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entered Paris. Herr v. Segesser defends his plan of not confining himself to the acts of Pfyffer, but of narrating the history of his times, pausing to tell in detail those parts of the story in which his hero comes to the front. And this scheme, though it may perhaps tend to overshadow the individual, is certainly more -generally interesting than a biography pure and simple. The Swiss standpoint from which the author surveys affairs in France is unusual, and adds to the value of the book, while his thorough knowledge of original authorities and recent writings leaves little to deBire. Some of the more important documents are printed at length. In an appendix Herr v. Segesser reprints a review of a tract by M. Combes, of Bordeaux, which attempts to ■bow, by means of six new documents from Simancas, that the massacre of St. Bartholomew was arranged at the Bayonne interview of 1565 between Catherine de Medici, her daughter Elizabeth of Spain, and Alva. Herr v. Segesser decides that M. Combes has not made ■out his point, Catherine being neither convicted nor cleared of the guilt which attaches to her for that dreadful event. (In' the Bulletin de la Societe aV Etudes dee Hautes Alpes, 1882. pp. 297-8, is published a declaration of Charles IX., dated August 28, 1572, Btating that Coligny had been killed "par son expres commandement," not for any religious reason, but to put an end to bis conspiracy against the king.) Herr v. Segesser is to be congratulated on having now still further established his claim to be the chief historian of Luzern, his native city, and he has added to his previous labours a valuable and interesting monograph on one of the most important figures of the Counter Reformation movement in Switzerland.

Jlpochs of Modern History.The French Revolution, 1789-1795. By Bertha Meriton Gardiner. (Longmans & Co.)

This is one of the best-written little books which has appeared in the " Epochs " series. Mrs. Gardiner (whom we seem to recollect having met before as Miss Cordery) has worked through all the chief French and German works on the subject recently published, and has so thoroughly assimilated them that her book is almost an -original one on a well-worn subject. We are glad to note that she lays stress on the fact that Von Sybel's history is not an impartial one. A short sketch of the state of things before 1789 is followed by a series of chapters on the fall in succession of the monarchy, the Girondists, the Dantonists, Robespierre, and the Montagnards, winding up with the establishment of the Directory and the appearance of the wonderful man who was at once the product and the foe of the Revolution. It is difficult to group all the complicated and nearly contemporaneous events of this period; but Mrs. Gardiner has succeeded admirably, and her work will rank side by side with those of Mr. S. R. Gardiner in the same series on the Puritan Revolution and the Thirty Years' War, as showing that a small book may represent as much labour and historical insight as far bulkier tomes. A number of useful maps are given, amongst which we may specially note a plan of Revolutionary Paris and a map of France in provinces, with the customs frontiers marked, which latter enables one to appreciate the vast economic reform brought about by the substitution of administrative departments for imperfectly united provinces. We trust that Mrs. Gardiner will •continue her historical labours, as she so thoroughly understands how to make history interesting, while not failing in accuracy and extent of knowledge.

The Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma is an accomplish* 1 antiquary. His little tract on The Borough Records of the Towns of Marazion, Penzance, and Saint lies was

originally communicated to the British Archaeological Association. There is not much that is new in it, for the records of these boroughs are not of early date; but it is valuable as giving a synopsis of the sort of information to be found by any one who may hereafter have occasion to make a minute examination of them. One very noteworthy fact is that, so far as Mr. Lach-Szyrma has been able to ascertain, not a single borough paper or legal document of any kind exists in the Cornish language. This is strange, and probably only to be accounted for by the destruction of the older records. Bonfires are yet fashionable in the wast. There were some, we are pleased to hear, at Penzance, in 1881. We do not gather from the paper before us whether the maypole yet exists at Penzance. A new one was set up in 1749.

The Runic Crosses at Gosforih, Cumberland, Described and Explained, by Charles A. Parker (Williams & Norgate), is a reprint of a paper read before the Royal Archaeological Institute. It is a serviceable account of one of the most noteworthy Scandinavian relics in England. We do not in every instance agree with Mr. Parker's mythological explanations. It may not be known to somo of our readers that there has recently been discovered at Gosforth another piece of early sculpture, which may have formed a part of a cross now destroyed. We gather from Mr. Parker's pages that it represents Thor's endeavour to destroy the Midgard worm. This may be so; but his arguments are not convincing to us.

We have received from Messrs. J. C. Nimmo & Bain Walter Savage Landor's Imaginary Conversations, in five volumes. The present edition is printed from that edited by the late John Forster, and cannot but prove generally acceptable.

Shakespeare as an Angler is the title of a little book by the Rev. H. N. Ellacombe announced by Mr. Elliot Stock. It is an enlargement of some articles which appeared in the Antiquary in 1881.

The April number of the Antiquarian Magazine and Bibliographer will contain articles on "Jack Cade's Rebellion," " The Bibliography of the Sculptured Stones of Scotland," and "Thomas Lodge, Poet, Author, Physician, &c."

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