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305. Project of the new French Political Academy

313

309. Criticism on Paradise Lost

211

311. Letter on Fortune-stealers-Remarks on them-on

Widows

315. Criticism on Paradise Lost

217

317. On Waste of Time Journal of a Citizen

320

321. Criticism on Paradise Lost

223

323. Clarinda's Journal of a Week

324

327. Criticism on Paradise Lost

230

329. Visit with Sir Roger de Coverley to Westminster

Abbey

329

333. Criticism on Paradise Lost

236

335. Sir Roger de Coverley at the Theatre

332

339. Criticism on Paradise Lost

243

343. Transmigration of Souls-Letter from a Monkey 335

345. Criticism on Paradise Lost

249

349. Consolation and Intrepidity in Death

339

351. Criticism on Paradise Lost

255

355. Use to be made of Enemies

342

357. Criticism on Paradise Lost

262

361. Letter on Cat-calls-History of them

344

363. Criticism on Paradise Lost

270

367. Various advantages of the Spectators—Paper-

Printing

347

369. Criticism on Paradise Lost

277

371. Humorous way of sorting Companies-for Mirth-

for useful Purposes.

350

377. Bill of Mortality of Lovers

353

381. Cheerfulness preferable to Mirth

356

383. Sir Roger de Coverley's Visit to Spring Gardens . 360

387. Motives to Cheerfulness

362

391. Heathen Fables on Prayers — Vanity of Human

Wishes

366

393. Reflections on the Delights of Spring

370

397. On Composition-Anne Boleyn's Letter

373

399. Hypocrisy, various kinds of it

376

403. Speculations of Coffee-house Politicians on the Death

of the King of France

379

405. On the Improvement of Sacred Music

382

407. Character of English Oratory–Use of proper Gestures 385

409. Characteristics of Taste

387

411–421. Essays on the pleasures of the Imagination 393—430

433. Advantages of the Sexes associating-History of a

male Republic

430

434. History of a female Republic

433

435. Female Dress-Mixture of the Sexes in one Person

- Female Equestrians

435

THE SPECTATOR.

No. 162. WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5.

HOR.

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-Servetur ad imum Qualis ab incepto processerit, et sibi constet. NOTHING that is not a real crime, makes a man appear so contemptible and little in the eyes of the world as inconstancy, especially when it regards religion or party. In either of these cases, though a man perhaps does but his duty in changing his side, he not only makes himself hated by those he left, but is seldom heartily esteemed by those he comes over to.

In these great articles of life, therefore, a man's conviction ought to be very strong, and, if possible, so well timed, that worldly advantages may seem to have no share in it, or mankind will be ill-natured enough to think he does not change sides out of principle, but either out of levity of temper or prospects of interest. Converts and renegadoes of all kinds should take particular care to let the world see they act upon honourable motives; or whatever approbations they may receive from themselves, and applauses from those they converse with, they may be very well assured that they are the scorn of all good men, and the public marks of infamy and derision.

Irresolution on the schemes of life which offer themselves to our choice, and inconstancy in pursuing them, are the greatest and most universal causes of all our disquiet and unhappiness. When ambition pulls one way, interest another, inclination a third, and perhaps reason contrary to all, a man is likely to pass his time but ill who has so many different parties to please. When the mind hovers among such a variety of allurements, one had better settle on a way of life that is not the very best we might have chosen, than

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grow old without determining our choice, and go out of the world, as the greatest part of mankind do, before we have resolved how to live in it. There is but one method of setting ourselves at rest in this particular, and that is, by adhering stedfastly to one great end, as the chief and ultimate aim of all our pursuits. If we are firmly resolved to live up to the dictates of reason, without any regard to wealth, reputation, or the like considerations, any more than as they fall in with our principal design, we may go through life with steadiness and pleasure ; but if we act by several broken views, and will not only be virtuous, but wealthy, popular, and everything that has a value set upon it by the world, we shall live and die in misery and repentance.

One would take more than ordinary care to guard oneself against this particular imperfection, because it is that which our nature very strongly inclines us to; for if we examine ourselves thoroughly, we shall find that we are the most changeable beings in the universe. In respect of our understanding, we often embrace and reject the very same opinions; whereas beings above and beneath us, have probably no opinions at all, or at least no waverings and uncertainties in those they have. Our superiors are guided by intuition, and our inferiors by instinct. In respect of our wills, we fall into crimes and recover out of them, are amiable or odious in the eyes of our great Judge, and pass our whole life in of. fending and asking pardon. On the contrary, the beings underneath us are not capable of sinning, nor those above us of repenting. The one is out of the possibilities of duty, and the other fixed in an eternal course of sin or an eternal course of virtue.

There is scarce a state of life, or stage in it, which does not produce changes and revolutions in the mind of man. Our schemes of thought in infancy are lost in those of youth ; these too take a different turn in manhood, till old age

often leads us back into our former infancy. A new title, or an unexpected success, throws us out of ourselves, and in a manner destroys our identity. A cloudy day, or a little sunshine, have as great an influence on many constitutions, as the most real blessings or misfortunes. Å dream varies our being, , and changes our condition while it lasts; and every passion, not to mention health and sickness, and the greater alterations in body and mind, makes us appear almost different creatures.

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If a man is so distinguished among other beings by this infirmity, what can we think of such as make themselves remarkable for it even among their own species ? It is a very trifling character to be one of the most variable beings of the most variable kind, especially if we consider that he who is the great standard of perfection, has in him no shadow of change, but is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever.

As this mutability of temper and inconsistency with ourselves is the greatest weakness of human nature, so it makes the person who is remarkable for it, in a very particular manner, more ridiculous than any other infirmity whatsoever, as it sets him in a greater variety of foolish lights, and distinguishes him from himself by an opposition of party-coloured characters. The most humorous character in Horace is founded upon this unevenness of temper and irregularity of conduct.

-Sardus habebat
Ille Tigellius hoc. Cæsar qui cogere posset,
Si peteret per amicitiam patris, atque suam, non
Quidquam proficeret: Si collibuisset, ab ovo
Usque ad mala citaret, lö Bacche, modo summâ
Voce, modo hâc resonat quæ chordis quatuor ima.
Nil æquale homini fuit illi: Sæpe velut qui
Currebat fugiens hostem: Persæpe velut qui
Junonis sacra ferret. Habebat sæpe ducentos,
Sæpe decem servos. Modò, reges atque tetrarchas,
Omnia magna loquens. Modò sit mihi mense tripes, et
Concha salis puri, et toga, quæ defendere frigus,
Quamvis crassa, queat. Decies centena dedisses
Huic parco paucis contento, quinque diebus
Nil erat in loculis. Noctes vigilabat ad ipsum
Mane: Diem totam stertebat. Nil fuit unquam
Sic impar sibi-

HOR. Sat. 3, lib. i. Instead of translating this passage in Horace, I shall entertain my English reader with the description of a parallel character, that is wonderfully well finished, by Mr. Dryden, and raised upon the same foundation.

In the first rank of these did Zimri stand :
A man so various, that he seemed to be
Not one, but all mankind's epitome.
Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong;
Was everything by starts, and nothing long :
But, in the course of one revolving moon,
Was Chemist, Fiddler, Statesman, and Buffoon ;
Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking,
Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking.
Blest madman, who could every hour employ,
With something new to wish, or to enjoy!

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