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ever.

The State of Washington shows a phenomenal increase. In that State the expenditure for houses and grounds was more than trebled the past year, and the total expenditure more than doubled.

The Southern States, in general, show a very gratifying increase of total expenditure, nearly 10 per centon an average. The expenditure for schoolhouses and grounds shows a net gain of 21 per cent in the South Atlantic States and 23 per cent in the South Central States. The actual amount expended for these purposes in that section is still small, how

Either New York or Pennsylvania expends more for schoolhouses and grounds than all the States of the two Southern divisions taken together, and Illinois nearly as much.

The gain in the permanent expenditure of the South Atlantic States, it must be noted, is due to the increased activity in building in three States, viz, Maryland, West Virginia, and Georgia. In all the other States of that division except Delaware there bas been a decrease.

The Northern Atlantic and Central States also show a net decrease in the amount expended for buildings and grounds of about $2,000,000, or about 9 per cent. Of the 21 States of which these two divisions are composer, 15 show a falling off in this class of expenditure.

The total increase in the annount paid teachers and superintendents was $4,932,920, a gain of 5.43 per cent. There were only three States showing a decrease in the amount paid for teaching, viz., North Carolina, South Carolina, and South Dakota, besides the Territory of New Mexico.

Erpeneliture per pupil.-The average amount expended for each pupil in attendance (Table 13) was $17.62. This amount has been gradually rising since 1879-80, at which time it was $12.71.

The expenditure per pupil reaches its maximum in the States and Territories of the western division, where it is $34.03, or twice the average. How this excessive expenditure is made with out a correspondingly heavy strain on the individual taxpayer will be understood from the remarks under the head of “receipts” (p. 24).

The expenditure per pupil for tuition alone is in the North from two to three times what it is in the South. This arises in great part from the longer school term in the North. To get the relative cost of the schools while they are in session, equal periods of time must be taken,

Table 14 accordingly has been computed, giving the expenditure per pupil per month, first, for tuition alone, and second, for all purposes. For tuition alone the two southern divisions pay out on an average for each pupil, white and black, each month, $1.24 and $1.30 respectively; the North Atlantic Division, $1.74, and the North Central Division $1.76. The difference is small when all the circumstances that have been noticed are taken into consideration.

The total expenditure per pupil per month is greatest in the State of Washington, viz, $9.40. This is eleven times what it is in South Carolina and nearly three times what it is in Massachusetts. If tuition alone is considered, Arizona leads with $1.30 per pupil per month, and Nevada comes second with $3.84.

ED 91- -3

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Two-thirds of Clerk of board of educa: Fine of not more than $20 school term. tion or district trus. and costs for first of tees.

fense; and $20 to $50 and costs for each subsequent

offense. 12 weeks...... Any school director.... Fine of $5 to $25 each

offense. While schools Truant officers...... Fine of $5 for each week's are in session.

failure to comply with Jaw.

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12 weeks...
12 weeks..

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Fine of $20,
School trustees

Fine of $5 to $25 for first

and $10 to $50 for each

subsequent offense. Truant officers ap- | Fine of $1 to $20

pointed by boards of
education and school

directors.
School directors and Fine of $5 to $10 for first,

presidents of boards and $10 to $20 for each of education.

subsequent offense. Truant oflicers.

Fine of uot more than $25.

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30 weeks, if Truant officers and Fine of not more than $20.

schools are school committees.
kept,

other-
wise 20.

Michigan..

8-14

4 months

Truant officers and

school boards.

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School directors and Fine of $10 to $25 for first,

presidents of boards and $25 to $50 for each of education.

subsequent offense. School directors and Fine as in Kansas, with

presidents of boards alternative of 30 days in of education.

county jail.

Fine of $10 to $50.
School trustees.... Fine of $50 to $100 for first

and $100 to $200 for each

subsequent offense. School committees and Fine of not more than $10 boards of education. for first and $20 for each

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New Hampshire.....

subsequent offense.

8-14

12 weeks....

New Jersey 7-12 20 weeks. Police and constables .. Fine of not less than $10

for first and not more than $25 for each subsequent offense, or impris.

onment 1 to 3 months. New Mexico..... 8-16 3 months

School directors..... Fine of $1 to $25, or im

prisonment 10 days in

county jail. New York... 8-14 14 weeks.... Trustees of school dis- Fine of $i for first offense,

tricts, presidents of and after that $5 for
union schools, or off- each week's failure.
cers designated by

boards of education.
a 8-15 in cities and towns where opportunity is given for industrial education.

ance in the United States.

view, September, 1892.)

Under
what
age is

Between
employ.

what ages

ment Custody of truants. Provision for during is schuirlins Amount of such Requirements of non

. required

schooling preliminary

public schools. hours abso

to employ
lutely

ment?
forbid
den?

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State reform

13-16 For children un.

schools.

der 16, 12 weeks;
under 14, 6
months; or
whole time
school was kept;
under 12, whole

time kept.
Under 15 12 weeks preced-

ing year.

Juvenile reforma

tories.

12 boy
14 girl.

Free text-books

13-14

Institutions des. Free text-books 13

ignated by school officors.

14 weeks preced- Must teach spelling, ing year.

reading, writing, geography, English grammar, and arith. metic.

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Nortlı Dakota

Ohio

Oregon

Rhode Island......

8-14 12 weeks... Presidents of school Fine of $5 to $20 for first

boards and boards of and $10 to $50 for each education.

subsequent offense. a 8-14 20 weeks in cities, Truant officerg..

Fine of $5 to $20 16 in country

districts. 8-14 12 weeks.. Directors and clerk of Fine of $5 to $25 for first school districts.

and $25 to $50 for each

subsequent offense. 7-15 12 weeks.... Truant oflicers appoint. Fine of not more than $20.

ed by town or uty

government.
8-14 12 weeks... Presidents of school Fine of $10 to $20

boards.
10-14 16 weeks..... School trustees and Fine of not more than $10

presidents of boards for first and $30 for of education to in. each subsequent offense. quire into causes of

neglect of duty. 8-14 20 weeks...

Sonth Dakota

Utah

Vermont..

Washington.
Wisconsin

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Wyomong

7-16

3 months

Fine of not more than $25

for each othensc.

a 8-16 wlien not employed.

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Schools designat

ed by parents or guardians.

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