« ПредишнаНапред »
4. England: Cambridge, London, Oxford; also the Inns of Court in London, the only official institutions that admit to the bar. (See Ireland, Scotland, and Wales below.)
5. France: Aix, Algiers, Bordeaux, Caen, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Paris, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse, and free faculties: Angers, Lille, Lyons, Nantes, Marseilles, and Paris.
6. Gerinany: Berlin, Bonn, Breslau, Erlangen, Freiberg, Giessen, Gottingen, Greifswald, Halle, Heidelberg, Jena, Kiel, Konigsberg, Leipzig, Marburg, Munich, Rostock, Strassburg, Tubingen, Wurzburg.
7. Greece: Athens. 8. Hungary: Agram, Budapest, Klausenburg, L 10 Academies. 9. Ireland: Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Galway, and King's Inn in Dublin.
10. Italy: Bologna, Cagliari, Camerino, Catania, Ferrara, Florence, Genoa, Macerata, Messina, Modena, Naples, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Pisa, Rome, Sassari, Siena, Turino Urbino.
11. Netherlands (Holland): Amsterdam, Grouingen, Leiden, Utrecht. 12. Norway: Christiania. 13. Portugal: Coimbra. 14. Roumania: Bukarest.
15. Russia: Charkow, Dorpat. Helsingfors, Kasan, Moscow, Odessa, St. Petersburg, Warsaw.
16. Scotland: Aberdeen, Edinburg, Glasgow. 17. Serria: Belgrade.
18. Spain: Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santiago, Sevilla, Valencia, Valladolid, Zaragossa.
19. Sweden: Gothenburg, Lund, and Upsala.
20. Suitzerland: Basel, Berne, Freiburg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchatel, Zurich. 21. Wales: Lampeter.
Expenses of law students in Europe. Information on this subject is very meager except from France, where the fees for tuition and other fees are as follows :
(1) Students who acquire only a “Certificate of Capacity” pay for 4 inscriptions (at $6), $21; 4 library fees (at 50 cents), $2; 1 examination fee, $12; 1 certificate of capacity, 88; 1 certified copy of certificate, $5; total, 851.
(2) Students who acquire the degree of “Bachelor of letters” pay for 8 inscriptions (at 86), 848; 8 library fees at 50 cents), $4; 4 examination fees (at $12), $ 18; 4 certificates (at $6), $24; 1 diploma, $20; total, $144.
(3) Students who acquire the degree of “Licentiate” pay for 4 in. scriptions (at $0), $21; 4 library fees (at 50 cents), $2; 2 examinations (at $12), $24; 2 certificates (at $6), $12; 1 diploma, $20; total, $82.
(4) Students who acquire the degree of “Doctor of Law"pay for 4 in. scriptions (at $6), $24; 4 library fees (at 50 cents), $2; 3 examinations
(at $12), $36; 3 certificates (at $6), $18; 1 thesis, $8; 1 certificate for thesis, $6; diploma, $20; total, $114.
Duplicates of certificates and diplomas cost half the original cost. Adding these sums we find the total expenses of a doctor of law to be for four years, $391, or about $400.
In Germany: The following table is interesting as showing the averago annual cost of one student at each of the chief universities of the Kingdom of Prussia, and the amount contributed toward this cost by the State. The balance is defrayed from the interest on irreducible funds accumulated by means of endowments and bequests:
In German universities, the students pay 20 to 25 marks ($5 or $6) for one series of lectures per semester, which amounts to about $120 a year for annual lecture fees. Besides this they must pay various small fees, aggregating to the sum of $5. No reliable information is available at present concerning the student's personal expenses, board, etc. Institutions in which the students live and study together, so-called students' halls or colleges, are nowhere found on the continent, while in England they seem to be a necessary adjunct of a university.
In Austria the student pays 1 florin (= 35.7 cents) per weekly lecture (or about 26 florins = $9.28 per semester), which will amount to about $140 a year for the entire course; besides this a few trifling fees are to be paid. Student halls do not exist in Austria.
In Hungary the law academies charge 30 florins, or $11.70, per year for each branch of the course, which would, if the student takes the entire course, amount to $117 for ten studies: Roman law, canonical law, civil law, criminal law, administrative law, international law, political economy, and history and philosophy of law. Minor fees, such as matriculation and examination fees are not included in the foregoing.
In Italy the entire expenses of a law student for matriculation, instruction, examinations, and diploma, amount to 860 lires, or $172 for the entire course.
In Belgium the annual fees for lectures are 550 francs, or $50, but the student has to pay 100 francs, or $20, for each examination to which he is admitted; diploma not included.
In Denmark: All lectures and exercises in the university of Copenhagen (the only one in Denmark) are gratuitous, neither are fees col. lected for matriculation and examination. The state bears all except the personal expenses of the student.
In Siccden: The lectures and exercises are gratuitous, but fees are collected (a) for matriculation, $3; (b) for examinations, each between $2 and $3.75; (c) for diplomas, 75 cents.
In Portugal. The official returns from Portugal fail to state this item,
In Russia: Rector Bunge of Kiew University, instituted an inquiry during the year 1872 into the expenses, personal and otherwise, of the students, and found that the minimum expense was 375 roubles per year (or about $225 at the present value of the rouble, which is much lower than it was in 1872). The details were: Lodging, SO roubles; dinners, 72 roubles; tea, sugar, and bread for breakfast and luncheon, 18 roubles; clothing, 60 roubles; lecture fees, 40 roubles; books and miscellaneous, 15 roubles; light and washing, 24 roubles. Of the 355 students who replied to the inquiry, 14 lived with their parents and had ample means, 36 were supported with means and victuals from home, and 56 gave private lessons earning from 251 to 300 roubles a year. Forty-three per cent of the students had the benefit of scholarships or were excused from paying for lectures and fees.
It is impossible to give more information under this head with regard to other countries without special or additional inquiries which want of time will not permit.
IV.-PROPORTION OF LAW STUDENTS TO POPULATION.
Prof. J. Conrad, of Halle, Germany, in his “Jahrbücher für National. Oekonomie und Statistik,” Dritte, Folge, Erster Band, pp. 376–394, gives the following averages after a careful compilation and a compar. ative study of statistics, embracing sixty years (1831-91). He calcu. lates the averages' since 1886 to be
Number of law students in
6, 004 5,760 5, 250 5, 238 1, 381
408 295 331 410
562 1, 594
Expressed in ratios: In every 100,000 inhabitants there were law students: In Germany, 12.5; Austria, 21.6; Italy, 17.3; France, 14; Belgium, 23; Holland, 9.1; Switzerland, 10.6; Denmark, 14.8; Norway, 20.5; Sweden, 11.9; Russia, 2.
Average attendance; the attendance in winter varies from that in summer.
It is interesting to compare these numbers with the numbers of medical students: Number of medical students inGermany ...
8, 603 Austria.
5, 558 Italy
6, 258 France
1, 203 Switzerland
3, 155 Expressed in ratios: In every 100,000 inhabitants there were medical students: In Germany, 18; Austria, 20.8; Italy, 20.6, France, 14.4; Belgium, 24.2; Holland, 26.7; Switzerland, 27.2; Denmark, 20.2; Norway, 19.2; Sweden, 15.1; Russia, 3.9.
To complete the survey we attach here also the number of students of the fourth faculty, the philosophical, the graduates of which either enter upon positions as professors in secondary schools or, having studied modern sciences, follow technical pursuits. Number of students of philosopby inGermany
8, 225 ustria
1, 782 Italy
4, 826 Belgium
2, 108 Holland
1, 425 Russia...
3,312 Expressed in ratios: In every 100,000 inhabitants there were students of philosophy. In Germany, 17.1; Austria, 7.6; Italy, 13.2; France, 12.2; Belgium, 35.1; Holland, 9.6; Switzerland, 17,8; Denmark, 11.9; Norway, 36.2; Sweden, 30.3; Kussia, 4.1.
Omitting the students of theology, Prof. Conrad classifies the European couniries according to the number of students of the other three faculties as follows:
In every 100,000 inhabitants Belgium has the greatest number of university students, to wit, 82-3; Norway, has 76.6; Sweden, 56.3; Austria, 53.9; Italy, 51.3; Switzerland, 50,4 (50.4 male and 5.2 female); Germany, 48.1; Holland, 45,4; France, 42.6; Russia, 9.9.
In explanation of the phenominal ratio found in Belgium i st be stated that many restrictions to admission to Belgian m have been removed, the conditions of admission now being ti known anywhere,
The authority quoted above lays particular stress upon the fact that the duration of the course in law is shorter in Prussia than in other countries, to wit, about 7.17 semesters, or 3.58 years; but it must be remembered that the average age of students of law when entering upon their professional or university studies is 20 years, hence that they rarely graduate before their twenty-fourth year of age.
The following comparison is interesting: In Prussia the students of theology study on an average 3.93 years, those of law 3.58 years, those of medicine 6.10 years, those of philosophy 5,30 years. The normal—that is, prescribed-course is, for theology, 3.5 years (12 per cent of the stu. dents went beyond it); for law, 3.5 years (7.49 per cent went beyond it); for medicine, 5 years (8.27 per cent went beyond it); for philosophy, 4 years (22.55 per cent went beyond it).
It is to be regretted that other countries do not report these details. Only Sweden and Norway do so. Students of law have to pass an average of 1.38 years in Upsala and 1.52 years in Land in preliminary or preparatory studies, and 4.08 years in Upsala and 3.33 years in Lund in professional studies, or a total of 5.5 years in Upsala and 4.8 years in Lund. In Norway the students of law are obliged to attend the lectures of the philosophical course for one year (in Belgium two years) before they can begin their law studies, which last 4 years. In Holland the average course of law studies is 4.03 years; in Austria it is required to be 4 years.
At present (1891-92) Austria stands at the head of the list in number of law students. Compare this list:
In every 100,000 inhabitants there are found
From this it is seen that in Austria about twice as many university students study law as in Germany, to wit, 43.9 per cent of the total attendance of the three faculties (in 1878 it was 54.4 per cent). No other country comes near this percentage. But if we consider the causes, the fact is easily explained. All who seek a general culture in Austrian universities, and not merely a professional preparation, such as the members of the aristocracy and plutocracy, literary men, and tutors of wealthy boys, etc., attend the law faculty, while in Germany they attend the philosophical faculty.