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123. Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. Senior: International law. Fifth year:

Business law and riparian rights, mining law, insurance law. 121. St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo. Commercial law. 125. Drury College, Springfield, Mo. Junior: International law. 126. Tarkio College, Tarkio, Mo. Senior: International law; commercial law. 127. Avalon Collego, Trenton, Mo. Junior: International law; commercial law. 128. Central Wesleyan College, Warrenton, Mo. Senior: International law, com

mercial law. 129. College of Montana, Deer Lodgo, Mont. Senior: International law. 130. Doane College, Crete, Nebr. Senior: International law. 131. Cotner University, Lincoln, Nebr. Senior: International law. 132. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr. Senior: Constitutional and interna

tional law, 133. Gates College, Neligh, Nebr. Senior: International law. 134. Nebraska Wesleyan University, University Place, Nebr. Senior: International

law. 135. York College, York, Nebr. Senior: International law. 136. University of Nevada, Reno, Nov. Senior: International law, mining law. 137. Dartmouth Collego, IIanover, N. H. Senior: Constitutional, international, and

municipal law. 138. St. Benedict's College, Newark, N. J. Commercial law. 139. Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. Junior: Roman law. 140. College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. Senior: General jurisprudence, inter

national law, public law, American constitutional law, Roman law. 141. College of the Sacred Heart, Vineland, N. J. Commercial law. 112. Alfred University, Alfred Centre, N. Y. Commercial law, international law,

Roman law, common law. 113. Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. Senior: Municipal law, constitutional

and international law. 144. St. Francis College, Brooklyn, N. Y. Commercial law. 145. Canisius College, Buffalo, N. Y. Commercial law. 146. St. Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y. Senior: Jurisprudence. 147. Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. Senior: Constitutional and municipal law. 118. St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y. International and commercial law. 149. Madison University, Hamilton, N. Y. Senior and Junior: Roman and inter

national law. 150. Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Canadian constitutional law, international

law, Roman law. 151. College of St. Francis Xavier, New York, N. Y. Natural and international law. 152. College of the City of New York, N. Y. Fourth year: Constitutional and in.

ternational law. 153. Columbia College, New York, N. Y. Senior: Contracts, elements of jurispru

dence, real estate, torts, criminal law and procedure, domestic relations,

common-law pleading and procedure. 154. Manhattan College, New York, N. Y. Commercial law. 155. University of the City of New York, N. Y. Senior: Natural and constitutional

law, international law, 156. University of Rochester, N. Y. Senior: Roman and international law. 157. Niagara University, Niagara University, N. Y. Commercial law. 158. Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. Senior: Constitutional and international

law, jurisprudence. 159. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. Fourth year: Constitutional

and international law. 160. Davidson College, N. C. Senior: Commercial law. 161. Guilford Collego, N. C. Commercial law.

162. North Carolina College, Mt. Pleasant, N.C. Junior: Constitutional law, com

mercial law. 163. Trinity College, N.C. Senior: International aid civil law. 164. Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio. Senior: Constitutional, international, and mu

nicipal law. 165. Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio. Senior: International law. 166. Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio. Junior: Elements of law (Lee). 167. Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. Senior: Constitutional law. 168. Baldwin University, Berea, Ohio. Senior: International law, commercial law. 169. St. Xavier College, Cincinnati, Ohio. Commercial law. 170. Calvin College, Cleveland, Ohio. Commercial law. 171. Belmont College, College Hill, Ohio. Commercial law. 172. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Sophomore: Constitutional law. Junior

and senior: International law, municipal government. Freshman: Com

mercial law. 173. Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio. Senior: Constitutional and inter

national law. 174. Findlay College, Findlay, Ohio. Senior : Constitutional law, commercial law. 175. Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Senior: International law. 176. Hillsboro College, Hillsboro, Ohio. Commercial law. 177. Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio. Sophomore: Elements of law, international law. 178. Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio. Senior: International law. 179. Franklin College, New Athens, Olio. Junior: International law. Senior: Com.

mercial law. 180. Muskingum College, New Concord, Ohio. Commercial law. 181. Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. Senior: International law. 182. Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Junior: International law. 183. Richmond College, Richmond, Ohio. Senior: Roman law; commercial law. 184. Rio Grande College, Rio Grande, Ohio, Senior: International law. 185. Scio College, Scio, Ohio. Junior: Commercial law. 186. Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio. Senior: International law. 187. Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio. Commercial law, 188. Otterbein. University, Westerville, Ohio. Commercial law. 189. Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Junior: Constitutional law. 190. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. Senior: International law; commer.

cial law. 191. McMinnville College, McMinnville, Oregon. Senior: International law. 192. Philomath College, Philomath, Oregon. Commercial law. 193. Willamette University, Salem, Oregon. Freshman: Commercial law. Senior:

International law. 194. Western University of Penusylvania, Allegheny, Pa. Senior: International law, 195. St. Vincent College, Beatty, Pa. Commercial law. 196. Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa. Junior: Constitutional law. Senior: Inter

national law. 197. Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. Senior: Blackstone. 198. Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa. Senior: International law. 199. Grove City College, Grove City, Pa. Commercial law. 200. Haverford College, Pa. Junior: Constitutional law. Senior: International

law. 201. St. Francis College, Loretto, Pa. Commercial law. 202. Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. for: Constitutional, municipal, and in

ternational law. 203. Central Pennsylvania College, New! Senior: Commercial law. 204. Westminster College, New Wilmington Tunior: Constitutional law.

ersity of Pennsylvania, Philadelp Junior: International law, Mercantile law, constitution



206. Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. Senior: International law. 207. Washington and Jefferson Collego, Washington, Pa. Junior: Constitutional

law. 208. Brown University, Providence, R. I. Senior or junior: Constitutional and in

ternational law. 209. Newberry College, Newberry, S. C. Sophomore: Constitutional law. Senior:

International law. 210. Dakota University, Mitchell, S. Dak. Commercial law. 211. Redfield College, Redfield, S. Dak. Commercial law. 212. University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S. Dak. Junior: International law. 213. U. S. Grant University, Chattanooga, Tenn. Senior: Constitutional and inter

national law. 214. Southwestern Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn. Constitutional and

commercial law. 215. Hiwassee College, Tenn. Commercial law. 216, Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. Junior: International law, 217. Bethel College, McKenzie, Tem. Senior: International law, commercial law. 218. Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn. Senior: Constitutional and international

law. 219. Christian Brothers' College, Memphis, Tenn. Commercial law. 220. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Ten. Senior: International law. 221. University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. Commercial law. 222. Greeneville and Tusculum College, Tusculum, Teun, Junior: International

law. 223. Washington College, Tennessee. Senior: International law. 221. Howard Payne College, Brownwood, Tex. Senior: International law. 225. Fort Worth University, Fort Worth, Tex. Senior: International law, com

mercial law. 226. Southwestern University, Georgetown, Tex. Commercial law. 227. Trinity University, Tehuacana, Tex. Senior: International law, commercial

law. 228. University of l’tah, Salt Lake City, Utah. Senior: International law. 229. University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. Senior: Constitutional and interna

tional law. 230. Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt. Senior: Constitutional and international

law. 231. Roanoke College, Salem, Va. Sophomore: Commercial law. Senior: Interna

tional law. 232. Colfax College, Colfax, Wash. Commercial law, 233. West Virginia College, Flemington, W. Va. Senior: International law. 234. West Virginia l'niversity, Morgantown, W. Va. Senior: Constitutional and

international law. 235. Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis. Senior: Constitutional and interuational

law, commercial law. 236. Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. Senior: International law. 237. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. Elementary, constitutional, interna

tional, and Roman law. 238. Marquette College, Milwaukee, Wis. Commercial law. 239. Ripon College, Ripon, Wis. Sophomore: Constitutional law. 210. University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. Senior: Constitutional and interna

tional law.


(Generally known as the "Law Students' Examination.") In New York the legislature early conferred upon the trustees of the colleges or universities having departments of law the power of granting degrees in law and otherwise regulating the admission to and the course of study of their law departments. Nor was the degree when obtained a mere empty honor; for, when it was a testimonial that the holder had, in addition to passing an examination successfully, spent eighteen months in the study of law, it admitted him to the bar. This right, however, was withdrawn in 1882. After that date the State resumed the exercise of the power to inquire into the professional qualifications of applicants for admission to its bar, and it is the purpose here briefly to relate the manner in which the State bas also taken upon itself the duty of systematically testing the literary qualifications of persons who are applicants for admission to its schools of law, or who are elsewhere pursuing the study of jurisprudence.

Before entering upon this topic, however, it is but justice to call attention to the action of Columbia College in 1876, touching the literary attainments of its matriculates in law. The annual announcement of that institution for 1874–75 contained the usual information that any person of good moral character, whether a college graduate or not, might be admitted to either class of the law department, for "no examination and no particular course of previous study were required for admission." But this was not all the catalogue told its readers on this point. On and after the first Wednesday in October, 1876, the requisites for admission were to be considerably advanced. All college grad uates, it is true, were then to be admitted without examination, but other candidates for matriculation were to be at least eighteen years of age and must have received a good academic education, including such a knowledge of Latin as is required for admission to the freshman class of the college, viz, 4 books of De Bello Gallico, 6 books of

he Eneid, and 6 orations of Cicero." To insure that the candidate had had this amount of instruction, three examiners, alumni of the college appointed by the law faculty, were to examine him in the history of Greece, Rome, England, and America, English grammar, rhetoric, and composition and in Latin. This action of Columbia is noteworthy; for it required fifteen years for the State to become convinced of the necessity of the reform thus inaugurated in New York in 1876 by a private corporation at its own pecuniary risk. The college accomplished it at a bound, as it were; the State worked up to it.

In 1871 it became the duty of the judges of the court of appeals of New York4 to establish such rules and regulations as they might deem

Prepared by Mr. Wellford Addis. ? Laws of 1859, (hap. 267 (University of Albany); Laws of 1860, Chap. 202 (Columbia College), and more generally by sec. 58 of the Code of Proceduro of 1876. 3 Statutes of 1878, p. 43. *Laws of 1871, chap. 486.


proper in relation to the admission of persons applying to be admitted as attorneys, solicitors, and counselors in the courts of the State. Among the rules established by the court in pursuance of this act' was one requiring that all persons not holding the diploma of a law college of the State? should be examined by the court or by a board composed of three or more practicing lawyers of the State, of seven years' standing at the bar, appointed by it. But in 1882,"in response to a general demand,”

“ the court adopted a rule which brought the regents of the University of New York (a method of State control rather than a university) into direct connection with the law departments of the higher institutions of learning of the State. By this rule it was ordered that before any person, not a graduate of a college, could enter upon “a clerkship” (reading in an office of a practicing attorney) or upon a substituted course of study (as at a law school), or within three months after entry upon such a course, he must pass a regents'examination in arithmetic, grammar, geography, orthography, English and American history, and English composition, and file a certificate of the fact signed by the secretary of the board of regents and countersigned by the examiner.

In the circular issued by the regents in regard to “Examinations on subjects preparatory to the study of the law as required by the rules of the court of appeals," it is stated that special examinations for law students only would be held in each judicial department. As the subjects required by the rules of the court were also a part of the system of academic examination held at stated times during the year, the intending law student was allowed to enter them. To insure success the candidate was advised to master a “standard school text-book” on each subject required. To pass he must answer correctly 75 per cent of the questions in all subjects" and spell correctly 85 out of 100 words contained in the papers placed before him, and finally "must make and subscribe” to a declaration printed on each sheet of questions to the effect that he had no previous knowledge of the questions on the paper, that he had answered them without aid from any source, and had spent no more time than that marked by himself in answering them. Το those successfully passing in all the subjects the Regents gave a special certificate, known as the law student's certificate, made in duplicate one copy of which was retained by the clerk of the court of appeals and the other sent by that functionary to the candidate.

It is impossible to say at this date what purpose the court of appeals had when perinitting a grace of three months to the law student in filing his regent's certificate. Yet it might seem probable (barring the case of men of middle age) that it was introduced not for the purpose of allowing him the necessary time to prepare himself in the studies required by the rule-his time being fully occupied by the study of lawbut rather to allow him to enter upon his clerkship" at any time, irrespective of the time of the regent's examination. At one school at least

Appended Laws, 1871, p. 2194 (vol. 2.)
3Albany University and Columbia College law dopartments,

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