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William Bourne Dliver Peabody.

BORN in Exeter, N. H., 1799. DIED at Springfield, Mass., 1847.

THE AUTUMN EVENING.

[Literary Remains. 1850.)

BEHOLD the western evening light!

So calmly Christians sink away,

Descending to the tomb.

The wind breathes low; the withering leaf

Scarce whispers from the tree:
So gently flows the parting breath,

When good men cease to be.

How beautiful on all the hills

The crimson light is shed !
'Tis like the peace the Christian gives

To mourners round his bed.

How mildly on the wandering cloud

The sunset beam is cast!
'Tis like the memory left behind

When loved ones breathe their last.

And now, above the the dews of night,

The yellow star appears:
So faith springs in the hearts of those

Whose eyes are bathed in tears.

But soon the morning's happier light

Its glory shall restore;
And eyelids that are sealed in death

Shall wake to close no more.

Dliver William Bourne Peabody.

Born in Exeter, N. H., 1799. Twin brother of Dr. Peabody. DIED at Burlington, Vt., 1848.

HYMN TO THE STARS.

[Attributed to 0. W. B. P. It appeared in The Christian Eraminer,” 1824.)

AY, there ye shine, and there have shone
Each rolling, burningly alone,

Through boundless space and couutless time!
Ay, there ye shine-the golden dews

That pave the realms by seraphs trod,
There through yon echoing vault diffuse

The song of choral worlds to God.

Ye visible spirits! bright as erst

Young Eden's birthnight saw ye shine
On all her flowers and fountains first,

Yet sparkling from the hand divine;
Yes, bright as then ye smiled to catch

The music of a sphere so fair,
Ye hold your high immortal watch;

And gird your God's pavilion there!

Gold frets to dust,-yet there ye are;

Time rots the diamond, -there ye roll,
In primal light, as if each star

Enshrined an everlasting soul!
And do they not-since yon bright throngs

One all-enlightening Spirit own,
Praised there by pure sidereal tongues,

Eternal, glorious, blessed, and lone ?

Could man but see what ye have seen,

Unfold awhile the shrouded past,
From all that is, to what has been,

The glance how rich, the range how vast !
The birth of time—the rise, the fall

Of empires, myriads, ages flown,
Thrones, cities, tongues, arts, worships-all

The things whose echoes are not gone.

Ye saw rapt Zoroaster send

His soul into your mystic reign;
Ye saw the adoring Sabian bend —

The living hills his mighty fane!
Beneath his blue and beaming sky

He worshipped at your lofty shrine,

And deemed he saw, with gifted eye,

The Godhead in his works divine.

And there ye shine, as if to mock

The children of a mortal sire!
The storm, the bolt, the earthquake's shock,

The red volcano's cataract fire,
Drought, famine, plague, and food, and flame,

All Nature's ills (and Life's worst woes),
Are naught to you, ye smile the same,

And scorn alike their dawn and close.

Ay, there ye roll-emblems sublime

Of Him, whose spirit o'er us moves,
Beyond the clouds of grief and crime,

Still shining on the world he loves;
Nor is one scene to mortals given,

That more divides the soul and sod,
Than yon proud heraldry of heaven-

Yon burning blazopry of God!

Rufus Choate.

Born in Essex, Mass., 1799. Died at Halifax, N. S., 1859.

THE ELOQUENCE OF REVOLUTIONARY PERIODS.

[Lecture delivered in 1857.-Addresses and Orations of Rufus Choate. 1878.]

If

F

suade to an action, and that to persuade to an action it must be shown that to perform it will gratify some one of the desires or affections or sentiments,-you may call them, altogether, passions,—which are the springs of all action, some love of our own happiness, some love of our country, some love of man, some love of honor, some approval of our own conscience, some fear or some love of God, you see that eloquence will be characterized,—first, by the nature of the actions to which it persuades; secondly, by the nature of the desire or affection or sentiment,—the nature of the passion, in other words,—by appeal to which it seeks to persuade to the action; and then, I say, that the capital peculiarity of the eloquence of all times of revolution, as I have described revolution, is that the actions it persuades to are the highest and most heroic which men can do, and the passions it would inspire, in order to persuade to them, are the most lofty which man can feel. “High actions and high passions,"—such are Milton's words,-high actions through and by high passions; these are the end and these the means of the orator of the revolution.

Hence are his topics large, simple, intelligible, affecting. Hence are his views broad, impressive, popular; no trivial details, no wire-woven developments, no subtle distinctions and drawing of fine lines about the boundaries of ideas, no speculation, no ingenuity; all is elemental, comprehensive, intense, practical, unqualified, undoubting. It is not of the small things of minor and instrumental politics he comes to speak, or men come to hear. It is not to speak or to hear about permitting an Athenian citizen to change his tribe; about permitting the Roman Knights to have jurisdiction of trials equally with the Senate; it is not about allowing a £10 house-holder to vote for a member of Parliament; about duties on indigo, or onion-seed, or even tea.

" That strain you hear is of an higher mood.” It is the rallying cry of patriotism, of liberty, in the sublimest crisis of of the State of man. It is a deliberation of empire, of glory, of existence on which they come together. To be or not to be, -that is the question. Shall the children of the men of Marathon become slaves of Philip? Shall the majesty of the senate and people of Rome stoop to wear the chains forging by the military executors of the will of Julius Cæsar? Shall the assembled representatives of France, just waking from her sleep of ages to claim the rights of man,-shall they disperse, their work undone, their work just commencing; and shall they disperse at the order of the king? or shall the messenger be bid to go, in the thunder-tones of Mirabeau,—and tell his master that “we sit here to do the will of our constituents, and that we will not be moved from these seats but by the point of the bayonet ?” Shall Ireland bound upward from her long prostration, and cast from her the last link of the British chain, and shall she advance “from injuries to arms, from arms to lib. erty," from liberty to glory?

Shall the thirteen Colonies become, and be, free and independent States, and come unabashed, unterrified, an equal, into the majestic assembly of the nations? These are the thoughts with which all bosoms are distended and oppressed. Filled with these, with these flashing in every eye, swelling every heart, pervading electric all ages, all orders, like a visitation, "an unquenchable public fire," men come together, the thousands of Athens around the Bema, or in the Temple of Dionysius, -the people of Rome in the forum, the Senate in that council-chamber of the world,—the masses of France, as the spring-tide, into her gardens of the Tuileries, her club-rooms, her hall of the convention, the repre sentatives, the genius, the grace, the beauty of Ireland into the Tuscan

Gallery of her House of Commons,—the delegates of the Colonies into the Hall of Independence at Philadelphia, —thus men come, in an hour of revolution, to hang upon the lips from which they hope, they need, they demand, to hear the things which belong to their national salvation, hungering for the bread of life.

And then and thus comes the orator of that time, kindling with their fre; sympathizing with that great beating heart; penetrated, not subdued; lifted up rather by a sublime and rare moment of history made real to his consciousness; charged with the very mission of life, yet unassured whether they will hear or will forbear; transcendent good within their grasp, yet a possibility that the fatal and critical opportunity of salvation will be wasted; the last evil of nations and of men overhanging, yet the siren song of peace—peace when there is no peace—chanted madly by some voice of sloth or fear,—there and thus the orators of revolutions come to work their work! And what then is demanded, and how it is to be done, you all see; and that in some of the characteristics of their eloquence they must all be alike. Actions, not law or policy, whose growth and fruits are to be slowly evolved by time and calm; actions daring, doubtful but instant; the new things of a new world, these are what the speaker counsels; large, elementary, gorgeous ideas of right, of equality, of independence, of liberty, of progress through convulsion,—these are the principles from which he reasons, when he reasons,—these are the pinions of the thought on which he soars and stays; and then the primeval and indestructible sentiments of the breast of man,-his sense of right, his estimation of himself, his sense of honor, his love of fame, his triumph and his joy in the dear name of country, the trophies that tell of the past, the hopes that gild and herald her dawn,—these are the springs of action to which he appeals,-these are the chords his fingers sweep, and from which he draws out the troubled music, "solemn as death, serene as the undying confidence of patriotism,” to which he would have the battalions of the people march! Directness, plainness, a narrow range of topics, few details, few but grand ideas, a headlong tide of sentiment and feeling; vehement, indignant, and reproachful reasonings,-winged general maxims of wisdom and life; an example from Plutarch; a pregnant sentence of Tacitus; thoughts going forth as ministers of nature in robes of light, and with arms in their hands; thoughts that breathe and words that burn,—these vaguely, approximately, express the general type of all this speech.

VOL. 1.-32

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