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TABLE 4.- Aggregate number of days' schooling given; the same compared with the populNUMBER OF DAYS ATTENDED.

Average length of school term.

Average number of
days'schooling given
for every child 5 to
18 years of age.
Average number of

days attended by each pupil enrolled.

Increase

or ile. 1870-71 1879-80 1889-90 1890-91 creaso

the last YOT reported.

3

6

7

9

Days.

132.1

Days. 130.3

Days. 131.7

Days. 135.7

Days. I. 1.0

152.0 97.4 91.6 133. 9 119.2

159.0 92.4 79. 2 139.8 129. 2

166.6 99.9 88. 2 148.0 135.0

168.0 99.9 95. 0 146.7 133.8

I. 1.4 I. 0 I. 6.8 D 1.3 D 1.2

98

70 115.6 169 170 172.4 176 178 127.2

109 105. 3 125.5 177 184 179 178.5 192 133.4

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lation 5 to 18 and with the enrollment. Length of school term.

State or Territory.

Aggregato

number of days' school.

ing given.

Days.

60.1

Days.

87.1

UNITED STATES

1, 129, 955, 876

North Atlantic Dirision..
South Atlantic Division
South Central Division
North Central Division
Western Division

318, 164, 297
112, 439, 462
144, 583, 522
477, 526, 037
47, 242, 538

77.7
36.8
37.5
72.0
61.5

111.0
61.9
60. O
94.6
85.0

10, 821, 510
4,996, 795
6, 230,000
47, 083, 738

6, 561,388
15, 365, 247
122, 884, 485
125, 590, 912
108, 630, 222

66.7 76.5
59. 1 83.0
76.7 96.9
90.5 124.9
76.9 127.4
86.2 119.2
82. 1 116.6
168.0 6109.3
72.5 103.8

13, 261, 734
19.535, 280

5, 192, 790
22, 450, 176
11,902, 752
12, 166, 309
10, 431, 931
c20, 057, 890
a7, 440, 600

168.7
63,3
83,8
39.2
45. 4
21.0
24.0
c30.7
a55.1

6103.7
103.3
135.4
65.5
60.0
36.0
49.8
c52. 6
a79.1

North Atlantic Division:

Maine
New Hampshire.
Vermont.
Massachusetts.
Rhode Island.
Connecticut
New York.
New Jersey:

Pennsylvania.
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware
Maryland.
District of Columbia.
Virginia ....
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia..

Florida
South Central Division:

Kentucky
Tennesseo
Alabama.
Mississippi.
Louisiana.
Texas

Arkansas.
North Central Division:

Ohio.
Iuliana.
Illinois
Michigan.
Wisconsin
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri.
North Dakota.
South Dakota.
Nebraska.

Kansas
Western Division:

Montana,
Wyoming
Colorado..
New Mexico.
Arizona
Utal
Nevada.
Idaho.
Washington
Oregon
California

39.7
52.5
124.8
35.0
23.9
36.3
027.7

57. 3 67.1 114.4 51.2 70.7 57.1 050.0

85.4 168.7 79,2 77.6 563.1 043.2 81.8 61.2 616.9 672.8 61.0 70.6

118.7 086.7 108.6 103. 0 190. + 657.9 98. 2 81.4 165.8 189.8 82. 2 80.5

21, 540, 900 32, 430,528 013, 405, 900 16, 794.300

9, 242, 744 37, 015, 600 011, 153, 550

89, 590,000 114, 495, 750

80, 819, 232 15, 952, 060 031, 792, 470 016, 259, 200 49, 193, 652 52, 062, 046 12, 338, 442 17,007, 415 20,337, 785 31, 378, 005 1, E91, 645

a696, 000 05, 590, 446 1,010, 450

0592, 452 3, 420, 410 0708, 960 1,663, 000 4, 512, 158

5, 048, 591 123, 102, 426

70.2 a48.3 161.6

22.9 139.1

47.8 870.8 029.0 47.2 55.8 080.6

99.3 a89 a79.7 a 200 685.4 92

44. 7 all1 074. 2 0 73. 2

152 196.0 142 146.3 a 45 61.8

a80 69.8 a90 1104.2 123

97.2 101.6
118. 2 118.2
157.6 0151.6

I. 4.
D 7.6

90
146.6

a Estimated.

In 1889-90.

cIn 1893.

(Table 4.) The total number of days attended by all pupils was 1,129,955,876, which gives an average of 60.1 days for each person 5 to 18 years of age.

If this were a constant quantity, so that each child received on an average 60.1 days' common school instruction annually while passing from his fifth to his eighteenth year, he would get all together 781.3 days of schooling. This is equivalent to about four years (3.9) of 200 days each, and is a time measure of the amount of instruction the public schools furnish each person of the population at the present rate.

The average amount of schooling given for each person 5 to 18 years of age varied the past year (column 3) from 21 days in North Carolina and 22.9 in New Mexico to 90.5 in Massachusetts. In the North gen generally, it is about double what it is in the South, owing in part to a longer school term and in part to the larger percentage of the school population attending school.

Of the pupils actually enrolled, each one attended on an average 87.1 days (column 4).

The average length of time the schools were in session (column ) was 135.7 days, an increase of one day over the preceding year, and of 5.4 days over 1879–80.

Some notable cases of change in the length of the school term are recorded in the table. The loss of seven days in Maine is due to the diversion of funds to the improvement of schoolhouses and higher salaries for male teachers. Massachusetts shows a reduction of eight days; this “ does not arise,” says State Superintendent Dickinson, "from any want of appreciation of the work of the schools, or from any unwillingness to give them liberal support, but rather froin the feeling that from thirty to thirty-six weeks per year is all the time that can be profitably spent in school. And what contributes to this feeling is the desire of many families to spend a longer time at the summer resorts. To provide for such families, and to avoid the demoralizing effects of having a part of the school withdrawn, the summer vacation is in many instances prolonged at both ends. The long vacations, together with the frequent holidays during the year, seem already to have encroached upon the school time to an undesirable extent."

The school term of Pennsylvania shows an increase of 7.6 days, the result in part of increasing the State appropriation from $1,500,000 to $2,000,000. The effect of the “great appropriation " of $5,000,000 in 1891 does not yet appear in the statistics.

Kentucky, Tennessee, and Texas all largely increased their school term in 1890-91, the latter by sixteen days. On the other hand, Ohio, Kansas, and Oregon show a considerable decrease.

Obserrations on ascertaining the arcrage length of school term. The aggregate number of days' attendance given in the abovo table, when not reported direct by State superintendeuts, has been obtained by multiplying the average daily attendance of pupils by the average length of school term in days. Either of these three quantities is thus made a most simple function of the other two, and can be readily obtained when the other two are given. Though this relation between these three quantities does not rigidly subsist in the statistical systems of many of the States, owing to diverse methods of computing average attendance and average length of school term, yet the assumption that it does is correct in principle and gives more accurate results in practice than auy other.

A practical application is made of this principle in finding the average length of school term of a number of States, as recorded in the summaries of column 8, where the aggregate attendance in days in each division and in the United States, is divided by the corresponding average daily attendance to get the average length of school term in days of each group of States.

By this method the school term of each State in taking the average is in fact given a weight proportioned to the school attendance of the State, as should be done under a correct interpretation of the expression “average length of school term.” The result might more properly be called “average length of attendance,” which is essentially what it is desired to know.

A method in use in somo States for finding the average school term of a county, for instance, is to weight the different school terms of the towns or districts the county is composed of by the number of schools in each; in other words, the total number of days (or months) all the schools of a county were kept is divided by the total number of schools; to get the average time each one was kept. So in finding the average term for the State, the school is taken as the unit instead of the pupil, as in the Bureau's method. When the schools differ much in size (number of pupils), as they do in all mixed urban and rural systems, varying from some half dozen to five hundred or more pupils each, the average term obtained by this method varies considerably from that obtained by the foregoing. The long terms of the large city sehools not being given their proper weight, the resulting average is too small. The same objection applies still more forcibly to weighting the school terms of the different counties or towns by the number of school districts in each.

Still another method is to add together the school terms of the different counties or towns, and divide by the number of such counties or towns; i.e., the simple arithmetical mean is taken. Smithville, for instance, with its 100 pupils, counts for as much in forming the average as the metropolis, avith its 100,000. Smithville, 60 days; metropolis, 180 days; average term of the two, 120 days. This method, if it can be so called, gives altogether too short an average term, and nothing can be said in defense of it. It is as if, wishing to get the population per square mile of Minnesota and Dakota combined, we said, Minnesota, 9.86; Dakota, 0.92; average number of persons per square mile in the combined territory (0.92+9.86)=2=5.39, instead of dividing the total population of the two States together by the combined area in square miles.

The “ aggregate number of days attendance" is a statistical item of the utmost simplicity and of great value, about the meaning of which there can be little or no difference of opinion. Every teacher's register that records the number of pupils present each day in any school, as they all presumably do, contains the data for ascertaining it for that school for the school year by the simple process of addition, or summing up.

Whole number of teachers,

1890-91.

Per cent of male teachers.

Males.

Females.

Total.

1870-71.

1879-80.

1889-90

1899-91.

2

3

4

5

7

124, 449

244, 342

368, 791

18, 099 18,854 28. 190 54, 490 4,816

74, 290 20. 875 22, 213 116, 093 10, 871

92, 389 39, 729 50, 403 170, 583 15, 687

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TABLE 5.- Teacher's.

State or Territory.

UNITED STATES....

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
41.0
42.8
34.5

33. 7

North Atlantic Division...
South Atlantic Division.
South Central Division..
North Central Division
Western Division ..

26.2
03.8
67.5
43. 2
45.1

28.8
62.5
67.2
41.7
40.3

20.0
49.1
57.6
32.4
31.1

19.6
47.5
55.9
31.9
30.7

a16.0

9.7 a12.2

a24.4

15.0
16,5
12.7
a20.4
a 22. 1
22. 9
32.5
42.8

a27.2
19.8
16.8
13. 2
20.2
a22.8

26.0
28.5
45.5

a16.0

2.8 12.0

9.8
12.6
a13.4

16.9
18,4
34. 2

12.0
ab13.4

16.8
118.4
32.8

a 29.9
45.0
a8. 2
64.5
79.0
a73. 2
62. 4
71.4
a 65.7

a46.6
42.6

87.
61.8
75. 2
a71.3

59.5 a65.2 61.6

a31.0

27.8 13,0 41.5 63.4 59.1 49.6 53.3 48.0

ab31.0

26. 6 13.0 39.2 61.8 56,8 47.2 c53.3 018. 1

North Atlantic Division:

Maine..
New Hampshire.
Vermont.
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey

Pennsylvania
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware.
Maryland
District of Columbia
Virginia ..
West Virginia
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Georgia

Florida
South Central Division:

Kentucky
Tennessce.
Alabama
Mississippi
Louisiana
Texas

Arkansas
North Central Division:

Ohio
Indiana
Illinois.
Michigan
Wisconsin
Minnesota
Iowa.
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska

Kansas.
Western Division:

Montana Wyoming Colorado New Mexico Arizona Utah Nevada Idaho Washington Oregon. California

a 66.0 a75.0

66.8 a60.8

50.9 a77.3 a75.6

64.6 74. 4 63.8 61.2 46.1 a75.0

78.4

49.8
61.8
62.9
49.6
44.7
61.1
68.5

48.9
61.5
102.9
46. 6
41.4
58.1
168.5

43.2
60.5
43,5
26,3
a28.8
33. 7
39. 0
65.3
a 24.7
51.9
47.2

47.8
57. 5
39.7
29. 2
28.9
35.9
33.6
58.1

43.1
51.1
32.5
22.3
19.8
23.9
20.6
44. 4
28.3
29.0
27.1
40.8

42. 1
151.1
28.7
21.6
18.8
22. 6
19.5
42.8
028.3
V29.0
27.1
51.0

40.8

40, 7
45. 1

a 60,3
a 28.6

48.8
a91,7

78 1022 308 193 378

141 ab 166 a 779 1, 059 b1, 162

285 bi, 753

179 6147

420 0210 ac331 al, 142

1. 582 b4, 272

303 02, 375

487 0240

798 6251 6197 1, 921 2, 641 65, 434

55.0

32. 4
a61.3
a46.5
a51.7
40.0

38.5
44.3
36.4
78.0
47.5
54.5
46, 7
57. 4
37.4
48.3
33.6

29.0
22. 4

26.2
a02.2

38.8
16.6

16.3
a33, 4
40.6
43.3
21.4

19.1 21.5 126. 2

03.3 138.8

17. + 716.3 033.4 40.5 40.1 021.4

.

a Approximately.

6 In 1880-93.

c In 1890.

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North Atlantic Division:

Maine
New Hampshire..
Vermont.
Massachusetts..
Rhode Island...
Connecticut
Now Yorka.
Now Jersey b.

Pennsylvania..
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware a
Maryland a
District of Columbiab.
Virginia...
West Virginia..
North Carolina..
South Carolinab.
Georgia...

Florida
South Central Division:

Kentucky
Tennessee a.
Alabama
Mississippi a
Louisiana.
Texasb

Arkansas.
North Central Divison:
• Ohio.
Indiana a ..
Illinois
Michigan
Wisconsin b
Minnesota b
Iowa ..
Missouri a
North Dakota
South Dakota b
Nebraska....

Kansas
Western Division :

Montana.
Wyoming
Colorado
Now Mexico
Arizona b.
Utah
Nevada b
Idaho..
Washington
Oregon 6..
California b..

30.05
35. 03
49.00

I.
I.
D..

1.05
.68
.21

27. 23
31. 61
39. 15

I..
D...

54 .61 1.44

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52. 29
46. 43
80. 70

I.. .88
I. 12
I... 2.47

42. 16
38. 46
66. 20

D.
I.

1. 15 1.71 1. 07

I...

* These summaries include only the States tabulated in the same columos below.
a Approximately.
bIn 1889-90.
¢ Average yearly decrease or increase for two years.
ED 91 -2

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