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Oth. Hath he faid any thing? lago. He hath, my Lord; but be you well affur'd, No more than he'll unfwear.

Oth. What hath he said ? lago. Why, that he did, he did

Oth. What? what? lago. Lie

Oth. With her?

We fay, lie on her,

Jago. With her; on her Oth. Lie with her! lie on her! when they belie her. Lie with her! that's fulfome. Handkerchief confeffions handkerchief handkerchief-[(9) to confefs, and be hang'd for bis labour Firft, to be bang'd, and then to confefs --] 1 tremble at it Nature would not inveft herself in fuch fhadowing passion (1) without some inftruction. It is not words that shake me thus pish nofes, ears, and lips-is't poffible! -confefs! bandkerchief! - ob devil [Falls in a trance.





I know not what

what you will

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ber own fondness they make her pliant to their defires, cannot help boafting of their fuccefs. To convince, here, is not, as in the common acceptation, to make fenfible of the truth of any thing by reafons and arguments; but to overcome, get the better of, &c. THEOBALD.


-] Convinc'd, for conquer'd, fubdued. WARB. -to confefs, &c.] The words between the hooks feem to be the player's trash. WARBURTON.

I have as little value for thefe words as any other commentator; but whether they are the authour's or player's I cannot determine.

* Shadowing paffion] The modern editions have left out paffion. (1) without fome inftruction.] The starts and broken reflexions in this fpeech have fomething very terrible, and fhew the mind of the speaker to be in inexpreffible agonies. But the words we are upon, when fet right, have a fublime in them that can never be enough admired. The ridiculous blunder of writing INSTRUC TION for INDUCTION (for fo it fhould be read) has indeed funk it into arrant nonfenfe. Othello is just going to fall into a fwoon; and, as is common for people in that circumftance, feels an uaufual mift and darknefs, accompanied with horror, coming upon him. This, with vaft fublimity of thought, is compared to the feafon of the Sun's eclipfe, at which time the earth becomes fhadowed by the induction or bringing over of the Moon between it R 2 and

lago. Work on,

My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are caught;
And many worthy and chafte Dames ev'n thus,
All guiltlefs, meet reproach. What hoa! my Lord!
My Lord, I fay, Othello,

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and the Sun. This being the allufion the reasoning stands thus, My nature could never be thus over shadowed, and falling, as it were, into diffolation for no cause. There must be an INDUCTION of fomething: there must be a real cause. My jealousy cannot be merely imaginary. Ideas, WORDS only, could not shake me thus, and raise all this diforder. My jealousy therefore must be grounded on matter of falt. Shakespeare uses this word in the fame fenfe, Richard III.

A dire INDUCTION am I witness to.

Marflor feems to have read it thus in fome copy, and to allude to it in these words of his Fame,

Plots ba' you laid? INDUCTIONS dangerous!


This is a noble conjecture, and whether right or wrong-does honour to its authour. Yet I am in doubt whether there is any neceffity of emendation. There has always prevailed in the world an opinion, that when any great calamity happens at a distance, notice is given of it to the fufferer by fome dejection or perturbation of mind, of which he discovers no external cause. This is afcribed to that general communication of one part of the uni verse with another, which is called fympathy and antipathy; or to the secret monition, inftruction, and influence of a fuperior Being, which fuperintends the order of Nature and of life. Otbello fays, Nature could not inveft berself in such shaderving paffion, without inftruction. It is not words that shake me thus. This paffion which spreads its clouds over me is the effect of fome agency more than the operation of words; it is one of thofe notices which meh have of unfeen calamities.

However ingenious Dr. Warburton's note may be, it is certainly too forced and farfetch'd. Orbello alludes only to Caffio's dream, which had been invented and told him by Iago, when many confufed and very interefting ideas pour in upon the mind all at once, and with fuch rapidity, that it has not time to fhape or digest them, if the mind does not relieve itself by tears, which we know it often does, whether for joy or grief, it produces ftupefaction and fainting.

Othello, in broken fentences and fingle words, all of which have a reference to the cause of his jealoufy, fhews, that all the proofs are present at once to his mind, which so overpowers it, that he falls in a trance, the natural confequence. Mr. REYNOLDS.

lago. My Lord is fall'n into an Epilepfy.
This is the fecond Fit; he had one yesterday.
Caf. Rub him about the temples.
Iago. No, forbear,

The lethargy must have his quiet course :
If not he foams at mouth, and by and by
Breaks out to favage madness. Look, he stirs.
Do you withdraw yourself a little while,
He will recover ftraight; when he is gone,

I would on great occafion speak with you. [Exit Caffio.
How is it, General? have
you not hurt your head?

Oth. Doft thou mock me?

lago. I mock you not, by heaven; Would you would bear your

fortunes like a man. Oth. A horned man's a monfter, and a beast. lago. There's many a beast, then, in a populous city, And many a civil monster.

Oth. Did he confess it?

lago. Good Sir, be a man }

Think, every bearded fellow that's but yok'd,
May draw with you. Millions are now alive,
That nightly lie (2) in those unproper beds,
Which they dare fwear peculiar. Your cafe is better.
Oh, 'tis the fpight of hell, the fiend's arch-mock,
To lip a Wanton in a fecure couch;

And to fuppofe her chafte.

No, let me know,

And knowing what I am, I know what she shall be.
Oth. Oh, thou art wife; 'tis certain.

lago. Stand you a while apart,

Confine yourself but in a patient (3) list.

Whilft you were here, o'erwhelmed with your grief,
A paffion moft unfuiting fuch a man,
Caffio came hither. I fhifted him away,
And laid good 'fcuses on your ecstasy;

Bad him anon return, and here fpeak with me;
The which he promis'd. Do but (4) encave yourself,
And mark the fleers; the gibes, and notable fcorns,




in thofe unproper beds,] Unproper, for common.


lift] For attention; act of liftening.

-encave yourself,] Hide yourself in a private place.


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That dwell in every region of his face;
For I will make him tell the tale anew,
Where, how, how oft, how long ago, and when
He hath, and is again to cope your wife.
I fay, but mark his gefture. Marry, patience;
(5) Or I fhall fay, you are all in all in spleen,
And nothing of a man.

Oth. Doft thou hear, ago?

I will be found moft cunning in my patience;
But, doft thou hear, moft bloody ?
Iago. That's not amiss ;

But yet keep time in all. Will you

withdraw? [Othello withdraws.

Now will I queftion Caffio of Bianca,
A housewife, that by felling her defires,
Buys herself bread and cloth. It is a creature,
'That dotes on Caffio; as 'tis the ftrumpet's plague
To beguile many, and be beguil'd by one;
He, when he hears of her, cannot refrain
From the excess of laughter. Here he comes.


Enter Caffio.

As he fhall fmile, Othello fhall go mad;
(6) And his unbookish jealoufy muft conftrue.
Poor Caffio's fmiles, geltures, and light behaviour,
Quite in the wrong. How do you now, Lieutenant ?
Caf. The worfer, that you give me the addition,
Whofe want even kills me.

lago. Ply Desdemona well, and you are fure on't. Now, if this fuit lay in Bianca's power,

[Speaking lower.

How quickly fhould you speed?
Caf. Alas, poor caitiff!

(5) Or Ifball fay, you are all in all in fpleen,] I read, Or fhall I fay, you're all in all a Spleen.

I think our authour uses this expreffion elsewhere. (6) And bis unbookish jealousy

-] Unbookish, for ignorant.



Oth. Look how he laughs already.


Jago. I never knew a woman love man fo.
Caf. Alas, poor rogue, I think, indeed, the loves me.
Oth. Now he denies it faintly, and laughs out. [Afide.
Iago. Do you hear, Caffio?

Oth. Now he importunes him


To tell it o'er. Go to, well faid, well faid.
lago. She gives it out, that you fhall marry her.
Do you intend it?

Caf. Ha, ha, ha!

Otb. (7) Do you triumph, Roman, do you triumph? [Afide.

Caf. I marry her! What? (8) a customer? pr'ythee, bear fome charity to my wit, do not think it fo unwholesome. Ha, ha, ha!


Oth. So, fo; they laugh, that win. lago. Why, the Cry goes, that you fhall marry her. Caf. Pr'ythee, fay true.

lago. I am a very villain elfe.

Otb. (9) Have you fcor'd me? well.


Caf. This is the monkey's own giving out the is perfuaded, I will marry her, out of her own love and Aattery, not out of my promife.

Oth. lago beckons me: now he begins the ftory.

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Caf. She was here even now: fhe haunts me in every place. I was the other day talking on the Sea bank with certain Venetians, and thither comes the bauble, and falls me thus about the neck

(7) Do you triumph, ROMAN? do you triumph? Never was a more ridiculous blunder than the word Roman. Shakespeare wrote, Do you triumph, ROGUE? Which being obfcurely written the editors mistook for Rome, and fo made Roman of jt. WARBURTON.


Of this I am in doubt. Othello calls him Roman ironically. Triumpb, which was a Roman ceremony, brought Roman into his thoughts. What, says he, you are now triumphing as great as a Roman.

-] a common woman, one that in

(8) - a customer?

vites cuftom.

(9) Have you fcor'd me?-] Have you made my reckoning, have you fettled the term of my life? The old quarto reads, flored me. Have you difpofed of me? have you laid me up?


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