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medicine, anthropology, and natural history, 119; geography and travels, 11; musical and dramatic, 30; fine arts, 11; military, 15; religion, 120; fashion, humoristic, Sunday periodicals, 130; railroads, 22.


Altlıough the communes and provinces participate in the expenditure for ednication, yet the supervision and direction of educational institutions is vested in the State. The State, or Government, endeavors to extend education by means of schools and by encouraging the establishment of all such institutions as are useful to the intellectual life of the people, such as academies of science and literature, libraries, museums, institutes of fine arts, and musical conservatories. The preservation of national monuments serves towards this end also. The ministry of public instruction is in general charge of education; its attributes are determined by law of 1859, with modifications and laws of later date. The minister of public instruction is assisted by a superior council of education (consiglio superiore della pubblica istruzione), to which, in accordance with fixed laws, all matters of educational legislation or administration must be submitted by the minister. He in turn may question the council in regard to all subjects appertaining to his department of public affairs. The minister of public instruction exercises his authority throughout the provinces by means of a body of school superintendents (provveditore agli studi), one for each province. They have general supervision of elementary and moral instruction, of secondary and classical instruction, and the technical schools.

The direct inspection of elementary schools is intrusted to the school inspectors (one for each district), who are under the direction of the superintendent, or provveditore. For the elementary schools there is also another local official, a “delegato scolastico," who is appointed by the Government, and who has in each commune, or groups of coinmunes, the supervision of elementary schools, especially as regards tbo extending of educational facilities, the moral and physical education of the children, and the application of the law of compulsory education. This scholastic deputy is an aid of the school inspectors, and his duties are gratuitously performed.

The technical institutes and the institutes of the merchant marine are under the direct charge of the minister of public instruction. Each of these institutes has a director (preside), who is in charge of the scholastic affairs and discipline. To aid in the administration of these institutes there is a council of supervision (giunta di vigilanza), composed of members named by the state, province, and commune where the institute is situated. The universities are governed by rectors and academical councils, yet are under the supreme control of the ministry of public instruction. The other institutes, which are dependent upon the Government, such as academies, libraries, museums, etc., have their own administrative officers, who are assisted by committees of members appointed by local corporations and by the Government.

Many of the higher special or professional schools are not in affiliation with the niinistry of public instruction, but with that of agriculture, industry, and commerce. As an adjunct to this ministry, to aid in extending agricultural and industrial education, there are two councils—the one for agricultural development, the other for industrial or professional training. The various professional schools are directly governed by councils or committees, appointed partly by the Government, partly by provinces and communes, as all assist in defraying the expenses.


The expenditures for education are borne partly by the Government, in part by the provinces and communes. Charitable organizations contribute towards educational expenses either by direct maintenance of elementary or secondary schools or by assistance to students; other local organizations participate in the expenses for special school purposes. The maintenance of elementary schools is entirely assumed

by the communes, but if the necessary funds are lacking, aid is given in the shape of governmental subsidies, so that the compulsory-education act may be enforced. Elementary teachers receive pensions from funds annually set aside for that purpose by the Government. In accordance with special laws the Government maintains colleges for women for both elementary and complementary instruction.

The Government supports the normal schools as far as the director's salary, free tuition, and cost of scientific material is concerned. The provinces and communes defray the building expenses and the purchase of the apparatus. The “licei” are maintained by the Government as regards professors’ salaries and expenditures for scientific material; the remaining expenses are met by the communes. The “gin nasi” are maintained by the communes; in some provinces, in accordance with special laws, they are supported by the Government.

The cost of maintaining the technical schools is defrayed by the communes, the Government, however, paying half of the professors'salaries. The technical institutes and those of the merchant marine are maintained by the joint contributions of Government, provinces, and communes, the Government bearing about half the costs. The schools of agriculture and the industrial trade and professional schools are supported by united contributions from the communes and boards of trade of the towns where they are situated; the Government adds its quota by establishing and in part maintaining them. The maintenance of the universities and superior institutes depends almost entirely upon the Government, but, in accordance with special regulations, the provinces, communes, and boards of trade unite with the Government in means of improvement of such institutions. The Government, provinces, and communes bear the expenses of maintaining and adding to the collection of antiquities, of maintaining galleries, museums, monuments, and of increasing the academies and institutes of fine arts, libraries, etc. Assistance is also given in the form of prizes, bursaries, and other aid to students desiring to pursue a course of study and otherwise unable to do so.

Expenditures for education.


Lire. General expenditures of the central administration..

1, 936, 273 General expenditures of the local administration

1, 120, 800 Universities and other higher institutions....

10, 350, 173 nstitutes, scientific and literary organizations.

1,644, 551 Antiqnities and fine arts-ancient art, 2,547,941; modern art, 1,683,696. 4, 231, 637 Classical education

7,263, 036 Instruction in agriculture...

1,952, 456 Commercial, industrial, and professional

7, 923, 041 Normal and elementary education.

7, 444,064 Various expenses

83, 100 COMMUNES (BUDGET 1889). General expenditures for education and improvement..

4, 596, 325 Common and normal schools ...

58, 455, 248 Classical and technical education

7, 247, 245 Agricultural, commercial, industrial, and professional schools

1, , 489 Various expenses

861, 050

General expenditures for education and improvement.
Elementary and normal schools
Classical and technical schools
Agricultural and professional schools......

2, 387, 624

797, 373 2, 317, 245

651, 179

Total annual expenditures by the Government and local authorities may be reck. oued as amounting to 122,918,809 lire, or $23,729,200.

The expenditures for school purposes by charitable organizations as presented in the statistics of such organizations for 1880, the latest given, amounted to 5,429,476 lire, or $1,047,888. In addition to the aid given by corporations and boards of trade, there are workingmen's associations, which participate more especially in the industrial side of elementary instruction. From these sources, as is stated by Signor Bodio, about 615,000 lire, or $118,695, was expended in 1890-91.




Note.- This chapter relates to public day schools of cleinentary and secondary grade (primary, grammar, and high schools).


The following statement is made up from returns for 1890-91, with the exception of a part which is derived from 1889-90. The numbers here given are therefore subject to future correction. , The percentages, how. ever, will not be appreciably altered.

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Aggregate number of days' attendanco
Average number of days the schools were kept

Increase, in days....
Average number of days attended by cach pupil enrolled.

1, 129, 955, 870


1.0 87.1

Number of public schoolhouses


226, 881

3, 856

1 Classification by race, as far as possible, is given in Chapter XXV," Education of the Colored Race." ED 91-1


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For sites, buildings, furniture, libraries and apparatus
For salaries of teachers and superintendents
For other expenses..

$25, 851, 261 95, 791, 630 25, 157, 272


$116, 800, 163 Increase

$7,393, 377 Percentage of increase

5. 30 Expenditure per capita of population..

$2.31 Expended per pupil in attendance....

$17.62 Cost of education per pupil per month: For salaries only....

$1.70 For all purposes

$2.60 Remarks upon the tables. The following tables present in detail the common school statistics of the different States, mainly for the school year 1890-91. Several States failed to supply this office with figures in season for publication in the present report. The totals given for the United States and its several geographical divisions are therefore subject to future correction.

It is frequently the case in the tables of the printed reports of State superintendents that one or more counties have been excluded through their irot having made any report to the State superintendent. This complete omission is equivalent to giving such counties zero in footing

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