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no previous course of study was required nor was an examination held as to the qualification of a matriculate, he being informed that he had three months in which he could comply with the rule of the court. Indeed, the probability that the months of grace were intended as months of double work-an unfortunate combination of the studies of the grammar school and Blackstone's lectures to university men-is almost made a certainty when we find that the new rule of the court of appeals adopted March 19, 1891, lengthens the time of grace from three months to twelve, the additional nine months being allowed to enable the student to get up the "first-year Latin” required. To this rule, however, we must now turn.

In the rule of 1882 the court had demanded a good grammar-school education; in the rule of 1891, it asks, in addition, for a "first-year Latin,” geometry, and civics. The Latin required is meager, by no means to be called academic, and is such as is taught in preparing the student to read Cæsar. In geometry, "plane geometry.” is completed, and in civics "daily work for half a school year is allowed.” If a student has completed a full year's course at a college under the supervision of the regents of the University of New York, or in an extra State college recognized by it as having a satisfactory standard, or if he has completed a three years' course in any institution subject to the visitation of the regents or recognized by it, or if he has a regent's diploma, or a regent's pass card for any 22 counts, of which 4 are for a foreign language, 7 for mathematics, and 7 for the historic groups, or has a pass card for any 30 academic counts—that student may offer them as "substantial substitutes" for the matters required by the new rule of the court of appeals.

Other changes appear. The regents send the certificate to the successful candidate, who forwards it to the clerk of the court of appeals at Albany, who files it and returns a duplicate. If the student, after finishing a subject, fails to make and subscribe to the somewhat modi. fied form of declaration of honesty, the set of answers for that subject is thrown out.

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Specific legal instruction is not offered in the public schools, yet the course of study in “civics” or civil government has such a relation to the subject as to justify the insertion here of the following matter from the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1888–89, pp. 384

387: *

“Civil government is a separate branch of instruction in twenty-two of the eighty-two cities that reported; its principles are taught in many more-nearly all, perhaps-incidentally, in connection with history, geography, or, like science and general history, as a part of the supplementary reading. The object of such instruction is declared to be better preparation for the duties of citizenship. In its usual applica

* Prepared by Mr. J. C. Boykin.

tion the subject embraces only the nature and forms of government, and the provisions of the Constitution of the United States, and that of the pupil's own State; but the study may be, and sometimes is, so broadened that it not only covers the elements of political science, but also trenches upon the domain of ethics. Several excellent text-books have been prepared, but they are not extensively used except as books of reference, the instruction being chiefly oral, frequently in accordanco with a general plan or a syllabus prepared by the superintendent. One of the best of these syllabuses is that which appears in the manual of the course of instruction in the granamar department of the Philadelphia public schools. The instruction in that city is given in one year only, the eighth, and follows the topical method throughout. No textbook is used, but each pupil has constant access to the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, and the articles of the State constitution.

“Appended to the syllabus, in addition to the usual instructions rclating to the teaching of the subject, are (1) a list of special terms of frequent occurrence, (2) a list of eminent men connected with the history of the Constitution, (3) a chronological table relating to the adoption of the amendments, (4) a table of parallelism between the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation, and (5) a list of books of reference recommended for the use of the teachers of the subject. In the last list appear: Andrew's Manual of the Constitution of United States, Stern's Constitutional History and Political Development of the United States, Miss Dawes's How We Are Governed, Alton's Among the Law-makers, Fiske's American Political Ideas, Scott's Development of Constitutional Liberty in the English Colonies of America, Frothingham's Rise of the Republic of the United States, Greene's His. torical View of the American Revolution, Curtis's History of the Constitution, Bancroft's, Ilildreth's and Schouler's histories of the United States, and Story's Commentaries on the Constitution.

" The use of a syllabus of this kind by an intelligent teacher willing to follow the suggestions that accompany it must result in such etlective teaching that text-book instruction would seem dull and insipid by contrast. What good office could a formal text-book perform for a teacher familiar with all the literature named?

“Mr. R. W.Stephenson, in bis report for 1887-88, as superintendent of public instruction of Columbus, Ohio, very thoroughly discussed the importance of training for citizenship, laying particular stress upon the cultivation of the virtues of obedience to rightful authority, integrity, industry, and patriotism. He would have instruction also in the forms and methods of government, but he believes that the possession of the virtues named is more necessary to the citizen than a mere knowledge of any particular system of laws. He therefore urges that the teachers aim particularly at the inculcation of these desirable qualities in order that their pupils may be the better as citizens.

"Seo syllabus on p. 443,

“In regard to this view, it may be said that the instruction recom. mended is only what is commonly called “moral training," with a special and rather limited application, i. e., the good of the State.

“There is no difference of opinion in regard to the duty of the school to foster and cultivate all the virtues, but there is a difference of practico in regard to the incorporation of such training with the study of political science. The latter, as it is generally taught, aims merely at giving the pupil a knowledge of the manner in which the country is governed, how its officers are chosen, and what relation he himself bears to the conduct of public affairs.

"The cultivation of patriotism is, of course, an end in whose accomplishment the study of our government is expected to aid, but that moral training which leads to habits of obedience and industry and integrity of character is presupposed. The moral man will be moral in the exercise of his privileges and in the discharge of his duties as a citizen; therefore, in most courses we find that general morality is con. stantly inculcated, but that no special attention is paid to political morality as separate from morality in all other walks of life.

“As to the time for beginning, we find that in Denver, Washington, Detroit, East Saginaw, Minneapolis, Camden, Brooklyn, Milwaukee, and Philadelphia, only the pupils of the eighth-year class are permitted to pursue the study. In San Francisco, Cal., Atchison, Kans., Lynn, Mass., and Salt Lake City, Utah, two years are given to the subject. In Quincy, Ill., West Des Moines, Iowa, Baltimore, Md., Lawrence, Mass., and Jersey City, N. J., three years. In Wichita, Kans., and New Orleans, La., four years.

“The time per week varies from a half hour in San Francisco, New Orleans, and Baltimore, to 3f hours in Detroit and 34 hours in Milwaukee. As a rule, the time per week is short where the number of weeks is great and vice versa, so that the total time given to the subject is remarkably uniform

“The main points of the syllabus used in Philadelphia are as follows:

NATURE AND FORMS OF GOVERNMENT. I. Government: What is meant by the term; social nature of man; necessity of

civil government; what is meant by the constitution of a nation; what a

law is. II. Different forms of government: (1) Monarchical; (2) aristocratic; (3) domocratic; (4) republican; combinations of different forms.

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT. I. Political organization of the colonies: Three forms of colonial government;

(1) Provincial (royal); (2) progr: (3) charter. II. Differences produced by these

Ternment; superiority of political institutions resulting from the

overnment; town system of Now England a more

with one branch elected by the people,

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FIRST ATTEMPTS OF THE COLONIES AT UNION.

I. Absence of political connection betweer the colonies. II. The first Continental Congress, 1774; necessity of association; steps taken. III. The second Continental Congress, 1775: (1) Duration; (2) measures adopted. IV. The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. Its contents and objoct.

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.

I. Difficulties of carrying on the Revolution resulting from the absence of union

between the States; necessity for a general government. II. The Articles of Confederation; principal features.

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

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I. Circumstances which led to the adoption of the Constitution: (1) Defects of the

Articles of Confederation; (2) functions performed by the Articles of Confederation in accustoming the States to associated action and in leading to “

more perfect union.” II, Convention of delegates for the purpose of “revising the Articles of Confed

eration,” etc.; different plans suggested; discussion of these; final comple

tion of the Constitution. III. Constitution of the United States of America adopted to go into effect when

ratified by nine States; order iu which the States acted. IV. Preamble of the Constitution.

BRANCIIES OF TIIE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.-(1) Legislativo; (2) Exccutive;

(3) Judicial.

Legislative branch.

I. Vcsted in Congress, consisting of (1) House of Representatives, (2) Senate.
II. House of Representatives: (1) Composition. (2) Powers: (a) Legislative-con-

current, exclusive; (b) impeachment; (c) elective--officers, President of the

United States. III. Senate: (1) Composition. (2) Presiding officer. (3) Powers: (a) Legislative;

(b) executive-appointments, treaties; (c) elective-officers, Vice President

of the United States; (d) judicial.
IV. Law-making: Methods; orders; resolutions; votes.

V. Powers granted to Congress.
VI. Powers denied to Congress.
VII. Powers denied to the several States.

Erecutive branch.

I. In whom executive power is vested; term of office, salary, oath.
II. Eligibility.
III. How elected: (1) By electors; (2) by House of Representativc3.
IV. How removable.

V. Powers and duties of President: (1) Military; (2) civil.
VI. Vice-President: (1) Eligibility, term, oath; (2) how elected; (3) powers and

duties.

Judicial branch.

1. Where vested: (1) Supreme Court. (2) Inferior court: (a) Circuit; (b) district II. Judges; (1) How appointed; (2) term of office, salary, oath; (3) how removable. III. Jurisdiction: (1) Limitation; (2) original; (3) appellate.

RELATIONS BETWEEN TIIE STATES AND TIE FEDERAL GOVERXMEYT.

I. Public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of States.
II. State citizenship.
III. Fugitives from (1) justice, (2) service.
IV. Formation and admission of new States (Territories).
V. Guaranty and protection to the States.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

1. Supremacy of the Constitution.
II. Guaranty of personal rights.
III. Abolition of slavery.
IV. Enfranchisement of negro citizens.

V. Validity of the public debt.
VI. Ilow may the Constitution be amended.

CONSTITUTION OF THE COMIONWEALTII OF PENNSYLVANIA.

I. Historical notes.
II. General analysis.
III. Analogies between the Federal and the State government.

Time allotted to the study of civil government in the common schools:

San Francisco, 1 hour per week in seventh and eighth years of school; Denver, 1 hour per week in eighth year of school; Washington, 24 hours per week in eighth year of school; New Orleans, 1 hour per week in fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth years of school; Baltimore, $ hour per week in sixth, seventh, and eighth years of school; Detroit, 34 hours per week in eighth year of school; Minneapolis, 14 hours per week in eighth year of school; Cincimati, 1 hour per week in eighth year of school; Milwaukeo, 34 hours per week in eighth yoar of school."

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