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the respond* is Et gloriamini &c. Then the praier which wee yet retain-Deus cujus hodierna die &c. But the rubrick to the pie saith, sacerdos dicat both the praier and the lætamini—that is, som rubricks do ; otherwise I take the benediction to bee of more priestlie consequence then the oremus &c., which yet was solemnly performed by the chorister-bishop, as will follow. In their return from the altar, præcentor puerorum incipiat, &c.-the chanter-chorister is to begin—De Sancta Maria &c. The respond is felix namque &c., sic processio &c. The procession was made into the quire by the west dvor, and in such order (as it should seem by Molanus) that the dean and canons went foremost, the chaplains next, the bishop with his little prebends in the last and highest place. The bishop taketh his seat, and the rest of the children dispose of themselves upon each side of the quire upon the uppermost asscent, the canons resident bearing the incens and the book and the petit canons, the tapers, according to the rubrick. And from this hour to the full end of the
A respond is a short anthem, interrupting the middle of a chapter which is not to proceed 'till the anthem is done. The long responses are used at the close of the lessons. (Wheatley's Rat. Illustr. p. 142.) I may as well take this opportunity of explaining from the same authority two or three similar words that occur constantly in the writers of the Romish Church. Verses—either the versicle that follows the respond in the breviary, or else those hymns, which are proper to every Sunday and holyday, composed in the most illiterate ages of Christianity. Com. MEMORATIONS—are the mixing the service of some holyday of lesser note with the service of a Sunday or holyday of greater eminency, on which the less holyday happens to fall. In which case it is appointed by the ninth general rule in the breviary that only the hymns, verses, & C., and some other part of the service of the lesser holyday be annexed to that of the greater. SYNODALS—were the publication or recital of the Provincial Constitutions in the parish churches; for after the conclusion of every provincial synod, the canons thereof were to be read in the churches, and the tenor of them to be declared and made known to the people, and some of them to be annually repeated on certain Sundays in the year.
next daies procession, none of the clergy, whatever may be their rank, ascend to the upper seats.
Then the Bishop from his seat says the vers, speciosus formá &c. Diffusa est gratia labiis tuis. Then the praier, Deus qui salutis æternæ &c. Pax vobis. Then after the Benedicamus Domino, the Bishop of the Children sitting in his seat is to give the benediction, or bless the people in this
Princeps Ecclesia, pastor ovilis, cunctam plebem tuam benedicere digneris &c. Then turning towards the people hee singeth or saith (for all this was in plano cantu; that age was so far from skilling discants or the fuges that they were not come up to counterpoint) Cum mansuetudine humilitate vos ad benedictionem, the chorus answering Deo gratias. Then the cross-bearer delivereth up the crosier to the bishop again, and then the bishop, having first crossed his forehead says, Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini, the chorus answering qui fecit cælum et terram. Then, after some other like ceremonies performed, the Episcopus Puerorum, or Chorister Bishop, begineth the Completorium or Complyn, and that don hee turneth towards the quire and saith Adjutorium &c. then last of all hee saith, Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus Pater, et filius, et spiritus sanctus.
On Innocent's Day at the second vespers let the crossbearer receive the crosier of the boy-bishop, and let them sing the antiphon as at the first vespers. Likewise let the boybishop bless the people in the way above mentioned, and the service of this day be thus fulfilled.* Rubric PROCESSIONAL. And all this was don with that solemnitie of celebration and appetite of seeing thạt the statute of Sarum was forced to provide that no man whatsoever under the pain of anathema should interrupt or press upon these children at the procession spoken of before, or in anie other pait of their service in anie waies, but to suffer them quietly to
I have taken the liberty in this and some other places of putting the rubric itself into English, but have left the chaunts, antiphons, &c. undisturbed.
perform and exsecute what it concerned thein to do. And the part was acted yet more earnestly, for Molanus* saith that this bishop in some places did receiv rents, capons, &c. during his year &c.f And it seemeth by the statute of Sarum, that hee held a kind of visitation, and had a full corespondencie of all other state and prerogative. More then all this, Molanus tells us of a chorister-bishop in the church of Cambraie, who disposeth of a prebend, which fell void in his moneth (or year, for I know not which it was) to his master. In case the chorister-bishop died within the moneth, his exsequies were solemnized with an answerable glorious pomp and sadness. He was buried, as all other bishops, in all his ornaments, as by the monument of stone, spoken of before, it plainly appeareth."I
To this description Gregorie has added the monumental figure of the boy-bishop in Sarum Cathedral, with an animal lying at his feet, which has to all appearance the head and body of a dog though much defaced, while the tail would seem to indicate a dragon. If the little monster, as Gregorie calls him, be intended for the latter, the allusion is plainly enough to the old story of bruising the head of the serpent. This would indeed seem to be the
The works of Molanus are numerous, and Gregorie has forgotten to tell us to which one he alludes. His disquisition on the Pictures and Images of Saints I have already had occasion to quote from, and it is really well worth the attention of the curious reader.
+ The boy-bishop, being once elected, was not to feast abroad, but to confine himself to the society of his companions, perform his sacred functions in the church, and in all respects act up to his assumed dignity. Gregorie quotes the Statute of Sarum to this effect—" Electus autem puer Chorista in episcopum modo solito puerile officium in ecclesia (prout fieri cons
onsuevit) licenter exsequatur, convivium aliquod de cætero vel visitationem, exterius vel interius, nullatenus; sed in domo communi cum sociis conversetur &c. ecclesiam et scholas cum cæteris choristis statim post festum Innocentium frequentando &c.”
GREGORII POSTHUMA, or CERTAIN LEARNED Tracts, written by John Gregorie, p. 114. 4to. London, 1649.
more probable explanation of the figure, the only thing against it being that we so often find the dog occupying the same place in ancient sepulchres. Thus we are told by the Nubian geographer when speaking of the seven sleepers : “The Inhabitants of the Cavern are in a certain middle province between Amorræa and Nicæa; and that subterranean is in a mountain less than a thousand cubits high, in which there is a ladder-like way leading from its hase up to that spot wherein lie the said inhabitants. On the summit of the mountain is a cave like to a well, by which you descend to the gate of your journey, and having passed through it for somewhat more than a quarter of a mile, you come to a place open to the day-light, where you behold a portico supported on columns cut out of the rock, with little chambers; amongst these is one, the entrance of which is about a man's height, having a stone door, and within it repose the dead, who are called the Inhabitants of the Cavern. They are seven in number, and lie upon their sides, being anointed with aloes, myrrh, and Kafur.* At the feet of each lies a dog, rolled up as it were, his head reflexed upon his tail.”+
The youth, however, who was elected to the high pri* Kafur, I believe, is camphor.
+ “Incolæ cavernæ sunt in provincia quadam media inter Amorræam et Nicæam ; et caverna illa est in monte minus quam mille cubitis alto, in quo patet via schalæ instar, a terræ solo ad eum usque locum perducens, in quo jacent predicti incolæ speluncæ. In summitate montis cernitur caverna puteo similis, per quam descendere licet ad januam itineris per quod trecentorum passuum spatio cum progressus fueris exibis in locum luminosum ubi cernes porticum excisis sustentatam columnis cum aliquot cubiculis, inter quæ unum deprehendes cubiculum habens limen unius mensura staturæ, cum janua de lapidibus excisis, et intra illud mortuos, qui vocantur incolæ Arracquim. Sunt autem numero septem, dormiuntque super latera sua, quæ sunt oblita aloë, myrrha, et Kafur ; et ad eorum pedes canis jacet convolutus capite ad caudam reflexo.”—GEOGRAPHIA NUBIENSIS in Lat. versa a G. Simita et J. Hesronita. Pars Quarta. p. 235. Parisiis.
vileges that I have just been describing, was not chosen without due reference to his mental and bodily qualifications. It was indispensable that he should be well versed in the church ceremonies, and that he should be handsome, or else his election became null and void.* From this it would seem that the clergy considered the ceremony as important, and one which was likely to influence the minds of the people, a supposition that is yet farther strengthened when we find it strictly forbidden by Henry the Eighth,t and revived by his daughter Mary.I For this revival a special enactment was issued by the bishop of London, and it certainly does not say much for the fervour or the orthodoxy of the people that the pageant should have been so great a favourite as it evidently was with them. When on the subsequent Saint Nicolas' Eve the Cardinal ordered that the Boy-Bishop should not walk abroad because he had summoned the head of the clergy to him at Lambeth House to be absolved of their sins, these Saint Nicolases were still carried about in divers parishes to the great delight of the citizens.
“ Capitulum ordinavit, quod electio Episcopi Puerorum in ecclesia Eboracensi de cætero fieret de eo, qui diutius et magis in dicta ecclesia laboraverit, et magis idoneus repertus fuerit, dum tamen competenter sit corpore formosus, et quod aliter facta electio non valebit.” -Registr. Archiv. Eccles. EBOR.-as quoted by Warton in his History of English Poetry, vol. iii. p. 303.
+ This was by a solemn proclamation in the 33rd year of his reign, A.D. 1541. See Bishop Hall's TRIUMPHS OF ROME. To be sure Henry had by this time quarrelled with Rome, and made himself, if name,
at least in reality, the Pope of England. I Strype, in his HISTORICAL MEMORIALS, (vol. iii. chap. xxv. p. 202) records under the head of November 13, “ it was commanded by the Bishop of London to all clerks in his diocese to have S. Nicolas, that is a boy-bishop, in procession, and to go abroad, as many as were so minded, according to an old superstition.”
§ “On the 5th of December, the which was St. Nicolas' Eve, at evensong time came a commandment that St. Nicolas should not go abroad nor about. But notwithstanding it seems so much were the