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missive applications to the king for recalling his mandate; they resused admitting the candidate; and James, finding them refolute in the desence of their privileges, rejected them all except two.
'A second declaration for liberty of conscience was published, almost in the fame terms with the former; but with this peculiar injunction, that all divines A. D. should read it after service in their churches. The 1688. clergy were known univerfally to difapprove of these measures, and they were now refolved to difobey an order dictated by the most bigoted motives. They were determined to trust their cause to the favour of the people, and that univerfal jealousy which prevailed against the encroachment of the crown. The first cham. pions on this service of danger were Loyde, bishop of St. Afaph; Ken, of Bath and Wells; Turner, of Ely; Lake, of Chichester; White, of Peterborough; and Trelawney, of Bristol; these, together with Scancroft, the primate, concerted an address, in the form of a petition, to the king, which, with the warmest expressions of zeal and submission, remonstrated, that they could not read his declaration confistent with their consciences, or the respect they owed the protestant religion.
The king in a sury summoned the bishops besore the council, and there questioned them whether they would acknowledge their petition. They for fome time declined giving an answer; but being urged by the chancellor, they at last owned it. On their resufal to give bail, an order was immediately drawn for their com. mitment to the Tower, and the crown-lawyers received directions to prosecute them for a seditious libel.' '>
The twenty-ninth day of June was fixed for their trial; and their return was more splendidly attended than their imprifonment. 'The cause was looked upon as involving the fate of the nation, and suture freedom, or suture slavery, awaited the decifion. The dispute was"learnedly managed by the lawyers on both fides. Holloway and Powel, two of the judges, declared themselves in favour -©f the bishops. The jury withdrew into a chamber, "where they passed the whole nights but next morning they returned into court, and pronounced the bishops,- Not
guilty. Westminster-hall instantly rang with loud acclamations, which were communicated to the whole extent of the city. * They even reached the camp at Hounflow, where the king was at dinner, in lord Feversham's tent. His majesty demanding the cause of those rejoicings, and being informed that it was nothing but the foldiers shouting at the delivery of the bishops: "Call you that nothing ;" cried he, " but fo much the *« worse for them!"
It was in this posture of affairs that all people turned their eyes upon William prince of Orange, who had married Mary, the eldest daughter of king James.
William was a prince who had, from his earliest entrance into bufiness, been immersed in dangers, calamities, and politics. The ambition of France, and the jealoufies of Holland, had served to sharpen his talents, and to give him a propenfity to intrigue.
This politic prince now plainly faw that James A. D. had incurred the most violent hatred of his sub1688. jects. He was minutely informed of their discontents; and, by seeming to discourage, still farther increased them, hoping to gain the kingdom for himself in the sequel.
The time when the prince entered upon his enterprise was just when the people were in a flame from this recent insult offered to their bishops. He had besore this made confiderable augmentations to the Dutch fleet, and the ships were then lying ready in the harbour. Some additional troops were alfo levied, and sums of money raised for other purposes were converted to the advancement of this expedition.
So well concerted were his measures, that, in three days, above four hundred transports were hired, the army sell down the rivers and canals from Nimeguen, with all necessary stores; and the prince set fail from Helvoetllays, with a fleet of near five hundred vessels, and an army of above fourteen thoufand men.
It was given out that this invafion was intended for the coast of France, and many of the Englistr, who faw the fleet pass along their coasts, little expected to see it land Ml theit own shores. Thus, after a vovage of two days, M "the the prince landed his army at the village of BrOxholme in Torbay, on the fifth of November, which was the anniverfary of the gun-powder treafon.
But though the invitation from the English was very general, the prince for fome time had the mortification to find himself joined by very sew. He marched first to Exeter, where the eountry people had been fo lately terrified with the executions which had ensued on Monmouth's rebellion, that they continued to observe a strict neutrality. He remained for ten days in expectation of being joined by the malecontents, and at last begun to despair of success. But just when he began to deliberate about reimbarking his forces, he was joined by several perfons of consequence, and the whole country foon after came flocking to his standard. The nobility, clergy, essicers, and even the king's own servants and creatures, were unanimous in deserting James. Lord Churchill had been raised from the rank of a page, and had been invested with a high command in the army; had been created a peer, and owed his whole fortune to the king's bounty; even he deserted among the rest, and carried with him the duke of Grafton, natural fon to the late king, colonel Berkely, and fome others.
The prince of Denmark, and Anne, his favourite daughter, perceiving the desperation of his circumstances, refolved to leave him, and take part with the prevailing fide. When he was told that the prince and princess had followed the rest of his favourites, he was stung with the most bitter anguish. "God help me," cried he, in the extremity of his agony, "my own .*« children have forfaken me."
The king, alarmed every day more and more with the
hearken to those who advised his quitting the kingdom. To prepare for this he first sent away the queen, who arrived fasely at Calais, under the conduct of count Lauzun, an old favourite of the French king. He himself foon after difappeared in the night time, attended only by Sir Edward Hales, a new convert; but. was discovered and brought back by the mob.
was refolved to
But shortly after being confined at Rochester, and observing that he was entirely neglected by his own subjects, he refolved to seek fasety from the king of France, the only friend he had still remaining. He accordingly fled to the sea fide, attended by his natural fon the duke of Berwick, where he embarked for the continent, and arrived in fasety at Ambleteuse in Picardy, from whence he hastened to the court of France, where he still enjoyed the empty title of a king, and the appellation of a faint, which flattered him more.
The king having thus abdicated the throne, A. D. the next confideration was the appointing a suc1689. ceffor. Some declared for a regent; others, that the princess of Orange should be invested with regal power, and the young prince confidered as suppoiitious. After a long debate in both houses, a new fovereign was preserred to a regent, by a majority of two voices. It was agreed, that the prince and princess of
land, while the administration of government should be placed in the hands of the prince only.
WILLIAM was no fooner elected to the throne, than he began to experience the dissiculty of governing a people, who were more ready to examine the commands of their superiors than to obey them.
His reign commenced with an attempt fimilar to that which had been the principal cause of all the disturbances in the preceding reign, and which had excluded the monarch from the throne. William was a calvinist, and consequently averse to persecution; he theresore began by attempting to repeal those laws that enjoined uniformity of worship; and though he could not entirely succeed in his defign, a toleration was granted to such dissenters as should take the oaths of allegiance, and hold no private conventicles.
In the mean time James, whose authority was still acknowledged in Ireland, embarked at Brest for that kingdom, and on May 2zd arrived at Kinfale. He foon after made his public entry into Dublin, amidst the acclamations ef the inhabitants. He found the appearances of things in that country equal to his most fanguine expectations.