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Total number of pupils and students of each grade, in both public and private schools.
NOTE.-The classification of States made use of in the following table is the same as that adoptod by the United States Consus, and is as follows: North Atlantic Division:
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. South Atlantic Division: Delaware, Mary. land, District of Columbia. Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. South Central Division: Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabania, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. North Central Division: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. Western Division: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nerada, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, anti Cali. fornia.
The United States.
14, 890 4.514 6,980 15, 063 1,071
15, 305 5.312 7, 815 20, 072 1,894
2, 723 3, 709 4, 272 1, 379
15, 240 2, 223 2, 566 10, 432 1,331
15,482 2,706 3, 342 19, 282 1,495
Students under higher instruction.
Pupils receiving alementary instruction
(“primary" and "grammar” grades).
Pupils receiving secondary instruc. tion (“high school
In universities and colleges (for men exclusively and
In normal schools. e
Public. d Privato.
12. 754, 463
North Atlantic Division
a Including pupils in preparatory or academic departments of higher institutions, public and private, and excluding clementary pupils, who are classed in cols. 2 and 3.
b This is made up chietly from the returns of individual high schools to the Bureau, and is considerably too small, as there are a great many secondary pupils outside
c Excluding pupils in professional schools and departments, who are included in column 14.
g These figures do not include all the pupils who nre beneticiaries of the land-grant act. The statistics of some of the land grant schools can not be separatel fom the general statistics of the colleges or universities of which they are departments.
Col. Higginson, in his Atlantic Essays, has said: “But as the value of a nation to the human race does not depend upon its wealth or numbers, so it does not depend even upon the distribution of elementary knowledge, but upon the high-water mark of its educated mind.”
If, therefore, New Zealand had only provided a free elementary education, it would have failed in its duty. Though it is a young nation, having just celebrated its jubilee, and has only a population of 686,651 persons, it has done something for culture. To understand, however, its position in reference to secondary schools, it will be necessary to state briefly what the Government provision has been for elementary education and how far that education extends.
The colony has a system of free, compulsory, and secular education. The whole cost of the schools, buildings, staff, maintenance, everything, is paid out of the general revenue of the colony. There are no local rates nor local contributions. It is true that the committees that have the control of the schools may raise, by voluntary subscription, small sums to give little adjuncts to the ordinary school buildings or playgrounds, but further than this nothing is done by local districts to bear the cost of education. The colony is divided into thirteen education districts, and these districts are again divided into school districts. There is generally only one school in a district but there may be more. The committees are selected by the householders and parents in the various school districts, and the committees elect the boards. The committees consist of 5, 7, or 9 persons, according to the number of children in the district, whilst the boards consist of 9 members holding office for three years, three retiring annually. The school committees are annually elected. There is also a minister of education, with a small staff. He, however, only controls and directs; he does not administer the act. The main part of administration falls upon the boards. They appoint inspectors and teachers, and they dismiss teachers. The appointments or dismissals, however, are only made after consulting the committee. They erect buildings and look after education generally. The committees attend to what may be termed the local wants of the school and advise the board as to teachers, and they conduct affairs generally in the school district.
The sum spent last year on primary education by grants to boards was £407,494 188. 11d. There was other expenditure in the department, including the cost of administration, the total education vote being, including £31,617 118. 2d. from reserves, £446,642 38.7d. There are 1,272 state primary schools in the colony, and 3,065 teachers. There are various church and private schools, but as these are not aided nor inspected by the State I omit the statistics referring to them. The teachers are graded and hold their certificate from the minister of education. There are nine ranks as follows:
The letters denote scholarship, while the figures denote success in practical teaching. No one can get the highest grade unless he is an M. A., with first or second class honors of some university recognized by the department. No one can get a B rank unless he is a B. A., and no one can get a C rank unless he has passed a certain examination equivalent at least to half of a graduate's degree. The children are admitted at 5 and may be kept at school till 15. The compulsory age, however, is 7 to 13. In order to show what is taught in elementary schools it will only be necessary to copy the sixth and highest standard. It is:
1. Pass subjects.
Reading.—A book containing extracts from general literature; spelling and dictation suited to this stage.
Writing. The copying of tabulated matter showing bold head lines and marking distinctions, such as in letter-press require varieties of type (e. g., the copying of these printed standards or of a catalogue showing division into groups).
Arithmetic.-Vulgar and decimal fractions; interest and other commercial rules, such as discount, stocks, partnership, and exchange; the metric system of weights and measures, and calculations with pound, florin, cent, and mill; square root and simple cases of mensuration of surfaces; mental aritlımetic generally. Composition.---Essay or letter.
Geography.—The maps of Asia and North America. Work analogous to the work prescribed under the head of “Map of Europe” for Standard V. The map of the worid; British possessions, their principal towns and leading products, with some knowledge of their relative importance and of the forms of government of the most important. Physical geography: The principal causes of difference of climate, with illustrations.
Drawing.—Elementary solid geometry and free hand drawing from simple models. Free hand to be kept up. All copies made from the flat must be enlarged or reduced, and the free-hand drawing must include drawing from simple models, the models being the samo simple solids as are prescribed for the geometrical drawing of this standard, and combinations of the same as found in simple common objects, such as tables, boxes, books, bottles, buckets, etc. The model drawing and the method of teaching it are fully illustrated in the first grade model drawing in the Colonial drawing book issued by authority of the minister of education. The work in practical solid geometry is as follows: Plans and elevations of the sphere and cube, the cone and pyramid, the cylinder and prism, and slabs. Pupils must be able to give correct definitions of these solids and to draw plans and elevations of them, and of simple objects based on them, on three planes of projection, and also to draw sections of them in any plane perpendicular to the horizontal or to the vertical plane.
2. Class subjects. Grammar.-Complete parsing (including syntax) of simple and compound sentences (easy), prefixes and affixes, and a few of the more important Latin and Greek roots, illustrated by part of the reading book; analysis of easy complex sentences.
English History.—The period from the death of Elizabeth to the reign of Victoria; also the elements of social economy; that is to say, very elementary knowledge of such subjects as government, law, citizenship, labor, capital, money, and banking. The pupils will not be required to learn more than about a dozen dates or to answer questions on more than about 25 persons and events for any one standard; nor will they be expected to trace the remote causes or even to remember the proximate caủses of great events. What is wanted is a clear view of a few prominent persons and salient facts so exhibited as to afford glimpses of the conditions in which our ancestors lived at successive periods of our national History and to establish in the mind an outline that may be filled in by later reading. A child may have a vivid idea of royal authority prone to excess and of the status of a baron and of the political insignificance of the common people at the beginning of the thirteenth century without knowing the contents of Magna Charta or all the incidents of feudal tenure.
Elementary science.—The instruction in elementary science shall be based on a programme prepared by the head toacher, to show the distribution of the subject over a three-years' course of lessons. The programme must include such elementary knowledge of physics and such a conception of chemical action as may be imparted by the proper use of Prof. Bickerton's Materials for Lessons in Elementary Science, and must also include instruction in elementary mechanics, or in such elementary physiology as may be learned from Mrs. Buckton's Health in the House, or in botany, or in some other subject recognized by the inspector as equivalent to one of these; provided, however, that if the elements of agricultural knowledge be efficiently taught no other elementary science shall be required for this standard.
The programme of the elements of agricultural knowledge which may be substituted for the programme of elementary science is as follows:
(a) Object of manuring. General and special manures. Farmyard manure, its composition and value; its liability to ferment; management to prevent loss of value. Vegetable and animal refuse as manures. Green manuring. Plant food most frequently wanting in soils. Manures supplying particular kinds of plant food. Guanos. Special manures supplying nitrogen. Bone manures. Superphosphato and other mineral manures. Action of lime on the soil.
(1) The characteristics of the commoner crops, cereals, fodder crops, root crop. Habit of growth of a plant. Distribution of roots. Principle of adaptation of manures to crops.
(©) Importance of good seed. Propagation of plants by cuttings, tubers, bulbs, etc. Objects of grafting and pruning. Insect pests. Insect changes, as illustrated by the life history of common insects. Nature of parasitic fungi.