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to which grants are, for the time being, made by the department of science and art; (2) the use of tools and modeling in clay, wood, or other material; (3) commercial arithmetic, commercial geography, bookkeeping, and shorthand; and (4) any other subject applicable to the purposes of agriculture, industries, trade, or commerce which may be specified in a scheme, or proposals for a scheme, of a joint education committee, as a form of instruction suited to the needs of the district; but it shall not inelude teaching the practice of any trade or industry or employment. In 'schools established under the provisions of this act, no religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination may be taught to a scholar attending as a day scholar at the school established or regulated by the seheme, and the time for prayer or religious worship or for any lesson or series of lessons on a religious subject shall be conveniently arranged for the purpose of allowing the withdrawal conveniently of a day scholar there. from."
The county councils, created by the local government act of 1888, constitute the machinery for the administration of the act for the space of three years, after which the duties will devolve upon the charity commissioners; but the several educational associations of Wales, notably the North Wales Scholarship Association, the Joint Education Committees of Wales and Monmouthshire, and the Association for Promoting the Education of Girls in Wales, are actively at work to give effect to the law of 1889. Their efforts are directed to raising money for scholarship funds for the benefit of pupils in elementary schools and to securing the proper distribution and organization of the resources for secondary education. The distinct recognition given by the aet to technical instruction is part of the general impulse which this subject has received throughout Great Britain. With respect to the present provision for intermediate education in Wales the committee of 1880 say in their report:
The number of endowed schools at present conducted as grammar schools in Wales and Monmouthshire is 27, of which 13 are in North Wales, 11 in South Wales, and 3 in Monmouthshire. There are also a few schools which, though by foundation grammar schools, have from deficiency of funds or other causes either fallen into abeyance or into the condition of merely elementary schools.
As nearly as we have been able to estimate, the aggregate endowments of existing grammar schools amount to about £12,788 ($62,150), of which North Wales has £4,352 ($21,151), South Wales £4,665 ($22,672), and Monmouthshiro £3,771 ($18,327). The provision made by the above endowments is at present available for the education of boys only. For the education of girls there are but threo endowed schools in the whole principality, viz: Those at Denbigh and Llandaff, supported out of the funds of Flowell's charity; the gross income of which amounts to £6,500 ($31,590), and the scliool at Dolgelly, created by a scheme under the endowed schools acts, and maintained with funds provided out of the charity of Dr. Daniel Williams, and amounting to about £300 ($1,458) a year.!
Quoted from Studies in Secondary Education, p. 113. .
MOVEMENTS IN ENGLAND.
For an understanding of recent movements in England, it is necessary to have in mind the various conditions under which secondary and technical instruction are there maintained. In general it may be said that secondary instruction is the work of private corporations and individuals, although three classes of public bodies have some responsibility in the matter. These are (1) the Charity Commissioners for England and Wales; (2) local school boards; (3) the Science and Art Department.
No general statistics of secondary schools have been published since 1868, when the report of the British Schools Inquiry Commission was issued. This commission was appointed to investigate the operations of the endowed schools of the country, not including the nine great public schools.
The report divides the secondary schools into three classes, endowed, proprietary (belonging to a number of stockholders called proprietors), and private. To these classes may now be added the higher board schools. The commissioners reported in 1868 that 3,000 schools, of which a large proportion were elementary, were benefiting by endow. ments. The grammar schools coming within the scope of their inquiry numbered 782 and were educating about 37,000 boys. The 9 public schools had at the same time 2,956 on their registers, or altogether 40,000 boys in endowed scbools, out of an estimated total of 255,000 requiring secondary education. The need of fuller provisions for secondary education was emphasized by the commissioners. The immediate outcome of their recommendations was the endowed schools act of 1869, amended in 1873 and 1874. This law was intended to pro
more efficacious means for reforming the statutes of endowed schools and the application of their endowments;" for its execution an " endowed schools commission" was created with authority to draft new statutes governing the endowments. At the end of three and a half years, the original limit of its duration, the powers of the commission were prolonged for a year and then (1874) were transferred to the charity commission, which becomes thus an organizing authority in the work of secondary instruction. The original law applied to many foundations for elementary education, but in 1873 these were passed to the jurisdiction of the Education Department unless their endowments yielded a revenue exceeding £100 per annum.
From a return relating to schemes? passed before 1880, that is, dur.
? The benefits resulting from the revision of individual endowments may be illustrated by the changes effected in two cases:
In 1552 a free grammar school was founded at Birmingham by King Edward VI, who granted for the purpose certain lands held by the Guild of the Holy Cross. The commission of 1868 found the school at a low ebb, numbering only 115 boys, and with buildings in a ruined condition. The foundation has been twice reorganized under
ing the first ten years of the working of the act, it appears that 246 schools for boys and 40 schools for girls had been dealt with. Between 1863 and 1883 the number of pupils in schools from which information had been received had increased from 13,851 to 27,912. Of this increase 10,075 pupils were in new schools opened during the period. These facts point to advantages arising from a supervisory authority extraneous to the school.
The charity commission, in their reports, urge particularly the application of a part of the income from endowments to the creation of scholarships for pupils of the elementary schools. In the absence of public high schools, such as exist in this country, that is indeed the only means by which the poor can obtain secondary instruction.'
the new law and now comprises two high schools, one for boys and one for girls, and seven affiliated grammar schools, linked on the one hand to elementary schools and on the other to the two high schools and to Mason's College, by a large number of scholarships. These schools afford accommodation for 2,315 pupils (1,350 boys, 965 girls). One-third of the whole number are admitted on foundation scholarships, one-half of which are given to pupils who have attended public elementary schools in Birmingham two years. (See Studies in Secondary Education, Part 11, Chap. iv.)
The famous Christ's Hospital (Blue Coat School a), London, was also founded by Edward VI (1553) and has been enriched by numerous gifts and bequests down to the present time. The objects of the trust were the relief of the needy and the education of poor children. At the date of the report of the schools' inquiry commission, two schools were maintained, i. 6. a large boarding school in the heart of London, and a preparation school at Hertford. Tho two schools had at that time about 1,200 boys annually under their charge. The gross income was about £56,000, of which £48,000 ($210,000) were applied to education. As reorganized by the charity commission, the revenues will hereafter support five schools, i. e. (1) a boarding school for 700 boys, or for 850 when sufficient funds are available; (2) a boarding school for 350 girls in separate boarding houses of suitable size; (3) a preparatory school for 120 boys; (4) a day school for 600 boys, to be named the science school, which is to include a chemical laboratory, and be fitted with workshops and appliances for working in wood and metal, situate in the county of Middlesex, at a distance of not more than 3 miles from the Royal Exchange; and (5) a girls' day school for 400 scholars. (See Rep. of Brit. Schools Inquiry Commission, Vol. 1, Chap. v, also Vol. x, and Parliamentary Paper (79), session 1890.)
1 The following particulars relative to scholarships are cited from “Studies in Secondary Education,” and from city reports:
“In 1882, there were 2,989 scholarships held in secondary schools under schemes developed by the commission. Of these, 1,145 were restricted to bona fide pupils of elementary schools. There were, at the same time, 250 exhibitions; that is, sums of money to carry a boy from a secondary school to one of higher grade, or to a college or university. The number of funds of both classes has been increased since the year specified. In the cities, especially, these scholarships or endowments are supplemented by donations and by annual subscriptions for the same purpose.”
“In London, there are between 600 and 700 scholarships in secondary schools available for boys from elementary schools, and varying in value from the mere remission of fees to $100 a year, or more."
a Camden, Stillingfleet, Richardson, Coleridge, Charles Lanıb, and Leigh Hunt were all pupils here. See article in School Guardian, August 2, 1890, p. 575.
The two classes of secondary schools supported entirely by private funds, i. e., proprietary and private, are conducted in much the same manner as are stock.company and private schools in our own country, and like these are of varying degrees of excellence. The most notable company for the maintenance of schools is the Girls' Public Day School Company, established in London in 1872, and now maintaining about thirty-five schools located in the chief cities. A recent estimate gives 600,000 as the number of pupils under instruction in the private schools.
The only general agencies affecting these schools are the systems of examinations for schools maintained by universities and by the college of preceptors, and the science and art department examinations.
As a rule, the endowed schools and private schools are classical, although many of them maintain also a science or modern side. The higher board schools, although nominally elementary schools, are really doing the work of secondary instruction. They incline chiefly to scientific studies, a tendency stimulated by the action of the science and art department, which offers grants for pupils beyond the sixth grade in elementary schools who pass specified examinations in science. The policy of this department is one of the causes of the close relation between secondary and technical instruction that has been made in recent discussions and measures. The work of the department will be best appreciated after reference to the most important of these measures.
In 1889 England secured a technical education law' (applicable also to Ireland), which is simply permissive, allowing local authorities to
“The London school board controls, in addition, between 50 and 60 scholarships annually, of which a portion are open to girls, also.”
" The Liverpool council of education offer 12 scholarships annually, valued at £20 cach, and running for threo years, to enable boys in the elementary schools to go to the Liverpool College, or to the Liverpool Institute.”
“The Birmingham school board, as the trustees of certain scholarship endowments, offer a few minor scholarships of £5 ($25) each towards the maintenance of boys who have already obtained foundation scholarships at one of the King Edward's schools, and also scholarships of £15 to £25, running each for four or five years, enabling a boy to pass through."
? Inaugural address of Rev. Dr. Walker, president-elect for 1893 of the Association of Private Schoolmasters. (Educational Times, February, 1893, p. 6.) A more recent estimate by Mr. J. J. Findlay gives 800,000 as the number of pupils in secondary schools or pursuing secondary studies, including 25,000 instructed at liome or on the continent, and excluding the 90,000 pupils of higher board schools. It should be observed that the elementary departments of secondary schools are included in the above total. (See Educational Times, June 1, 1893, pp. 251–256.)
2 The regulations are the same for Scotland.
levy a penny rate for the purposes specified therein. The provisions of the local taxation (customs and excise) act of the year following, which applied alike to England and Wales and to Scotland, gave a substantial basis for the new departure by authorizing the county councils to employ the funds placed at their disposal for the benefit of technical schools, classes, etc.
As to the action taken with respect to the application of the funds, a return made to the House of Lords, and covering the year ended March 31, 1891, shows the following for the 109 counties and county boroughs in England (Monmouth county not included):
In seventy-eight cases wholly to technical education (including science and art); in twenty-seven cases, partly to those purposes; in four cases wholly in aid ot' rates (local taxes).
Fifteen Welsh counties and county boroughs, and Monmouth, decided to apply their shares of the duties in the following manner:
In twelve cases wholly to intermediate education, or intermediate and technical education combined; in one case partly to intermediate and technical education; in one case partly to intermediate education; in one case partly to technical education.
The total amount paid to the councils out of the residue of the duties in respect of the year amounted to £740,376 Ss. 3d., which sum was applied as follows:
£ 8. d. To technical education, including science and art and intermediate education
496, 569 15 10 In aid of rates
236, 212 18 10 Unappropriated.
* 7,563 13
3 ($3,598, 230)
WORK OF TIIL SCIENCE AND ART DEPARTMENT. Reference has already been made to the grants allowed by the science and art department. They comprise:
(a) Grants for children of the industrial classes, who take science or drawing at school and pass the science and art examination.
(1) Grants to students who have passed the stage of elementary instruction, and who study in special science aud art schools under inspection by the department.
(c) Grants of scholarships and prizes to enable promising students to proceed with their studies.
(d) Grants for apparatus, laboratories, and museums, etc.
(e) Maintenance at London of training schools for teachers, i. e., the Normal School of Science and the National Art Training School.
With the exception of grants for drawing and manual training, the work thus fostered lies beyond the elementary school grade, and is properly classified either as secondary or technical. Drawing has been
de obligatory for boys in public elementary schools, a recognition of