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Equity.-F. Fitchett, esq., M. A., LL, D., Dunedin.
Statute law.-J. W. Salmond, esq., M.A., Temuka.
Practice and procedure.-C. J. Foster, esq., LL. D.,

Christchurch.

C.-Medicine.

Physics and inorganic chemistry.-Prof. D. F. Brown, M. A., Auckland.
Biology.-Prof. A. P. W. Thomas. M. A., F. L. S., Auckland.

Organic chemistry and practical chemistry.- Prof. J. G. Black, M. A., B. SC., Dunedin, and J. R. Don., esq , M. A., B. SC., Dunedin.

Anatomy.-Prof. J. H. Scott, M. D., M. R. C. S., England, F. R. S. E., Dunedin, and L. Barnett, esq., M. D., C. M., L. R. C., P. s., Dunedin.

Physiology.-Prof. J. H. Scott, M. D., M. R. C. S., England., F. R. S. E., Dunedin, and D. Colquhoun, esq., M, D., L. R. C. P., London, M. R. C. S., England, Dunedin.

Pathology.-W.S. Roberts, esq., M. R. C. S., England, Dunedin, and F. H. Jeffcoat, esq., M. B., C. M., Dunedin.

Materia medica.-1. de Zouche, esq., M. D., Dunedin, and E. W. Alexander, esq., M. R. C. P.S., Dunedin.

Surgery.--W. Brown, esq., M. B., C. M., Dunedin, and W. E. Collins, esq., M. B., M. R. C. S., Wellington.

Medicine.-D. Colquhoun, esq., M. D., L. R. C. P., Lendr", M. R. C. S., England, Danedin, and F. Fell, esq., M. R. C. S., L. R. C. P., London, Wellington.

Midwifery and discases of women.-F. H. Jeffcoat, esq., M. B., C. M., Dunedin, and W. Fell, esq., M. R. C. S., L. R. c. P., London, Wellington.

Medical jurisprudence and public health.-F. Ogston, esq., M. D., C. M., Dunedin, and F. Truby King, esq., M, B., B. SC.,

Dunedin.

D.-Music.

Physics.-Prof. F. D. Brown, M. A., Auckland.
Harmony.-J. Fred. Bridges, esq., Mus. Doc., London.
History of music.-G. F. Tendall, esq., Mus. Bac., Christchurch.

A.- Matriculation and medical preliminary.

Latin.-Prof. Pond, B. A., Auckland.
Greek.-Prof. Pond, B. A., Auckland.
English.-Mrs. Evans, M. A., Nelson.
French.--Rev. C. Turrell, M. A., Christchurch.
German.-W.M. Clarke, esq., M. A., Christchurch.
Arithmetic.-Prof. Shand, M, A., LL. D., Dunedin.
Algebra.-Prof. Cook, M. A., Christchurch.
Euclid.-Prof. Aldis, M. A., Auckland.
History.--Prof. J. M. Brown, M. A., Christchurch.
Geography.-Prof. Gilray, M. A., Dunedin.
Physics.-Prof. Shand, M. A., LL. D., Dunedin.
Chemistry.-Prof. F. D. Brown, M. A., Auckland.
Mechanics.-Prof. Cook, M. A., Christchurch.
Biology.-Prof. Parker, B. SC., F. R. S., Dune:lin.

B.-Junior scholarships.

Lalin.-Prof. Pond, B. A., Auckland.
Greek.-Prof. Pond, B. A., Aucklaud.
English.-Mrs. Evans, M. A. f, Nelson,
French.-Rev.C, Turrell, M. A., Christchurch.
German.-W.M. Clarkc, esq., M. A., Christchurch.

Physics.-Prof. Shand, M. A., LL. D., Dunedin.
Chemistry.-Prof. F. D. Brown, M. A., Auckland.
Mechanics.-Prof. Cook, M, A., Christchurch.
Mathematics.-Prof. Cook, M. A., Christchurch.
Geography and history.-Prof. Gilray, M. A., Dunedin.
Botany.-Prof. Parker, B. SC., F. R. S., Dunedin.

There are on the university roll the following who have become graduates by examination: Bachelors of arts ..

187 Bachelors of science

11 Bachelors of laws..

20 Bachelors of medicine and surgery

11 Masters of arts

114 Doctors of laws

2 Doctors of medicine

The following graduates have been admitted ad eundem gradum: Bachelors of arts

29 Bachelors of science

2 Masters of arts ....

65 Bachelors of medicino

3 Doctors of medicine

16 Bachelors of laws

2 Doctors of laws....

3 Bachelor of music .....

1 The present fellows of the New Zealand University are Rev. J. C. Andrew, M. A. (vice-chancellor); Hon. C.C. Bowen, M. L. C.; F. D. Brown, M. A., B. SC., Oxon; J. M. Brown, M. A.; C. H. H. Coop), M. A., Rt. Rev. W. S. Cowie, D. D.; F. Fitchett, LL. D., M. A.; J. Giles; Hon. M. S. Grace, M. L. C., M. D.; Rev. W. J. Habens, B. A.; James Hay, M. A., LL. B.; Sir James Hector, R. C., M. S., M. D. (chancellor); Duncan Macgregor, M. A., M. B.; W.D. -, M.A., LL. B.; Sir George M. O'Rorke, Kut., B.-A.; Rev. J. Paterson; Ilis honor, Sir J. Prendergast, Kut. Chief Justice, B. A.; Most Rev. F. Redwood, D. D.; Hon. Wm, Rollerton, B. A.; J. S. Sale, M. A.; Rev. W. Salmond, D. D.; J. Halliday Scott, M. D.; John Shand, LL. D., M. A.; Hon. Sir Robert Lut, R. C. M. S.

These fellows constitute the governing body of the university.

CHAPTER III.

EDUCATION IN FRANCE.

Part I.-Brief conspectus of the state system of education and operations in 1890-91,
Part II.The progress of primary schools since Guizot's law, 1833. Translation from

La Population Française par E. Lerasseur.
Part III.-Higher primary and classical schools of France..

MATERIAL CONSULTED.-Statistique de l'enseignement primaire, 1886-87.-L'enseignement

secondaire, 1865, 1887.-L'enseignement supérieur, 1878-88.Recueil des monographies pédagogiques, Tomes I, II.-Résumé des États de situation de l'enseignement, 1889-90, 1890-91.— Rapports sur le budget général de l'exercice, 1892–93.-Service de l'instruction publique, par Charles Dupuy.-L'enseignement primaire public à Paris, par E. Duplan, Tome II.-Revue Internationale de l'enseignement, August 15, 1888.-Files of the Bulletin administratif.Plans d'études et programmes de l'enseignement secondaire classique et moderne.

PART I.

BRIEF CONSPECTUS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND OPERATIONS

IN 1890 AND 1891.

(France: Republic, area, 204,092 square miles; population (census, 1891), 38,218,903.)

The public system of education in France comprises all grades of scholastic institutions, primary, secondary, and superior, which derive their support from State and local appropriations. Authority over these is vested in a cabinet officer, the Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts, who exercises his control through a large body of officials appointed by himself or by the President of the Republic in advice with the minister. These officials belong either to the central ministry or to the local subdivisions, i. e., académies (17 in number). Each of the three grades of instruction constitutes a distinct department of the system under the charge of a director: who ranks next in authority to the minister. While the operations of each department

1

1 By A. Tolman Smith, specialist in English, French, and Belgian school systems.

2 M. Léon Bourgeois held this portfolio from March 17, 1890, to December 6, 1892. At the latter date M. Charles Dupuy was appointed to the position, and at the same time the Ministry of Worship, formerly combined with that of justice, was transferred to his province.

3 M. Louis Liard is director of superior instruction; M. Babier, of secondary; M. F. Buisson, of primary.

are regulated by laws and decrees special to itself, nevertheless each académie forms an administrative unit, the academic chief, i. e. rector, being the virtual head of all the public institutions of his académie. He is the sole intermediary between the minister and the superior institutions (facultés), but for the service of secondary and primary instruction there are also general inspectors who report immediately to the minister.

The minister is assisted by the superior council of public instruction, a representative body of 60 members, three-fourths of whom are elected by their peers from the various orders of public instruction, the remainder being appointed by the President. The council is not only an advisory, but also a judicial body, being the final court of appeal in certain cases of contention; as, for example, cases of the removal of . teachers by local authorities.

Professors of superior and secondary public institutions, and teachers of public primary schools constitute a State teaching force whose requirements are determined by law or ministerial decree; salaries are regulated and paid by the State.

The public technical schools of France (École polytechnique, École supérieure des mines, etc.) are not comprised in the system, the minister of public instruction sharing the control over these with other ministers. Private schools are also outside of the system, although the conditions under which they may be established are determined by the minister of public instruction, and they are measurably subject to State supervision.

In respect to the control and conduct of primary instruction, two orders of the political divisions of France, i. e., departments (90 in number) and communes (30,000),' are treated as divisions and subdivisiors of the académies.

The chiefs of departments (préfets) have a measure of control over primary schools; these must be established by the communes. Neither rectors nor préfets have unlimited control in their respective provinces, but must act upon the advice of local councils (academic and departmental), which, like the superior council, are elective bodies, composed of members of the teaching profession, inspectors, etc. In each académie there is an inspector (inspecteur d'académie), who directs the general work of the primary schools. A constant inspection of individual schools is maintained by the primary inspectors, of whom there are 450 or one to about 150 schools, distributed among the departments as the number of schools may demand. These inspectors, both academic and departmental, are appointed by the minister. No person is eligible to the inspectorate who has not successfully passed the examination for

The departments are the chief division for local administration. They are divided into arrondissements, each of which contains generally a number of communes. It happens, however, that large towns often fill up one or even more arrondissements in which case the arrondissement becomes a part of the commune. Thus Paris, which is one conimune, comprises 20 arrondissements.

the inspector's diploma (certificat d'aptitude à l'inspection des écoles primaires).

It would seem from this survey that locally constituted authorities have little control in educational matters. This is true with respect to the higher orders of education, but not so in respect to primary schools. Communal authorities have here a decisive voice, since they furnish buildings and equipments and a proportion of the fund for current expenditure. The views and wishes of taxpayers are made known through the communal councils, and the power of the purse causes them to be respected. In Paris, for example, where the school expenses are entirely provided from local funds, the communal council' is the controlling power.

The following statistics from the latest official report show the operations of the system whose general features have been outlined.

Scholastic institutions and statistics for 1890-91.-To the department of primary instruction belong infant schools (Écoles maternelles, ages 2 to 6 years), enrolling in 1890-91 a total of 709,579 children (public, 465,333; private, 244,246); primary schools (elementary ages, 6 to 13; higher ages, 12 to 14 or 16) enrollment, 5,593,883 (public, 4,384,905; private, 1,208,978). Of the total number 41,018 were in higher primaries. Boys and girls were about equally represented, viz, 2,823,428 and 2,770,455, respectively. The teaching force numbered 152,436 persons (women, 86,965, including teachers of infant schools; men, 65,471), distributed as follows: Infant schools 8,686 (public, 5,133; private, 3,553); primary schools, 143,750 (public 101,272; private, 42,478).

[Public primary schools numbering 67,318 comprised 100,064 classes; private primaries, 14,672 in number, 38,166 classes. Of the public schools 72 per cent, and of the private 32 per cent, had but one class. A completely graded primary school comprises three divisions: Elementary, ages 7 to 9; intermediate (moyen), 9 to 11; superior, 11 to 13. Each division has two classes. Promotions are made annually. The certificate of primary studies which exempts from farther compulsion as regards school attendance is required for promotion to the superior division and also admits candidates to the higher primaries. Although the test is not obligatory the number of candidates annually increases. The number successfully passing this examination rose from 165,211 in 1889 to 173,368 in 1890 and to 184,506 in 1891.

The following statistics reported January 1, 1891, in comparison with the previous year are interesting: Number of school libraries, 38,240; number of volumes, 5,111,201; increase, 771 and 213,991 respectively. Teachers' reference libraries (bibliothèques pédagogiques), 2,631, with 963,538 volumes; increase, 25,251, Number of school gardens, 51,989; gymnasiums, 6,318; workshops, 742; increase, 109, 369, and 3, respectively. School savings banks (caisses d'épargne scolaires), 20,689; number of depositors, 453,319; amount deposited, 12,830,355 francs ($2,566,071); these figures show a slight decline since January 1, 1890. Tuo funds for aiding poor children, purchase of prizes, etc. (caisses des écoles), numbered 16, 212, an increase of 37 over 1889. The total receipts for 1890 amounted to $1,062,149 and the disbursements to $828,008. Teachers' mutual benefit associations (sociétés de secours mutuels) to the number of 41,931 were in operation with a capital of $1,065,142.]

1 The commune of Paris is governed by a town council of 80 members, divided into committees for various puble

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