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All the girls in any public school in which there is a mistress or assistant mistress shall learn needlework, and the inspector shall judge all other work done by the girls more leniently than that done by the boys in such a degree as would be implied in reducing by 10 per cent the minimum marks required for any examination pass. To socure full approval the needlework of the several classes must be according to the following programme:
Cutting out any plain garment and fixing it for a junior class; darning stockings (fine and coarse) in worsted or cotton; grafting; darning fine linen or calico; patching the same; darning and patching fine diaper.
If knitting is learned it shall be in the following order: A strip of plain knitting; knitted muffatees, ribbed; a plain knitted child's sock; a long ribbed stocking.
Additional subjects. Recitation.-A list of pieces learnt, and one piece (or more) specially prepared for the examination.
Singing.- Easy exercise on the chords of the dominant and subdominant; exercises in triple time; use of dotted notes; melodies, rounds, and part songs, in common with the higher standards.
This system was inaugurated in 1877. Previous to that year there had been different systems in different provincial districts, for since the year 1853 down to the end of 1876 there existed in New Zealand a modified federal form of government called the Provincial system. There were originally six provinces, but these were ultimately enlarged to nine, and it may be well to give the kind of education in existence under the Provincial system. It was as follows:
Auckland Secular... Board and local 293.
house. Prohibited dur. Capitation rato committees. holder: 108. per ing school of 108.
per nonhouseholder. hours.
child. Canterbury .... Mixed.... Superintendent 208. per house. Duriuy school 58. per quarter. and local com holder.
only at re.
week. buildings; tax ing school of £l on single hours. men in receipt of 2100 per al
annum. Marlborough ......do..... Board and com- Rate of, from d.
From 18. 01. to mittees to 3d. in pounds
15.9. per quaron buildings.
ter. Nelson ..... Mixed....! Board and local 208.
In schoolhonrs; Capitation rato committeos. holder.
children of of 38.
per objecting pa child. rents to be al. lowed to with
dra. Otago.. .do.....Superintendent Grantsin aid from Bible Teal
at Varying fees, as and his execute provincial coun.
opening of levied tive and local cil.
board. comunitices. Taranaki Undetin'd. Loard al local 20s.
per house. Not prorided 6.6.7. per quarCommitteey. holder.
ter. Willington .... Mixed.... Boarul ani lveal td. in the pound Same as Nelson. 58. per quarter.
Given before or Capitation rate com nitices. householder. aiter school of 10s.
The board generally consisted of the superintendent and his executive, that was the governor of federal state or province. Aids to private schools were given in Hawkes Bay, Nelson, Marlborough, Turanaki, Wellington, and Westland.
The provinces, however, were abolished, and education was made colonial, and the system above mentioned was adopted. There was, however, no provision in the new colonial act for higher education except what was called district high schools, which provided for the following:
The education board of any district on receiving an application in writing from the committee may, with the express sanction of the minister previously obtained, convert any public school in the district into and establish the same as a district high school,
Every such district high school shall be under the charge of a head master and buch number of duly qualified masters and assistants as the board shall from time to time consider necessary.
All the branches of a liberal education, comprising Latin and Greek classics, French, and other modern languages, mathematics, and such other branches of science as the advancement of the colony and the increase of the population may from time to time require, may be taught in such school. For such higher education, fees shall be paid by the pupils at such rates as shall be fixed by regulations.
In every district high school instruction shall also be given in the ordinary branches of education prescribed by this act to be given in public schools.
It was thought necessary to incorporate some of the secondary schools that had been managed by provincial boards.
As each school is dealt with its mode of management will be mentioned. It will be seen that several of them are similar in their constitution; that is, they have a board appointed by different bodies, and they are quasi public schools. Two or three of the schools that will be mentioned are managed by church organizations, but give the higher secular instruction. A general system of education was, so to speak, laid down in 1877, amalgamating the various provincial systems that had been previously in existence, and prescribing a uniform mode of providing for elementary instruction. There has, however, not been as yet any general law for secondary schools. Some of those that now exist were founded far back in the early days of the colony, others are of more recent creation, but no general plan has been adopted for their management or for their endowment. Some have had land grants, some have had money endowments, some for a time had annual grants from parliament, and some mainly depend upon their fees.
There are 24 secondary schools under government inspection. There are also what are termed 6 district high schools; that is, elementary schools, with higher classes added to them and controlled by a rector.
It will be well to deal with each school separately, stating its constitution, its endowment, the subjects taught, the mode of paying the teachers, the staff, the buildings, etc. In doing this it will be wise to begin at the northern part of the colony, and at the same time it may be noted that the islands of New Zealand have a long seaboard stretching from 340 latitude south to 480 latitude south, and in such a range of latitude there is necessarily a great range of temperature. The climatic conditions vary considerably, the northern part being almost subtropical whilst the southern part is temperate. There is, however,
this to be remarked, that there is no severe winter. Snow is almost unknown except on the ranges or in the high lands in the interior. All along the seaboard, even the most southern, snow never lies. New Zealand has been termed by Mr. Fiske, the American writer, “the land of the spring time," and it is not an inapt name. In the far north, however, there is quite a warm enough summer.
To appreciate properly the standards and education of the secondary schools, reference must be made to the New Zealand University, for its entrance and scholarship examinations furnish the tests for secondary school work. A short description of the university teaching and examinations will appear further on.
AUCKLAND COLLEGE AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
Beginuing in the northern district, there is the Auckland College and Grammar School. This institution was first established in 1850 by a grant of land made to trustees for a college and grammar school. The following principles were to be observed in conducting it: (1) The branches taught were to be the English language,mathematics and Greek and Latin. (2) Evening classes were to be maintained in connection with the schools. (3) Persons of all races were to be admitted on equal terms. (4) Free scholars were to be maintained so far as the fund per. mitted. The foundation deed gave certain lands as endowments, and in the year 1891 the total rents obtained from landed property amounted to £2,676 17s.6d. Three hundred pounds was received from reserves for the girls' school in addition. The school was created a corporation by an act of the general assembly in 1877.
The following is a short history of the school: Foundation.-In the year 1852 his excellency Sir George Grey, as governor of the colony, set apart certain endowments for the foundation and maintenance of a grammar school or schools in Auckland. In 1851 these endowments passed into the hands of the provincial government. In 1868 a board of governors was constitute and empowered to employ a portion of the endowments in starting the school. The sui made available baving been found insufficient, a subsequent act authorized the board to deal with the whole endowment and accumulations, and provided a site with an old building upon it. In this building the school was opened on May 17, 1869, by his royal bigliness the Duke of Edinburgh, and his excellency Sir George Bowen, the governor of the colony. More than ten years, however, clapsed before it found a permanent home in a building erected for the purpose. In the meantimo it had changed its quarters more than once and had for a time been dispersed among two or three small buildings.
Gorerning body.—The first board of governors mentioned above consisteil of the superintendent and executive of the Auckland province, the speaker of the provincial council, and three members elected by that body. In 1876, on the passing of the education boards act, the school was handed over to the Auckland board of educa tion, but in the following year an act proviiled a special board consisting of three members elected by the members of the legislative assembly resident in the Auckland province, three elected by the Auckland board of education, and one ex-officio member, namely, the mayor of Auckland. Subsequently three members representing tho senate of the University of Now Zealand were added.
Title.-The dual title of the school is a record of the fact that from 1871 to 1882 it was aftiliated to the University of New Zealand. But the establishment of the Anckland University College having removed the necessity for such a connection, disaffiliation was sought and obtained. The title, however, was not changed.
Head masters.-The first head master was the Rev. Robert Kidd, LL. D., of Trinity College, Dublin. He was succeeded after two years by Farquhar Macrae, est., who held office until 1881, wlion it was resolved to obtain from England a graduate in honors of Oxford or Cambridge. J. A. Sloman, esq., B. A. (Sydney) was appointed to act as head master during the interregnum. In January, 1882, the present head master, C. A. Bourne, esq., M. A., sometime exhibitioner and scholar of St. John's College, Oxford, was elected by a board of four commissioners, of whom the Rev. Dr. Jowett, master of Balliol College, Oxford, was chairman.
Provision for the reception of boarders.-It was understood when the school was founded that the wants of the country districts should be, as far as possible, met by the provision of a schoolhouse for the reception of boarders, but though the governors have from time to time had this subject under consideration, and on one occasion actually resolved on the erection of a school house, and had designs prepared, this important addition is still wanting.
Girls' side.-Until September, 1888, the benefits of the school were confined to boys. Claims had indeod been put forward on behalf of the secondary education of girls, but it was clear that such an application of the endowment had not been originally contemplated, and it was at least doubtful whether it would be legal. Moreover, the board of governors were carrying on a girls' high school, receiving an annual subsidy from tho legislature for the purpose. But in the year mentioned this grant was withdrawn, and the school was closed in consequence. To meet this emergency, the girls' side was opened. The arrangement, which was intended to be temporary, has now continued for four years. The two sides are carried on in the same building, but are kept separate in work and in play. The hoad master is in charge of both, and he and other masters take part in the instruction of the higher classes on the girls' side.
Curriculum. The principal subjects of instruction are Latin, French, mathematics, various branches of natural and physical science, English history, geography, drawing (freehaad, mechanical, and geometrical); reading and writing, bookkeeping, and mensuration are also taught, chiefly as alternative for Latin, which is optional. For Greek there is no appreciable demand, otherwise it would be taught. German and, for girls' class, singing are taught out of school, but without extra feo. Drill and gymnastics are taught to the younger scholars in school bours, to the older in the midday interval. The workshop, for attendance at which a small fee is charged, is very popular. Boys often construct in it models of engineering works from drawings made in the drawing school. For girls, the course is somewhat modified, but it is on the wholo very similar.
Recreations.-Cricket and football aro carried on by the boys with considerable energy, though under difficulties arising from the facts that there are no boarders, that many of the scholars come from remote suburbs, and that the playground is unsuitable. Practice and match wickets are hired in the Auckland Domain, and, by kind permission of his excellency the governor and the government, a field attached to the Government house is used. There is a fives court for the boys; for the girls, two tennis lawns are being formed. Annual meetings are held by the boys, in the first term for swimming races, in the second for hare and hounds, in the third for athletic sports. A small orchestra meets for practice weekly, and every year a niusical and dramatic entertaiument is given.
Entrance.- Applicants for admission are required to pass an examination, and to produce certificates of good character from the school last attended.
Terms, etc.—There are three terms in the year, namely: One of fourteen, and two of thirteen weeks, with vacations of seven weeks in the summer, two weeks, and three weeks. An examination is held at the end of the year, prizes are awarded and promotions made on the result of the three examinations combined. Occasionally the examinations are conducted by examiners not connected with the school, but appointed and paid by the governors. Saturday is a whole holiday; on other week days school is held, for boys from 9:15 to 12:15 and from 1:45 to 3:15; for girls morning school begins and ends five minutes later, afternoon school five minutes earlier,
Classification. One classification serves for all subjects except mathematics, for which the pupils are redistributed. The classes on the girls' side are approximately parallel to those on the boys' side.
Age of pupils.- The ages of the pupils range from 8 to 19 years. Sometimes the latter limit is reached, but by far the larger number of pupils neither enter at or near the lower age nor stay until they approach the higher.
Numbers.-Like almost all colonial schools this school has been subject to great fluctuations in number. Shortly before Mr. Macrae ceased to be head master there were 240 boys, but the present head master found only 166. At the end of 1882 the number was the same; then it rose in a year and a half to 303, with 28 at a suburban preparatory school. A period of commercial depression ensued, and the number fell. In 1889 it was 137. Before that time, however, the girls' side had been opened. Starting with 76 pupils, it had steadily grown. The numbers at present (September, 1892) are boys, 145; girls, 131.
Staff.—There are at present on the regular staff 7 assistant masters and 3 mistresses working whole time, 1 master and 1 mistress working part time. All the assistant masters, except those for drawing and French, are graduates-1 of Oxford, 1 of Cambridge, 2 of New Zealand, 1 of Sydnoy, 1 of Melbourne; 1 of the mistresses is a graduate of New Zealand. For gymnastics and for the drawing classes on the girls' sido visiting instructors attend.
Scholarships, etc.—The board of governors offers annually out of endowment three junior and three senior foundation scholarships. The former conferring froe education, and, when necessary, cost of transit by rail in tho first instance for one year, but with tho prospect of renewal from year to year, so long as the board is satisfied that the scholar is deserving, are open to boys and girls under the age of 13 years. The latter conferring free education for one year and £20 are so arranged as to carry on boys and girls, who, having obtained distinction in the examination for the junior scholarships of the New Zealand University, and being young enough to compete again, desire to do so. The board also offers free education to the four candidates in each year who come next to the successful competitors for the board of education’s junior district scholarships, and also to the four who take a like position in the examination for the senior district scholarships. These district scholarships, of which the junior, worth £20 or £30 per annum for three years, are open to boys and girls from primary schools under the age of 14 years; and the senior, worth £30 per annum also for three years, to boys and girls under the age of 16 years at the time of election, may be, and in most cases are, held in this school. Thoso already attending it can not, of course, compete for the junior scholarships, but are eligible for the senior, and, indeed, carry off most of them. Thus a boy or girl may obtain assistance all through his or her career at this school until the time comes for competing for a university scholarship. A local benefaction (the Rawling's trust) provides fees, books, and £5 per annum for four years for, at present, nine years.
There are at present 45 boys and 23 girls enjoying scholarships or free education in the school.
In the examination for junior university scholarships, the civil service, and other open examinations, this school has for many years past been very successful.
The work may be gathered from the highest class work, and the lowest class work, which is as follows:
Highest.-Latin, French, English, mathematics, chemistry, electricity, as for junior university scholarships.
Lowest.-Reading: Longman's Fourth Reader, the whole; repetition from Auch