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yond sea. He was in a seaman's garb, and drinking a pot in a cellar. This scrivener came into the cellar after some of his clients, and his eye caught that face, which made him start; and the Chancellor, seeing himself eyed, feigned a cough, and turned to the wall with his pot in his hand. But " Mr. Trimmer " went out, and gave notice that he was there; whereupon the mob flowed in, and he was in extreme hazard of his life; but the Lord Mayor saved him, and lost himself; for the Chancellor, being hurried with such a crowd and noise before him, and appearing so dismally, not only disguised, but disordered, and there having been an amity betwixt them, as also a veneration on the Lord Mayor's part, he had not spirits to sustain the shock, but fell down in a swoon, and, in not many hours after, died. But this Lord Jeffries came to the seal without any concern at the weight of duty incumbent upon him; for, at the first, being merry over a bottle, with some of his old friends, one of them told him, that he would find the business heavy. "No," said he; "I'll make it light." But, to conclude with a strange inconsistency, he would drink and be merry, kiss and slaver, with those bon companions over night, as the way of such is, and, the next day, fall upon them ranting and scolding with a virulence unsufferable."
JULIAN THE APOSTATE.
This work is undertaken with the view of answering Dr. Hickes, who, in his sermons, had asserted the dogma of non-resistance. It had been maintained, that the Gospel does not prescribe any remedy but flight against the persecutions of the lawful magistrate, allowing of no other means, when we cannot escape, but denying or dying for the faith; and that the professors of Christianity ought rather to die than resist by force, not only the King, but all that are put in authority under him. According to which doctrine, as Mr. Johnson observes, the lives of all subjects would lie at the mercy of every constable or tything-man who should have violence or baseness sufficient to destroy them. It is needless to dwell upon the arguments brought forward to overturn a theory which no longer imposes on the meanest understanding, and which the authority of two great national acts has set aside.
But it may be proper to insert the propositions which Mr. Johnson enforces as the result of his arguments, since it is probable that they were sanctioned by the approbation of Lord Russell. They are as follows :—
1. Christianity destroys no man's natural or civil rights, but confirms them.
2. All men have a natural and civil right and property in their lives, till they have forfeited them by the laws of their country.
S. When the laws of God and of our country interfere, and it is made death by the laws of the land to be a good Christian, then we are to lay down our lives for Christ's sake. This is the only case wherein the Gospel requires passive obedience; namely, when the laws are against' a man. And this was the case of the first Christians. *
4. That the killing of a man contrary to law is murder.
5. That every man is bound to prevent murder, as far as the law allows, and ought not to submit to be murdered, if he can help it.
It will be seen, that these propositions reserve resistance for an extreme case of tyranny and oppression, which makes it the more improbable that Lord Russell should have afterwards consented to an insurrection, but upon the prospect of immediate danger.
The pamphlet of Mr. Johnson is, as the title implies, in the form of a life of the Emperor Julian, whose persecutions, his adversaries said, had been resisted only by prayers and tears. The historical applications, though drawn into too great a length for the present taste, are not without sharpness, of which one passage may serve as a specimen. He had mentioned a passage of Gregory Nazianzen, where he relates that his father so far resented an attempt of Julian upon the Temple, that he was very near kicking him. "And now," says, the author, "know I no more than the Pope of Rome what to make of all this, what they meant by it, or upon what principles these men proceeded. . Whether the laws of their country allowed them (which I am sure the laws of our eountry do not allow a man to imagine) to offer violence to their lawful Emperor; or whether old Gregory distinguished, and did not resist Julian, but only the devil, which his son so often tells us was in him; or how it was, I will never stand guessing; only this we may be assured of, that none of these Bishops had ever been in Scotland, nor had learned to fawn upon an apostate, and a mortal enemy to their religion."
APPENDIX, No. VIII.
The first time I came to my Lord Russell, which was on Monday at three o'clock, he received me with his ordinary civility and smiling countenance, in all respects as he used to do. He was then folding up his letter to the Duke, which he showed me, and said, "This will be printed, and will be selling about the streets as my submission, when I am led out to be hanged." He said, there was nothing in the letter that went against him, but the whole of writing to one, whom he had so much opposed. As he was folding up the paper, he told me the story of Colonel Sydney's razor with as much cheerfulness as ever I saw in him. Then he fell a lamenting my Lord of Essex's misfortune, and said, a great part of it was on his account, which he gathered from a message he had sent to his father the night before, that he was more sorry for his son's condition than he was, and from the time in which he did it; and the reason of it he believed was, that the Earl of Essex had