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from Juniores, the younger part of the Romans, to whom Romulus assigned the defence of the city, or from the old word Junonius; or from Junius Brutus, because in this month Tarquinius being driven froin the city, he in pursuance of his vow dedicated a temple upon Mount Cælius to Carna, the Goddess of the Hinge (Cardinis) who, according to Ovid, by her power opens or shuts all things.*

Amongst our Saxon ancestors this month had various names, and all of them much more appropriate than the one we have borrowed, and retained, from the Romans. It was called Weydmonath, from the German weiden, to pasture;+ Medemonath; Midsumormonath; Braeckmunath, or Brachmonat, i. e. breaking the soil, from the Saxon bræcan; Solstitialis; Woedmoneth, i. e. weed-month; and Lida-erra.

The month opens with an abundant Flora, the vernal flowers being gradually succeeded by those which we may call the solstitial the two Yellow Day Lilies; the

* Prima dies tibi, Carna, datur ; Dea cardinis hæc est ;
Numine clausa aperit, claudit aperta suo.

P. Ovidii N, Fastorum, lib. vi. l. 101. The poet then goes on to detail the amours of Janus and Carna, but they are neither very delicate, nor particularly worth repeating.

+ Dr. Sayers, in speaking of this name, has fallen into a most unaccountable blunder; he says “ weyd is probably from the German weyden, to go about, as if to pasture.” (Disquisitions, p. 255.) Weyden, or as it is now written, weiden, signifies to feed, to pasture ; and the “going about,” which he imagines to be the real signification of the verb, is nothing more than a necessary concomitant of the action. No doubt the sheep while feeding, or pasturing, are constantly in motion.

I “I can find no satisfactory account of the word Lida ; Lida, or Litha, signifies in the Icelandic tongue, to move, or pass over (Gloss. to Soemundar Edda); and I am in some degree supported by Bede's remarks on this month, in conjecturing that Lida implies the sun's passing its greatest height, and that LIDA ERRA consequently means the first month of the sun's descent. Lida is by some deemed the same as set-lift or smooth-air."-Sayer's Disquisitions, p. 255.

earliest, or Orange Lily; the Yellow Flag, with various other species of Iris. The Papaver Argemone, the earliest of our field poppies, is now in blow. The Monkey Poppy ; pinks of all kinds; and roses, both wild and of the garden, come forth in profusion; while the peonies are going out, the tulips fading, and the blossoms on the latest fruit-trees fall off and are succeeded by a full green foliage. The yellow colour of the fields still remains, and continues till the grass is mowed towards the end of the month, the buttercup (Ranunculus acris) being the latest of this genus. As the month advances we have Clover in blossom, both white and red; beans and peas putting forth their blossoms : gooseberries ; the Madock Cherry, commonly called the May-Duke; cauliflowers and various sorts of garden vegetables; the oorn-flag or sword-lily; the Indian Pink in full flower; and a variety of sea-plants, such as the Sea-barley (Hordeum maritimum), Sulphurwort (Pucedanum Officinale), Loose Sedge in salt marshes (Carex Distans), the Sea-Plantain (Plantago Maritima), among rocks on the coast; the Slender-leafed Buffonia (Buffonia Tenuifolia), the Tassel Pondweed (Ruppia Maritima) in saltwater ditches ; the common Alkanet (Anchusa Officinalis), the Narrow-leafed Pepperwort (Lepidum Ruderale), the Roman Nettle (Urtica Pilulifera), in sea-wastes; the Black Saltwort (Glaux Maritima), on muddy shores; the Sea Chickweed (Arenaria Peplaides), and the common Sea-Rocket (Bunias Cakile), on sandy shores ; and the Perfoliate Cabbage (Brassica Orientalis), among maritime rocks. As the month still farther progresses, St. Barnaby's Thistle, the Corn-Rose or Red Poppy, the Doubtful or Pale Red-Poppy, begin to flower and arrive at their greatest abundance about the sulstice, from which time they continue to blow all the summer; Pinks ; Sweet Williams ; Canterbury Bells ; Deadly Night-Shade ; Jas

from Juniores, the younger part of the Romans, to whom Romulus assigned the defence of the city, or from the old word Junonius; or from Junius Brutus, because in this month Tarquinius being driven froin the city, he in pursuance of his vow dedicated a temple upon Mount Cælius to Carna, the Goddess of the Hinge (Cardinis) who, according to Ovid, by her power opens or shuts all things.*

Amongst our Saxon ancestors this month had various names, and all of them much more appropriate than the one we have borrowed, and retained, from the Romans. It was called Weydmonath, from the German weiden, to pasture;ł Medemonath; Midsumormonath; Braeckmunath, or Brachmonat, i. e. breaking the soil, from the Saxon bræcan; Solstitialis; Woedmoneth, i. e. weed-month; and Lida-erra.

The month opens with an abundant Flora, the vernal flowers being gradually succeeded by those which we may call the solstitial the two Yellow Day Lilies; the

* Prima dies tibi, Carna, datur , Dea cardinis hæc est ;
Numine clausa aperit, claudit aperta suo.

P. Ovidii N. Fastorum, lib. vi. l. 101. The poet then goes on to detail the amours of Janus and Carna, but they are neither very delicate, nor particularly worth repeating.

+ Dr. Sayers, in speaking of this name, has fallen into a most unaccountable blunder; he says “ weyd is probably from the German weyden, to go about, as if to pasture.” (Disquisitions, p. 255.) Weyden, or as it is now written, weiden, signifies to feed, to pasture ; and the “ going about,” which he imagines to be the real signification of the verb, is nothing more than a necessary concomitant of the action. No doubt the sheep while feeding, or pasturing, are constantly in motion.

I "I can find no satisfactory account of the word Lida ; Lida, or Litha, signifies in the Icelandic tongue, to move, or pass over (Gloss. to Soemundar Edda); and I am in some degree supported by Bede's remarks on this month, in conjecturing that Lida implies the sun's passing its greatest height, and that LIDA ERRA consequently means the first month of the sun's descent. Lida is by some deemed the same as set-lift or smooth-air."-Sayer's Disquisitions, p. 255.

earliest, or Orange Lily; the Yellow Flag, with various other species of Iris. The Papaver Argemone, the earliest of our field poppies, is now in blow. The Monkey Poppy ; pinks of all kinds; and roses, both wild and of the garden, come forth in profusion; while the peonies are going out, the tulips fading, and the blossoms on the latest fruit-trees fall off and are succeeded by a full green foliage. The yellow colour of the fields still remains, and continues till the grass is mowed towards the end of the month, the buttercup (Ranunculus acris) being the latest of this genus. As the month advances we have Clover in blossom, both white and red; beans and peas putting forth their blossoms : gooseberries ; the Madock Cherry, commonly called the May-Duke ; cauliflowers and various sorts of garden vegetables; the oorn-flag or sword-lily; the Indian Pink in full flower; and a variety of sea-plants, such as the Sea-barley (Hordeum maritimum), Sulphurwort (Pucedanum Officinale), Loose Sedge in salt marshes (Carex Distans), the Sea-Plantain (Plantago Maritima), among rocks on the coast; the Slender-leafed Buffonia (Buffonia Tenuifolia), the Tassel Pondweed (Ruppia Maritima) in saltwater ditches ; the common Alkanet (Anchusa Officinalis), the Narrow-leafed Pepperwort (Lepidum Ruderale), the Roman Nettle (Urtica Pilulifera), in sea-wastes ; the Black Saltwort (Glaux Maritima), on muddy shores; the Sea Chickweed (Arenaria Peplaides), and the common Sea-Rocket (Bunias Cakile), on sandy shores ; and the Perfoliate Cabbage (Brassica Orientalis), among maritime rocks. As the month still farther progresses, St. Barnaby's Thistle, the Corn-Rose or Red Poppy, the Doubtful or Pale Red-Poppy, begin to flower and arrive at their greatest abundance about the suistice, from which time they continue to blow all the summer; Pinks ; Sweet Williams ; Canterbury Bells ; Deadly Night-Shade ; Jas

mine ; Scarlet Lychnis ; and the great Viper Buglos. Some fields are still adorned with the later of the Yellow Crowfoots, while others are purple with Sainfoin, and in others again the haymaking has begun; the Wheat is tall and green; our Lady's Slipper, St. John's Wort, and the Blue Sow-thistle and Foxglove, or Digitalis, begin to blow. To sum up the Flora of the month in the words of a popular author,—"nearly all the plants of the Vernal Flora now remain in blow when not molested. The Stinking or Oxford Groundsel is in full flower. Marigolds are abundant, and continue all the rest of the summer and autumın. The Orange and some other Lilies are in flower ; and in early years we may look for the opening of the White Lily. In the fields, the Mallows begin to blow. By this time the Midsummer Daisy is abundantly in flower, and in some places certain fields are as much covered with it as others are in May with Dandelions, Crowfoots, and Buttercups. The two latter of these plants continue to flower, and would do so as late as the middle of July were they not mown down in the grass for hay. The several sorts of Corn Camomile, and others of this sort begin to blow, and St. John's Wort begins to be seen in the hedges. The Cistus Helianthemum begins to show its yellow flowers by the way-sides; and the Mulleins or Verbasca to grow and show signs of flowering. The Red Poppies still paint the young corn-fields with their bright scarlet flowers. Roses and Pinks are still in the greatest perfection. Here and there in the fields the bright strawcoloured yellow of Sinapis Arvensis (i. e. Wild Mustard or Charlock) abounds, and its distant effect is beautiful."

In the early part of this month mackarel are taken abundantly on our southern coasts; some young birds of the early broods are on the wing, though hardly to be recognized in their first plumage; the Bat is now less

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