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its universal importance for the industrial classes. Manual training was added to the subjects encouraged by the science and art department, in 1890, a few school boards having already made experiments in that branch.

The extent and growth of the operations of the science and art department outside of the art work in elementary schools are indicated by the following table and citations from the thirty-ninth official report:

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The decrease in the number of schools since 1839 is due to the clos. ing of merely ephemeral institutions.

Of the schools examined in 1891, 1,614 were in England and Wales, 321 in Scotland, and 226 in Ireland. The number of students who came up for examination from them was 90,812, an increase of 7,742 on the previous year. Besides these, 2,817 self-taught students anıl pupils from classes not entitled to claim payments on results presented themselves for examination. The number of examination papers worked by the 93,659 students who were examined was 179,519, or an average of

i The instruction must be (a) in the use of the ordinary tools used in handicrafts in wood or iron, (b) given out of school hours in a properly fitted workshop, and (c) connected with the instruction in drawing; that is to say, the work must be from drawings to scale previously made by the students.

The instruction may be given by one of the regular teachers of the school if he is sufficiently qualified; if not, he must be assisted by a skilled artisan.

The work of the class will be examined by the local inspector of the department, accompanied, if necessary, by an artisan expert on the occasion of his visit to examine in drawing

If it appears that the school is properly provided with plant for instruction and that the teaching is fairly goodl a grant of 63., or, if excellent, of 78., will be made for every scholar instructed, provided (a) that he has passed the fourth standard; (b) that he has received mannal instruction for at least two hours a week for twentytwo weeks during the school year; (c) that a special register of attendance is kept; and (d) that each scholar on whom payment is claimed is a scholar of the day school and has attended with reasonable regularity. The grant may be reduced or wholly withheld at the discretion of the department if it appears that the plant is insufiicient or that the instruction is not good. (Official circular, 1890.)

From the official report it appears that “during the year ending August 31, 1891, 6,212 elementary schools with 1,170,310 scholars were taught drawing and examined under the regulations of the department. Seven hundred and thirty-nine of these schools were in Scotland and 51 in Ireland. This was an increase of 1,886 schools and 241,983 scholars, or 44 per cent and 26 per cent, respectively, as compared with the numbers in 1889-90, when 4,324 schools, with 928,357 scholars, were examined."

Classes of manual instruction have been established in 245 schools, 63 of which were examined in the year ended August 31, 1891, and earned grants amounting to £600 138. 4d. on account of 2,568 schools.

very nearly two papers per student. Seventy-two thousand four hundred and sixty. three students were successful in passing in one or more subjects, and of these 37,333 were successful for the first time. In the previous year 71,417 were successful, and 37,614 for the first time.

The Royal College of Science, London, with which is incorporated the Royal School of Mines, numbered 283 students; of these 121 were Government students, royal exhibitioners, national scholars, local exhibitioners, free students, and teachers in training, and 164 were private students paying fees.

At the Royal College of Science, Dublin, there were 116 students, as against 103 in the previous year.

Art instruction in local schools of art and art classes.—The number of art schools and classes examined in 1891 was 1,313, as against 1,182 in 1890, showing an increase of 131. The number of students under instruction was 88,833 in 1890, as compared with 100,031 in 1891.

The National Art Training School registered 191 students. gether there were 249,031 students pursuing art and science studies under the auspices of the department.

Expenditure. The expenditure of the department during the financial year 1891–92 amounted to £530,607 ($2,578,751), which was apportioned as follows: Expenses of administration, including central staff, office expenses, etc., £33,031; direct payments, prizes, etc., to encourage instruction in science, £113,431; direct payments, prizes, etc., to encourage instruction in art, £52,120; services common to both science and art instruction, £61,034; institutions supported or aided by the state through the Depa: tment of Science and Art, £58,000; the South Kensington and Bethnal Greon Museums, including the expenses of circulation of science and art objects to country institutions, £85,910; payments for instruction in public elementary schools and training colleges in drawing, £123,167, and grants in aid of technical instruction and local musenms, £3,878.

It will be seen that the entire expenditure of the department is less than the annual amount at the disposal of the county councils ($3,590,000), and in view of these new resources the department announces the withdrawal after May, 1892, of grants for the second (i. e., lowest) class in the elementary stage of each science subject, of grants in aid of technical subjects, and also of grants for apparatus and fittings during the continuance of the customs and excise act, excepting in Ireland, which has no share in this fund. At the same time the department will increase its appropriations for advanced science instruction.

The sum at the disposal of the county councils may be regarded as a fund for the development of secondary education, as by the law of 1889 the councils are debarred from making direct appropriation for instruction given to boys and girls in the elementary grades.

Taking advantage of this fact, the National Association for the Promotion of Technical and Secondary Education urges

That in the opinion of this association the powers conferred on local authorities by the technical instruction acts, 1889 and 1891, and the local taxation (customs and excise duties) act, 1890, onght to be so extended by legislation as to enable them to deal effectively with the organization of secondary education.

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In pursuance of that opinion, a secondary education bill will undoubtedly be introduced at the next session of Parliament.

It was not the purpose of this chapter to consider curricula and the internal conduct of secondary schools. As, however, this grade of instruction is just now a subject of much discussion among us, the work of individual schools in England would presumably furnish interesting suggestions. For this reason extracts from the prospectuses of three typical schools, showing admission requirements and courses of study are appended to this article.




No boy can be admitted into the school before completing his twelfth, nor (except under certain conditions) after completing his fourteenth year, nor (in any case) without a certificate of good conduct from the master or tutor under whom he has been previously educated.

Every boy, before his admission to the school, is required to pass an entrance examination.

For the classical side the obligatory subjects are easy translation from Xenophon, Cæsar, Ovid, or for more advanced boys from Homer, Euripides, Virgil, Cicero, and Greek and Latin grammar.

A simple paper is also given to test a boy's general knowledge of English subjects, i. e., Scripture, English grammar, and the elements of geography and English history (but a boy is not required to do all the parts of the paper), arithmetic through fractions and interest.

French, algebra, geometry, natural science may be taken, and knowledge of these is reckoned in the candidate's favor,

For admission to the modern side the principal subjects are mathematics, Latin, and French; a boy is required to pass in all three. Any knowledge of German or history is taken into consideration in determining a boy's place. The mathematical part of the examination comprises arithmetic, algebra, so far as to include quadratic equations, and the earlier parts of Euclià or some other elementary geometry.

No boy can remain in the school (without special permission) after he is 16, unless be has reached the shell; after 17, unless he has reached tho sixth form, or in any (ordinary) case after 19.

The following scheme shows the distribution of subjects and hours each week for two forms in each division. In the classical side the forms selected are the highest (i. e., upper sixth) and the third (i. e., IV, 1); between the two there are nine forms. On the modern side the forms selected are the highest (i. e., modern sixth) and the second (modern iv, 1). Between these there are seven forms.

The bill has just beeu introduced by Mr. Arthur Acland, June 1, 1892.
ED 91-10

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Epistle of St. boys; 2 to 3 hours boys; 2 to 3 hours Smith's Greece, also all boys an boys; 63, some some boys.

some boys.
| Paul; repeti. more, some boys; more, some boys; B. C. 401-321. essay onco a boys.

Cicero in In Ver. (Edipus, Tyran. Some boys, 2 month.
ren, Actis I; nus; Thuovdides, hours more: Eng.
Virgil, Æneid Book III ; Aristo. lish History
VIII; also one or phanes, Knight's.
two comp. exer- Some boys: Pin.

dar,Olymp. Odes;
also one 1 or 2

coinp. exercises.
IV, I..... Old Testament 6 hours. Trans. 37 hours: Transla- 2 hours: English Geography 1 hour: 3 hours, all

23 hours all 34
1 hour, Gen. lation. Harily's tion 3 hours; Col. History, Gardi.

Baker's British boys; 5 non.

boys; 41
XII to end; Reader, PP. 28 to son's Reader, pp. ner's Students' Empire, South Greek boys.

non. Greek
New Testa. 38, 3 hours; Oviil, 53 to 69; gram.
History, 1189 to Africa, and Brit.

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Acts I to XIV; selections, 200 cidence.

Outlines, 1603

repetition repetition. lines); proge 2

1760; Roman His.

maps. Grammar hours, easy con

tory, B, C. 367- 1 hour: Struc. tinuous passages,


ture of sentences.
short sentences;

grammar $ hour,
accidence and ele-
ments of syntax.


1 Natural science is begun in the sixth (from the lowest) form (Shell I).

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ology to all.

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Taught as a
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2 hours with tu. position.


or in some


cases 4 or 5
hours. One

lesson in ge-
MIV, 1. 3 hours: Old 3 honrs: Epitomo 54 hours : Le Duc

2 hours: English 14 hours: Long. Samo

15 14 10 Tostament Historiæ Græcæ, de Reichstadt, 40

History 1 hour, fellow's Evan-
(Eng.), Gen. chapters 64 to 82.
pages. Grammar.

1189-1307. Greek geline. Repe.
XII to Exo. Ovid, selections. Unseen transla.

tition and map.
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German (taught

in divisions).


or Roman Hig.

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120-60. Gardi. (Fr.), Acts sions.

ner's Outlines. VI, VII, VIII,

(Some boys 1 or IX; repeti

2 hours more with tion.


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Gorman is begun in the third (from the lowest) form (i. e., modern shell III). *Natural science is begun in the third [from the lowest] form (i. e., modern shell III).

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