great monasteries of Glamorgan—Llancarvan, Llanilltyd, and Docunni. There seems to be also a spot still called " Nant J Cyngar" between Cowbridge and Llancarvan
(Cambr. Br. Saints, p. 380). Under his surname Docwin he may be repeated at the opposite port of Watchet, of which the parish is "St. Decuman's," and here again he would be, in Somerset, a near neighbour of St. Dubricius at Porlock. His reputed festival is August 27, and Leland calls him St. Decun. He may, therefore, rather be "Deochain Aedh" of the Martyrology of Donegal, August 31.
The name "St. Weonards," at all events, is evidently an example of a Celtic name disguised as an Anglo-Saxon one, and the transformation is so complete as to include that now scarce and almost obsolescent English peculiarity the diphthong to. The Celtic substance of the name remains, but concealed by a perfect English veneer; and there can be little doubt that the same perfect transformation exists in a very great number, perhaps the majority, of ancient English place-namesover the whole of England, including that extensive area that has been usually given up without even a suspicion of this continuance. It may be worth while to refer again to the case (6th S. v. 131)of"Caer Eumuc," the Anglian mere transliteration or imitation of which, "Eoferwic," resulted in an apparent original construction out of words of known meaning, which would have satisfied the ultimate cravings of etymology if the object obviously imitated had passed out of knowledge. "Caer Eurauc-'' had, however, been already attested by the earlier homage of the Roman imitation "Eburacum." In all the books that are nowadays received as decisive authorities for our earlier history, it is held to be a final proof that a place is of Anglo-Saxon origin that the name of it is " English upon the face of it." A distinguished and most valuable antiquary, Mr. G. T. Clark, not long Bince, speaking at Ewyas Harold, in Archenfield, declared that the whole of that district was English, and that the more ancient people and all that belonged to them had been completely swept away by the Saxon settlers, and in proof of this quoted the plain evidence of the name of Archenfield and the other place-names in the neighbourhood. But Ewyas itself is the name of a Celtic saint, Iwyus of Wilton in Archenfield, and we have seen above that " Archenfield" or " Irchingfield" pre-existed as " Ergyng," and among other similar witnesses, Dyfrig, Guainerth, and David, remain there where they were and still answer to their names.
It will be remembered that there was a most intimate connexion, or rather an alliance, betweeu the Davidian and Patrician apostolates. The results of the Columban mission into North Britain have obtained a more conspicuous place in our history because of that mission's collision with, and even its rivalry of, the Gregorian conversion. But the earlier southern incursions of the Patricias school, through the estuary of the Severn, were in a