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cultural colleges; just how many it is difficult to say. As a means to secure to such young men the benefits of an institution endowed especially for the education of the farming classes, short courses in agriculture, and in some cases in horticulture and in veterinary science, have been devised. The manner of conducting these courses is not the same everywhere, but it is a mistake to say that the effort is to crowd a four years' course into two years or one year. They are as carefully arranged and as judiciously adjusted as the longer agricultural courses. The two courses above given are fair examples of a two years' and a one year's course.
The following course is that offered by the Michigan Agricultural College, as the result of a gradual growth since the organization of the college:
Agricultural course, Michigan Agricultural College.
Hours. Fall Algebra .. 2 Agriculture-lec. Anatomy
2 Botany or forestry... 10 Ancient tures
5 Laboratory practice. 1 Chemical physics.... 10 history.. 5 Algebra
2 Organic chemistry.. 5 Veterinary science .. 5 English... 5 Botany-lectures.
5 Geometry. 3 Geometry
3 Moral philosophy. 5 Laboratory practice.. 3 Rhetoric. Surveying
2 Blowpípe analysis .. 5 Two essays, speeches. als..... 2 | Trigonometry 3 Shakespeare
Essays and speeches. Winter .. Agricul. Botany
9 Analytical chemis- Civil engineering.... 5 ture. 5 American litera- try.
10 United States ConstiAlgebra .. 3 ture
5 Drawing.. 10 Rhetoric.
5 United States hisGeometry. 2 Rhetoricals
5 Rhetoric- Military tactics... 5 Shakespeare. 1 Geology,
5 als..... 2
Military tactics 5 | Horticulture..
Veterinary science 5 Spring ... Algebra 3 Systematic botany 2 Agriculture
5 English literature
1 Geometry. 2 Chemical manipu. istry.....
5 Rhetoric.. 5 lations.... 2 Entomology
5 Finance lectures.
5 Shakespeare 1 Veterinary scienco
Quantitative analysis 10
One of the greatest difficulties with which the movement in behalf of agricultural education in the United States has had to contend has been that of extending the benefits of the schools established and maintained by the Federal grants to the farmers themselves, and to the sons of farmers, who are unable from lack of time or any other cause to attend the college for the whole period covered by the course or often even for the time of a single session. Various plans have been proposed to meet this difficulty; short courses have been offered, as above described, and farmers' institutes and clutave been organized in pursuance of the university extension But a scheme has been adopted within the last two years in sev the Western States by which such students may receive much practical instruction at
reity or college by means of le courses exte
As an example, the ng is the by the University
Short course for farmers-(Four lectures daily).
[Delivered at the University of Nebraska in February, 1892.) 1. Good government.
19. Plant foods. 2. State education.
20. Flowers and reproduction. 3. Practical education.
21. Seeds and germination. 4. Anatomy and physiology of horses 22. General propagation. and cattle.
23. The apple orchard. 5. The vineyard and small fruit garden. 24. Climatology. 6. Wind-breaks and hedges.
25. Sugar beets (3 lectures). 7. Electricity applied to vegetable 27. Sugar production. growth (2 lectures).
28. Structure, development and trans8. Soundness in animals.
formation of insects. 9. Horses' feet.
29. Life histories and habits of insects: 10. Stable and farm hygiene.
Remedies. 11. Infectious diseases of stock.
30. Insect enemies of garden and forest 12. Breeds of cattle.
vegetation. 13. Cattle foods.
31. Insect enemies of grains and grasses. 14. Stock-breeding-heredity.
32. Insect enemies of domestic animals. 15. Stock-breeding-principles of prog- 33. A few geological hints.
34. The old-time racers. 16. Sheep and wool interests.
35. drop of the water we drink. 17. Plant structure.
36. Inoculation, with practical instruc18. Plant growth.
tion in all methods. The last schedule—that of the Kansas Agricultural College-illustrates the manner in which the agricultural and mechanical work may be combined in a single course.
Course of study, Kansas State Agricultural College.
Fall...... Algebra, English Geometry, element. Trigonometry
Agriculture or litera. analysis, geomet. ary chemistry, hor. surveying, agricul. ture, physics and rical drawing, in. ticulture, industrial. tural chemistry, meteorology, psydustrial.
general history, in. chology, indus. dustrial (farm and trial.
garden). Winter .. Algebra, English Geometry (completed), Mechanics, constitu: Logio, zoölogy,
composition, book. agriculture or tional history and structural botany, keeping, free. household economy,
government, veterinary science
dustrial (cooking). Spring ... Algebra, English Anatomy and physi. Civil engineering, or Geology, political
structure, botany, ology, entomology, hygiene, physics, economy, an electindustrial (car- analytical chemis. English literature, ive in agriculture, pentry or sewing). try, twelve lectures
perspective draw. horticulture, meon military science, ing, drafting, indus. chanics or related industrial(farm and trial.
sciences, indus. garden or dairy).
INSTRUCTION IN THE MECHANIC ARTS IN AGRICULTURAL AND
MECHANICAL COLLEGES. The history of manual training has been too often written to need more than a brief notice here. It may properly be said to have superseded the old system of apprenticeship in the industrial arts. In Europe it is not wholly a modern idea, but in the United States it has only reached anything like complete development within the present generation. The first regular manual training school established in this country was that at St. Louis, connected with the Washington University. Its founder was Dr. C. M. Woodward, under whose direction it is still continued, and is generally recognized as among the foremost schools of its kind in the United States. Unlike the movement for the advancement of agricultural education, the manual training idea was at once received into popular favor. Its practical utility was so thoroughly apparent, and the results of its work so immediately available, that a demand for departments of industrial training or mechanic arts arose in all parts of the country, and especially in the cities and manufacturing towns. This demand was in many places speedily met by the establishment of such departments by private and incorporated institutions of learning, by the founding of special manual training schools by the States and by individuals, and, in recent years, not a few of the States have introduced work of an industrial nature as part of the regular course of the public schools.
Thus in many of the colleges endowed by the act of 1862 the mechanic arts received attentiou from the first. In 1890, nearly all the State beneficiaries were found to bave at least rudimentary mechan. ical departments. What each college has accomplished in this line since that time, with the aid of the last Federal endowment, will appear in the following sketches of their work.
An idea of the proportion observed in the expenditure of the fund for mechanical departments and for all other departments allowed by the act of Congress may be obtained from the following table, which shows the percentage of the total expenditure for the year ended Jano 30, 1892, which was applied to the department of mechanic arts:
This table, it will be noticed, gives the expenditure and ratio by States, and not by colleges. In one sense such a comparison is somewhat misleading, as in some instances, where the most complete mechanical departments are maintained, the expenditure for that purpose during the year was small. In general, where the ratio has been highest, it has been due to the purchase of equipment for a department that was but poorly supplied before, or where no such department had before existed.
There are now in almost every State manual training schools, other than those maintained as departments of the agricultural and mechanical colleges; but with few exceptions their facilities for instruction can hardly be compared with those possessed by the latter institutions. Where the shops for the mechanic arts have been for some years in operation it has been found necessary to replace a portion of their equipment every few years, so constant is the improvement in all kinds of mechanical apparatus. As a result the expense of keeping up such shops to the highest standard of usefulness is comparatively great.
The States, by appropriating funds for the erection of mechanical buildings, have done much to render the development of the departments of mechanic arts possible. Without such aid the benefits of the Federal grant would have been seriously limited in this line of work.
There are two wholly different plans of instruction to be found in different colleges in the United States where shop work is made a part of the course. The one known as the Russian system is based upon the idea that every piece of work undertaken by the student in the shops should have a distinct educational value; no time is expended in the production of articles for use or for the market. Every operation from the first to the last mechanical exercise is to be considered as a link in the chain of the complete mechanical course. The other method of instruction is to employ students in the making of articles of value, to teach them more by continual practice than by detailed instruction, often to employ them out of doors in performing carpenter's or smith's work, and, in general, to make them learn by doing. It is noticeable that the most successful schools are those where neither the one nor the other plan is strictly adhered to, but where constant practice in the use of tools is required, while at the same time no student is allowed to undertake work for which he has not been previously prepared. The great ad. vantage which the so-called Russian system has over a course that is wholly or mainly utilitarian lies simply in the fact that it is a system, and a mystem which makes possible the development of manual meChanical training as a science. The difference in final results obtained is that the one method tends to produce a skilled laborer, the other a master mechanic; but it is well known that without a union of practice and system little can be done toward producing either.
A careful study of the organization of the mechanical departments of the agricultural and mechanical colleges discloses the fact that the more complete the equipment of these departments, the greater the facilities for instruction, and the higher the standard of work in the mathematical and physical sciences, the stronger is the tendency get away from the purely industrial cast of the shop-work and to 11
the manual labor required partake more of the nature of laboratory practice. One sometimes hears it said that it is only the lower grade institutions which attempt to prepare students for the practice of a trade; but this is manifestly an unjust stricture upon the work of certain colleges whose functions must necessarily be of a somewhat peculiar nature, as, for instance, the colored schools and the colleges recently established in the newer States. It must be remembered that, like everything else, a perfect mechanical course can only be maintained as the result of a gradual and long-continued growth. It would be clearly absurd to prescribe a highly technical course of mechanics when the previous training of the pupils was wholly inadequate.
Another rather surprising fact to be noticed in regard to these departments is the ease and rapidity with which they have generally been organized and equipped, and the readiness with which the regular college work has adjusted itself to the new conditions introduced thereby. It might reasonably have been expected that some difficulty would be experienced in their harmonious assimilation with the rest of the course.
But such has not been the case. They seem, in fact, to meet exactly a long-felt want, to fall naturally, as it were, into symmetrical coöperation with all other departments. Instead of being, as was anticipated by some, mere abnormal excrescences upon the legitimate curricula-uncongenial attachments to be carried," because the law provided for them they have become the source of very material advantage to the institutions, and where conscientiously and intelligently developed, there is almost no department that is not benefited by their work.
In looking at the provisions made by the colleges for the mechanical departments, we are at once struck by the very liberal policy on the whole adopted, as regards their apparatus and preparation for successful work. While some colleges, whose limited means oblige them to make a modest beginning, have been unable to furnish separate buildings for this purpose, most of them possess very conveniently arranged shops. These are usually three or four in number, a carpenter's shop, a forge room, a furnace room (or one room for both kinds of work), and a machine shop. Separate tools are provided for each student in all bench work, and often many of the most frequently used power machines, such as lathes and saws. In the forge room, or, as it is sometimes more properly called, the blacksmith's shop, each student or set of students is given the use of a fire, an anvil, and the necessary smith's tools. In the furnace room or foundry, benches, one or more large furnaces, and frequently a large cupola, are provided. The most elaborate equipment is that of the machine shop, which includes the steam plant and electric plant, milling machines, drills, etc. The yearly advancement in physical science makes this department the most difficult to maintain properly, as the first cost of the plant is not always the greatest.