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The College of Law has had-307 graduates since 1876, the date of its foundation106 are now in administrative offices, 114 are law officers, 9 are teachers in secondary schools, 5 are members of the house of representatives, 2 are principals of private schools, 5 are bank employés, 3 employés of private companies, 14 are practicing lawyers, 3 are students of University Hall, 12 students in foreign countries, 1 is a voluntary conscript for one year, of 20 the occupation is unknown, while 13 are deceased.

The average age of the students in the College of Law at date of graduation was 24 years 8 months in 1889; in 1890 it was 24 years 10 months; and in 1891 it was 25 years.

Nothing is said in the university calendar of the methods of instruction followed.


To the questions submitted to foreign institutions IIon. Charles Denby, United States minister to China, to whom a copy was sent, replied under date of January 8, 1892, from Peking, as follows:

"I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 14th of November, last. Being a lawyer by profession, and acknowledging the debt that I owe to the bar, it will afford me the greatest pleasure to answer the questions transmitted by you.

"An answer, seriatim, is not necessary, because there are no lawyers in China, and consequently no school or institution such as are inquired about. Lawyers are not permitted to appear in Chinese courts. There are several lawyers at Shanghai who practice in the mixed court, Her Britannic Majesty's court, and the consular courts. The mixed court is peculiar to Shanghai and is held by a Chinese magistrate and a

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member of one of the consulates. The foreign lawyers are all Englishmen and are admitted to the bar before coming to China. There is no American practicing law in China. There is a species of legal writer who prepares papers to be filed in the courts. His standing is low and he is considered to be disreputable. In the civil and criminal courts there is no appearance by attorney. There are no regular forms of pleading. The disputations of the parties are oral.

"The consuls have civil and criminal jurisdiction over their own fellow nationals. The proceedings are conducted according to the law of the nationality of the consul. The law of the United States is administered in the consular courts. Of course, this law may be modified by custom, which must be proved like any other fact. The Revised Statutes define the law governing the consular courts as being the statutory law of the United States, equity, admiralty, and the common law. This system is very incomplete. There is no common law applicable to crimes in the United States, and there are few United States statutes defining crimes. The States have their own codes. The consuls and minister are sometimes worried as to the sources of their power, but we usually manage to find authority in the common law.

"There should be a code of laws applicable to the East, to islands, and to savage countries. It would not be difficult of preparation and it would relieve consuls from much doubt and annoyance."



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Bowyer, G. Introduction to the Study and Use of the Civil Law and to Commentaries on the Modern Civil Law. London, 1874.

Brackenridge, II. H. Introduction to the Study of the Law. 8°. Philadelphia, 1814. Prepared by Mr. W. Addis. See note to Chapter XIII, page 376.

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