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tinguish the characters of the various nations which attempt deserved to extirminate half the nation, yet are united in its composition.
he has been graciously pleased to spare the lives Naples. We have lately dug up here a curious of his subjects, and not above five hundred have Etruscan monument, broke in two in the raising. been broke upon the wheel, or otherwise executed, The characters are scarce visible; but Lugosi, the upon this horrid occasion. learned antiquary, supposés it to have been erected VIENNA.—We have received certain advices that in honour of Picus, a Latin King, as one of the a party of twenty thousand Austrians, having atlines may be plainly distinguished to begin with a tacked a much superior body of Prussians, put them P. It is hoped this discovery will produce some- all to flight, and took the rest prisoners of war. thing valuable, as the literati of our twelve acade- BERLIN.-We have received certain advices that mies are deeply engaged in the disquisition. a party of twenty thousand Prussians, having at
Pisa.—Since Father Fudgi, prior of St. Gil-tacked a much superior body of Austrians, put bert's, has gone to reside at Rome, no miracles have them to flight, and took a great number of prisoners, been performed at the shrine of St. Gilbert: the with their military chest, cannon, and baggage. devout begin to grow uneasy, and some begin ac- Though we have not succeeded this campaign to tually to fear that St. Gilbert has forsaken them our wishes, yet, when we think of him who comwith the reverend father.
mands us, we rest in security: while we sleep, our LUCCA.-The administrators of our serene re- king is watchful for our safety. public have frequent conferences upon the part Paris.-We shall soon strike a signal blow. they shall take in the present commotions of Eu- We have seventeen flat-bottomed boats at Havre. rope. Some are for sending a body of their troops, The people are in excellent spirits, and our minisconsisting of one company of foot and six horse-ters make no difficulty in raising the supplies. men, to make a diversion in favour of the empress- We are all undone; the people are discontented queen; others are as strenuous assertors of the to the last degree; the ministers are obliged to have Prussian interest : what turn these debates may recourse to the most rigorous methods to raise the take, time only can discover. However, certain it expenses of the war. 's, we shall be able to bring into the field, at the Our distresses are great; but Madame Pompaopening of the next campaign, seventy-five armed dour continues to supply our king, who is now men, a commander-in-chief, and two drummers of growing old, with a fresh lady every night. His great experience.
health, thank Heaven, is still pretty well ; nor is he SPAIN.— Yesterday the new king showed him- in the least unfit, as was reported, for any kind of self to his subjects, and, after having staid half an royal exercitation. He was so frightened at the hour in his balcony, retired to the royal apartment. affair of Damien, that his physicians were appreThe night concluded on this extraordinary occasion hensive lest his reason should suffer ; but that with illuminations, and other demonstrations of joy. wretch's tortures soon composed the kingly ter
The queen is more beautiful than the rising sun, rors of his breast. and reckoned one of the first wits in Europe ; she ENGLAND.—Wanted an usher to an academy. had a glorious opportunity of displaying the readi- N. B. He must be able to read, dress hair, and ness of her invention and her skill in repartee, must have had the small-pox. lately at court. The Duke of Lerma coming up DUBLIN.We hear that there is a benevolent to her with a low bow and a smile, and presenting subscription on foot among the nobility and gentry a nosegay set with diamonds, Madam, cries he, 1 of this kingdom, who are great patrons of merit, in am your most obedient humble servant. Oh, sir, order to assist Black and All Black in his contest replies the queen, without any prompter, or the with the Padderen mare. least hesitation, I'm very proud of the very great We hear from Germany that Prince Ferdinand honour you do me. Upon which she made a low has gained a complete victory, and taken twelve courtesy, and all the courtiers fell a-laughing at the kettle-drums, five standards, and four wagons of readiness and the sinartness of her reply. ammunition, prisoners of war.
LISBON.— Yesterday we had an auto da fe, at EDINBURGH.-We are positive when we say that which were burned three young women, accused Saunders M'Gregor, who was lately executed for of heresy, one of them of exquisite beauty; two horse-stealing, is not a Scotchman, but born in Jews, and an old woman, convicted of being a Carrickfergus. Farewell. witch : one of the friars, who attended this last, reports, that he saw the devil fly out of her at the
LETTER VI. stake in the shape of a flame of fire. The popu- Fum Hoan, First President of the Ceremonial Academy at lace behaved on this occasion with great good hu- Pekin, to Lien Chi Altangi, the Discontented Wanderer; by mour, joy, and sincere devotion.
the way of Moscow. Our merciful Sovereign has been for some time WHETHER sporting on the flowery banks of the past recovered of his fright : though so atrocio.i8 anlriver Irtis, or scaling the steepy mountains of Douchenour ; whether traversing the black deserts surrounding friends, and your master's esteem, it of Kobi, or giving lessons of politeness to the savage has reduced thee to want, persecution, and, still inhabitants of Europe ; in whatever country, what- worse, to our mighty monarch's displeasure. Want ever climate, and whatever circumstances, all hail! of prudence is too frequently the want of virtue; May Tien, the Universal Soul, take you under his nor is there on earth a more powerful advocate for protection, and inspire you with a superior portion vice than poverty. As I shall endeavour to guard of himself!
thee from the one, so guard thyself from the other; How long, my friend, shall an enthusiasm for and still think of me with affection and esteem. knowledge continue to obstruct your happiness, Farewell. and tear you from all the connexions that make life pleasing ? How long will you continue to rove from climate to climate, circled by thousands, and
LETTER VII. yet without a friend, feeling all the inconveniencies of a crowd, and all the anxiety of being alone ? From Lien Chi Altangi to Fum Hoam, first President of the
I know you reply, that the refined pleasure of Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in China growing every day wiser, is a sufficient recompense
A wife, a daughter, carried into captivity to exfor every inconvenience. I know you will talk of
piate my offence; a son, scarce yet arrived at mathe vulgar satisfaction of soliciting happiness from
turity, resolving to encounter every danger in the sensual enjoyment only; and probably enlarge up- pious pursuit of one who has undone him—these on the exquisite raptures of sentimental bliss. Yet
, indeed are circumstances of distress : though my believe me, friend, you are deceived ; all our pleas-rears were more precious than the gem of Golconures, though seemingly never so remote from sense, da, yet would they fall upon such an occasion. derive their origin from some one of the senses.
But I submit to the stroke of Heaven: I hold the The most exquisite demonstration in mathematics, volume of Confucius in my hand, and, as I read, or the most pleasing disquisition in metaphysics, if it does not ultimately tend to increase some sensual feel sorrow, says he, but not sink under its oppres
grow humble, and patient, and wise. We should satisfaction, is delightful only to fools, or to men sion. The heart of a wise man should resemble a who have by long habit contracted a false idea of
mirror, which reflects every object without being pleasure; and he who separates sensual and senti, sullied by any. The wheel of fortune turns inmental enjoyments, seeking happiness from mind
cessantly round; and who can say within himself, alone, is in fact as wretched as the naked inhabitant of the forest, who places all happiness in the first, immutable mean that lies between insensibility and
I shall to-day be uppermost? We should hold the regardless of the latter. There are two extremes
anguish; our attempts should not be to extinguish in this respect: the savage, who swallows down the
nature, but to repress it; not to stand unmoved at draught of pleasure without staying to reflect on
distress, but endeavour to turn every disaster to our his happiness; and the sage, who passeth the
cup while he reflects on the conveniencies of drink- falling, but in rising every time we fall.
own advantage. Our greatest glory is, not in never ing.
I fancy myself at present, O thou reverend disIt is with a heart full of sorrow, my dear Altan
ciple of Tao, more than a match for all that can gi, that I must inform you, that what the world
happen. The chief business of my life has been calls happiness must now be yours no longer. Our great emperor's displeasure at your leaving China, wisdom was to be happy. My attendance on your
to procure wisdom, and the chief object of that contrary to the rules of our government, and the lectures, my conferences with the missionaries of immemorial custom of the empire, has produced the Europe, and all my subsequent adventures upon most terrible effects. Your wife, daughter, and the rest of your family, have been seized by his quitting China, were calculated to increase the
sphere of my happiness, not my curiosity. Let order, and appropriated to his use; all
, except European travellers cross seas and deserts merely your son, are now the peculiar property of him who
to measure the height of a mountain, to describe possesses all: him I have hidden from the officers the cataract of a river, or tell the commodities which employed for this purpose; and even at the hazard
every country may produce; merchants or geograof my life I have concealed him. The youth seems
phers, perhaps, may find profit by such discoveries; obstinately bent on finding you out, wherever you but what advantage can accrue to a philosopher are; he is determined to face every danger that op- from such accounts, who is desirous of understandposes bis pursuit. Though yet but fifteen, all his
ing the human heart, who seeks to know the mer father's virtues and obstinacy sparkle in his eyes, and mark him as one destined to no mediocrity of fortune.
• The editor thinks proper to acquaint the reader, that tho You see my dearest friend, what imprudence greatest part of the following letter seems to him to be little
more than a rhapsody of sentences borrowed from Confucius, has brought thee to: from opulence, a tender family, the Chinese philosopher.
of every country, who desires to discover those dif-, time I shall find them more opulent, more chariferences which result from climate, religion, edu. table, and more hospitable, than I at first imagined. cation, prejudice, and partiality?
I begin to learn somewhat of their manners and I should think my time very ill bestowed, were customs, and to see reasons for several deviations the only fruits of my adventures to consist in being which they make from us, from whom all other able to tell, that a tradesman of London lives in a nations derive their politeness, as well as their house three times as high as that of our great Em-original
. peror; that the ladies wear longer clothes than the In spite of taste, in spite of prejudice, I now be men; that the priests are dressed in colours which gin to think their women tolerable. I can now we are taught to detest; and that their soldiers look on a languishing blue eye without disgust, and wear scarlet, which is with us the symbol of peace pardon a set of teeth, even though whiter than and innocence. How many travellers are there ivory. I now begin to fancy there is no universal who confine their relations to such minute and use- standard for beauty. The truth is, the manners less particulars! For one who enters into the ge- of the ladies in this city are so very open, and so nius of those nations with whom he has conversed; vastly engaging, that I am inclined to pass over the who discloses their morals, their opinions, the ideas more glaring defects of their persons, since comwhich they entertain of religious worship, the in- pensated by the more solid, yet latent beauties of trigues of their ministers, and their skill in sciences; the mind. What though they want black teeth, there are twenty who only mention some idle par- or are deprived of the allurements of feet no bigger ticulars, which can be of no real use to a true phi-than their thumbs, yet still they have souls, my losopher. All their remarks tend neither to make friend; such souls, so free, so pressing, so hospithemselves nor others more happy; they no way table, and so engaging.- I have received more incontribute to control their passions, to bear adver- vitations in the streets of London from the sex in sity, to inspire true virtue, or raise a detestation of one night, than I have met with at Pekin in twelve vice.
revolutions of the moon. Men may be very learned, and yet very miser- Every evening, as I return home from my usual able; it is easy to be a deep geometrician, or a sub- solitary excursions, I am met by several of those lime astronomer, but very difficult to be a good well-disposed daughters of hospitality, at different man. I esteem, therefore, the traveller who in- times, and in different streets, richly dressed, and structs the heart, but despise him who only indul- with minds not less noble than their appearance. ges the imagination. A man who leaves home to You know that nature has indulged me with a mend himself and others, is a philosopher; but he person by no means agreeable; yet are they too who goes from country to country, guided by the generous to object to my homely appearance; they blind impulse of curiosity, is only a vagabond. feel no repugnance at my broad face and flat nose; From Zerdusht down to him of Tyanea, I honour they perceive me to be a stranger, and that alone all those great names who endeavour to unite the is a sufficient recommendation. They even seem world by their travels: such men grew wiser as to think it their duty to do the honours of the counwell as better, the farther they departed from home, try by every act of complaisance in their power. and seemed like rivers, whose streams are not only One takes me under the arm, and in a manner increased, but refined, as they travel from their forces me along; another catches me round the
neck, and desires to partake in this office of hospiFor my own part, my greatest glory is, that tality; while a third, kinder still, invites me to retravelling has not more steeled my constitution fresh my spirits with wine. Wine is in England against all the vicissitudes of climate, and all the reserved only for the rich: yet bere even wine is depressions of fatigue, than it has my mind against given away to the stranger ! the accidents of fortune, or the access of despair. A few nights ago, one of these generous creaFarewell.
tures, dressed all in white, and flaunting like a meteor by my side, forcibly attended me home to
my own apartment. She seemed charmed with LETTER VIII.
the elegance of the furniture, and the convenience
of my situation : and well indeed she might, for I To the same.
have hired an apartment for not less than two shilHow insupportable, O thou possessor of heaven- lings of their money every week. But her civility ly wisdom, would be this separation, this immeasur- did not rest here; for at parting, being desirous to able distance from my friend, were 1 not able thus know the hour, and perceiving my watch out of to delineate my heart upon paper, and to send thee order, she kindly took it to be repaired by a rela. daily a map of my mind!
tion of her own, which you may imagine will save I am every day better reconciled to the people some expense; and she assures me, that it will cost among whom I reside, and begin to fancy, that in Iher nothing. I shall have it back in a few daya
when mended, and am preparing a proper speech, they are employed first in debauching young virexpressive of my gratitude on the occasion : Ce- gins, and then punishing the transgression. lestial excellence, I intend to say, happy I am in From such a picture you will be apt to conclude, having found out, after many painful adventures, that he who employs four ladies for his amusement, a land of innocence, and a people of humanity: I has four times as much constitution to spare as he may rove into other climes, and converse with na- who is contented with one; that a mandarine is tions yet unknown, but where shall I meet a soul much cleverer than a gentleman, and a gentleman of such purity as that which resides in thy breast ! than a player; and yet it is quite the reverse: a Sure thou hast been nurtured by the bill of the mandarine is frequently supported on spindle Shin Shin, or sucked the breasts of the provident shanks, appears emaciated by luxury, and is Gin Hiung. The melody of thy voice could rob obliged to have recourse to variety, merely from the the Chong Fou of her uhelps, or inveigle the Boh weakness, not the vigour of his constitution, the that lires in the midst of the waters. Thy ser- number of liis wives being the most equivocal pant shall ever retain a sense of thy favours ; and symptom of his virility. one day boast of thy virtue, sincerity, and truth, Beside the country 'squire, there is also another among the daughters of China. Adieu. set of men, whose whole employment consists in
corrupting beauty; these, the silly part of the fair sex call amiable; the more sensible part of them,
however, give them the title of abominable. You LETTER IX.
will probably demand what are the talents of a
man thus caressed by the majority of the opposite To the Same.
sex ? what talents, or what beauty is he possessed
of superior to the rest of his fellows? To answer I have been deceived ! She whom I fancied a you directly, he has neither talents nor beauty; but daughter of paradise, has proved to be one of the then he is possessed of impudence and assiduity. infamous disciples of Han! I have lost a trifle : With assiduity and impudence, men of all ages, I have gained the consolation of having discovered and all figures, may commence admirers. I have a deceiver. I once more, therefore, relax into my even been told of some who made professions of former indifference with regard to the English la- expiring for love, when all the world could perceive dies; they once more begin to appear disagreeable they were going to die of old age: and what is in my eyes. Thus is my whole time passed in more surprising still, such battered beaux are geforming conclusions which the next minute's ex-nerally most infamously successful. perience may probably destroy; the present mo- A fellow of this kind employs three hours every ment becomes a comment on the past, and I improve morning in dressing his head, by which is underrather in humility than wisdom.
stood only his hair. Their laws and religion forbid the English to He is a professed admirer, not of any particular keep more than one woman ; I therefore concluded lady, but of the whole sex. that prostitutes were banished from society. I was He is to suppose every lady has caught cold deceived ; every man here keeps as many wives as every night, which gives him an opportunity of he can maintain: the laws are cemented with calling to see how she does the next morning. bloud, praised and disregarded. The very Chi- He is upon all occasions to show himself in very nese, whose religion allows him two wives, takes great pain for the ladies; if a lady drops even a not half the liberties of the English in this particu- pin, he is to fly in order to present it. lar. Their laws may be compared to the books of He never speaks to a lady without advancing his the Sibyls; they are held in great veneration, but mouth to her ear, by which he frequently addresses seldom read, or seldom are understood; even those more senses than one. who pretend to be their guardians, dispute about Upon proper occasions, he looks excessively the meaning of many of them, and confess their tender. This is performed by laying his hand upon ignorance of others. The law, therefore, which his heart, shutting his eyes and showing his teeth. commands them to have but one wife, is strictly He is excessively fond of dancing a minuet with observed only by those for whom one is more than the ladies, by which is only meant walking round sufficient, or by such as have not money to buy the floor eight or ten times with his hat on, affecttwo. As for the rest, they violate it publicly, and ing great gravity, and sometimes looking tenderly some glory in its violation. They seem to think, on his partner. like the Persians, that they give evident marks of He never affronts any man himself, and never manhood by increasing their seraglio. A manda- resents an affront from another. rine, therefore, here generally keeps four wives, a He has an infinite variety of small talk upon ali gentleman three, and a stage-player two. As for occasions, and laughs when he has nothing more the magistrates, the country justices and 'squires, Ito say.
Such is the killing creature who prostrates him- are sent yearly from Pekin, abuse their authority, self to the sex till he has undone them: all whose and often take the wives and daughters of the insubmissions are the effects of design, and who to habitants to themselves. The Daures, accustomed please the ladies almost becomes himself a lady. to base submission, feel no resentment at those in
juries, or stifle what they feel. Custom and necessity teach even barbarians the same art of dis
simulation that ambition and intrigue inspire in the LETTER X.
breasts of the polite. Upon beholding such un
licensed stretches of power, alas ! thought I, how To the Same.
little does our wise and good emperor know of I Have hitherto given you no account of my these intolerable exactions! these provinces are too journey from China to Europe, of my travels through distant for complaint, and too insignificant to excountries, where nature sports in primeval rudeness, pect redress. The more distant the government, where she pours forth her wonders in solitude; the honester should be the governor to whom it is countries, from whence the rigorous climate, the intrusted; for hope of impunity is a strong inducesweeping inuudation, the drifted desert, the howl- ment to violation. ing forrest and mountains of immeasurable height, The religion of the Daures is more absurd than banish the husbandman and spread extensive de- even that of the sectaries of Fohi. How would solation ; countries, where the brown Tartar wan- you be surprised, O sage disciple and follower of ders for a precarious subsistence, with a heart that Confucius ! you who believe one eternal intelligent never felt pity, himself more hideous than the Cause of all, should you be present at the barbarous wilderness he makes.
ceremonies of this infatuated people! How would You will easily conceive the fatigue of crossing you deplore the blindness and folly of mankind! vast tracts of land, either desolate, or still more His boasted reason seems only to light him astray, dangerous by its inhabitants; the retreat of men and brutal instinct more regularly points out the who seem driven from society, in order to make path to happiness. Could you think it ? they adore war upon all the human race; nominally professing a wicked divinity; they fear hiin and they worship a subjection to Muscovy or China, but without him ; they imagine him a malicious Being, ready any resemblance to the countries on which they to injure and ready to be appeased. The men and depend.
women assemble at midnight in a hut, which serves After I had crossed the great wall, the first ob- for a temple. A priest stretches himself on the jects that presented themselves were the remains ground, and all the people pour forth the most horof desolated cities, and all the magnificence of ve- rid cries, while drums and timbrels swell the innerable ruin. There were to be seen temples of fernal concert. After this dissonance, miscalled beautiful structure, statues wrought by the hand music, has continued about two hours, the priest of a master, and around, a country of luxuriant rises from the ground, assumes an air of inspiraplenty ; but not one single inhabitant to reap the tion, grows big with the inspiring demon, and prebounties of nature. These were prospects that tends to a skill in futurity. might humble the pride of kings, and repress hu- In every country, my friend, the bonzes, the man vanity. I asked my guide the cause of such brahmins, and the priests, deceive the people: all des.lation. These countries, says he, were once reformations begin from the laity; the priests point the dominions of a Tartar Prince; and these ruins, us out the way to Heaven with their fingers, but the seat of arts, elegance and ease. This prince stand still themselves, nor seem to travel towards waged an unsuccessful war with one of the empe- the country in view. rors of China : he was conquered, his cities plun- The customs of this people correspond to their dered, and all his subjects carried into captivity. religion; they keep their dead for three days on the Such are the effects of the ambition of Kings ! same bed where the person died; after which they Ten Dervises, says the Indian Proverb, shall sleep bury him in a grave moderately deep, but with the in peace upon a single carpet, while two Kings head still uncovered. Here for several days they is all quarrel, though they have kingdoms to divide present him different sorts of meats; which when them. Sure, my friend, the cruelty and the pride they perceive he does not consume, they fill up the of man have made more deserts than Nature ever grave, and desist from desiring him to eat for the made! she is kind, but man is ungrateful ! future. How, how can mankind be guilty of such
Proceeding in my journey through this pensive strange absurdity? to entreat a dead body, already scene of desolated beauty, in a few days I arrived putrid, to partake of the banquet! Where, I again among the Daures, a nation still dependent on repeat it, is human reason? not only some men, China Xaizigar is their principal city, which, but whole nations, seem divested of its illuminacompared with those of Europe, scarcely deserves tion. Here we observe a whole country adoring • the name. The governors, and other officers, webol divinity through fear, and attempting to feed the