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All but 13 of these schools received the higher rate, i. e., 98. grant. Out of 5,309 classes, 4,224, with an average attendance of 169,996, received the 9s. rate, while 1,083, with an average attendance of 34,859, received only the 78. rate. In two cases the grant was refused.

Infant classes have much less development in Scotland, where the recognized school age is 5 and 14, inclusive, as against 3 to 14, inclusive, in England. The children below 7 years of age, which is regarded as the upper limit of age for infants, form only 21 per cent of the enrollment in Scotland, as against 31 per cent in England.

It appears from the reports that in England 91 per cent of the schools for older scholars and in Scotland 99 per cent go beyond the bare requirements of the obligatory subjects and provide instruction in one or more, class subjects, viz., English, geography, history, elementary science, special needlework for girls. The grant allowed in England for these subjects was estimated on 96 per cent of the total attendance of older scholars and in Scotland on 89 per cent of such attendance. English is the class subject most generally taken. It is worthy of note that after August, 1893, no “school for older scholars” in England will be able to claim a grant unless one class subject is taught. The remaining optional subjects, classed as specific, would be considered high-school studies in this country. As they can not be taken by pupils below the fifth grade, which on the average it is supposed will be reached at 11 years of age, they form in reality an initial stage to secondary schools, and in some cities have led to the organization of what are called higher board schools. In England 90,087 pupils were presented in 1890-91 in one or more of these subjects, of whom nearly one-third were from the London schools. The number presented in Scotland was 45,386. The grant for these studies is the only portion of the government fund still allowed on the results of individual examination, all other grants as before stated being estimated at a certain rate per capita of average attendance. This policy gives a special motive to managers for securing as high an average as possible.

That it is not sufficient to overcome the various conditions which interfere with regular attendance is evident from the fact that in Eng. Jand the attendance is only 77.72 per cent of the enrollment (68 per cent in infant schools, 82 per cent in schools for older scholars), showing but slight increase over former years. In Scotland, where there is a uniform compulsory law, but where the severity of the climate and the large proportion of sparsely settled regions depress school attendance, the average is 79.3 per cent.

To the day schools, whose operations are here reviewed, must be

Mathematics, Latin, French or German, principles of agriculture for boys, and domestic economy for girls are included in both England and Scotland. In England plıysiology, botany, chemistry, physics, and shorthand are also specified, and additional subjects may be taken in either country, provided a graduated scheme of instruction is arranged and approved by the department.

added the night schools, which are assuming more and more the character of continuation schools. To receive Government aid these schools must hold at least forty-five sessions. No pupil who has made less than twenty-four attendances can be presented for examination, nor in a lower standard than the third.

The following tabulation shows the status of these schools for 1890-91:

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Among the most important measures pertaining to elementary schools now pending are proposed new regulations for evening schools. These regulations tend to increase the provision for technical and scientific training and to systematize the instruction by means of a graduated course arranged for seven years and adapted to young people from 14 to 21 years of age, within which limits the age of night-school pupils will ordinarily fall. Freedom of classification will be secured here, as in the day schools, by allowing a pupil to be in different grades in different subjects.

CHAPTER V.

PROVISION FOR SECONDARY AND FOR TECHNICAL IN.

STRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN

MATERIAL CONSULTED.— Reports of Education Department, Scotland, 1886 to 1891–92,

inclusive-Report of British Schools Inquiry Commission-Studies in secondary educationTechnical instruction acts, 1887, 1889, 1891Local customs and excise act, 1890— Felsh intermediate education act, 1889-Files of the Record of Technical and Secondary Education"-Reports of the Science and Art Department-School reports of London, Lirerpool, Birmingham-Files of the Educational Timesand School

Guardian." TOPICAL OUTLINE.-Scotland: Publio superrision of secondary schools, operations in

1890-91--Prorision for technical instruction. Tales: Scope of intermediate education act of 1889, action in respect thereto-Existing secondary schools. England: Conditions under which secondary and technical instruction are maintained-Lack of statistics-- Reorganization of endowed schools under the Endowed Schools Commission and the Charity Commissioners-Importance of scholarship funds-Recent measures promoting technical instruction, Work of the Science and Art Department-Proposed legislation relative to secondary education.

MOVEMENTS IN SCOTLAND.

Measures looking to the organization of the agencies for secondary instruction and to adequate provision for technical instruction have recently assumed great importance throughout the British isles. Scotland has taken the lead in this respect, the inspection of secondary schools having been undertaken by the Scotch education department in 1886. The number of such schools now under inspection is 55, of . which 23 are known as higher class public schools(receive appropriations from local taxes), 22 are endowed schools, and 10 are private schools whose managers have requested the inspection of the department. Steady improvement is noted in the schools whose work has been inspected in successive years. The "leaving certificate examination," which was established in 1888, is found to have a stimulating influence. The number of schools participating in this rose from 29 in 1888 to 50 in 1890, and the number of candidates from 972 to 3,120. Still further increase was noted in 1891, when the higher departments of the stateaided (elementary) schools were allowed to avail themselves of the examination. The number of higher class schools represented in the examination rose that year to 52, while the number of departments of state-aided schools was 63. The number of candidates was 5,500. 1 By A. Tolman Smith,

The following tables show the particulars of the examination:

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A large number of university and professional authorities have announced their readiness to accept the "leaving certificate” in lieu of preliminary examinations held under their own direction.

The series of measures looking to public supervision and support for secondary schools is completed by the bill providing for the transfer to the Scotch education department of the sum of £60,000 (about $300,000) from the local taxation (Scotland) account in aid of the cost of secondary education.

Scotland was also the first division of Great Britain to secure a special law for technical instruction (1887). This law has, however, proved to be defective in many respects and additional legislation is confidently anticipated. Meanwhile the funds which the county councils have allowed for technical instruction' have given an impetus to practical operations.

1

? The bill became law June 27, 1892. It provides also for the appropriation of £30,000 (in round numbers $150,000) to the universities of Scotland.

2 The new Scotch technical act has been introduced at the present session of Parliament (1892).

3 Under the local taxation (customs and excise) act, 1890. By this act a surplus derived from the duties on liquors was placed at the disposal of the county councils with the privilege of applying the same to technical education.

The following is found to be the disposition of the funds by the councils up to October, 1891, so far as reported:

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In all an aggregate sum of £39,364 98. 4d. ($191,311.27) is above accounted for, which, deducted from the whole grant paid to Scotland, £48,051 ($233,527.86), leaves a balance of £8,686 108. 8d. ($42,216,59) at the disposal of 6 counties and 96 burghs, from which no information has been returned.'

The funds appropriated have been applied to the maintenance of special teachers of agriculture, dairy work, cookery, etc., in public schools, to the instruction of teachers in technical branches, and to the fostering of technical and art classes in secondary schools.

MOVEMENTS IN WALES.

The Welsh intermediate education act of 1889 is the outcome of recommendations made by a committee appointed in 1880 to inquire into intermediate and higher education and to make recommendations. The act is intended to increase the facilities for both secondary and technical instruction, and taken in connection with the elementary schools completes for the principality an educational system extending from the infant school to the university.

The new law provides for an official inspection of secondary schools and a government grant in aid of such schools not to exceed in any county the amount contributed out of the county rate (or tax) for the same purpose. These appropriations with fees and endowments make up the income of the schools. The law also authorizes the governing body of a secondary school to borrow money from the public works loan commissioners for the erection or enlargement of school buildings.

Intermediate education as defined by the act “includes instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, Latin, Greek, the Welsh and English languages and literature, modern languages, mathematics, natural and applied science, or in some such studies, and generally in the higher branches of knowledge. "Technical education includes instruction in (1) any of the branches of science and art with respect

Sce Record of Technical and Secondary Education, No. 2, 1892, pp. 166-167.

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