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No. 235,—Vol. V.


Price 3d.



Natural History.

limits of the circle in which nature has condemned him action of a heat capable of keeping them in a state of con.' to vegetate? I will not, however, add one word more

stant fusion. This fact is demonstrated by the enormous LETTERS ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE

upon this subject ; let us only remember, in all our future masses of liquid metallic matter ejected by volcanos.

inquiries respecting the causes of the revolutions which There is every reason to believe, as we shall soon see, La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne our globe has undergone, how insufficient are our means that the foci of volcanos are situated at immense depths Couwe getire des ruines.

of investigation to the discovery of the great truths of | under the soil. Besides, the number of volcanos, as well Paris: printed, 1824.

which we are in search, and how uncertain and irregular extinct as burning, which is infinitely more considerable Trendsted ezpressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent Prench must be our progress towards it.

than is generally thought, and the perfect resemblance Work.)

The terrestrial spheroid is generally divided into two existing between the lavas of those situated in the most LETTER IL-OF THE INTERNAL MASS OF THE GLOBE. parts, whose limits are arbitrarily fixed; the internal mass, distant places, cannot be explained by any of the local It is well known that the form of our earth is that of a that is to say, the central part, to which we shall never be causes by which philosophers were for a long time willing pheroid, rather flattened at the poles. Its radius is 1500 able to penetrate ; and the mineral crust, which serves to to account for them. This resemblance naturally leads to

sagtes in length. The highest mountains are not elevated envelop the internal mass ; the latter may be supposed to the supposition, that they derive their common origin more than two leagues above the level of the sea ; there be ten or twelve leagues in thickness, but only its most suo from a burning mass, identical in its composition. Mine. De very few countries, whose natural situation is below perficial part is exposed to our observation.

ral springs and thermal waters of every kind, some of Sat level, and the greatest depths that have been at

To these two principal parts, may be added two others, which still preserve the heat of boiling water when they sined, in digging quarries and mines, do not exceed which require to be studied separately, the mass of waters issue from the grouud, present us with new proofs of the soo feet. The inequalities of the soil are then very in which cover more than three-quarters of the surface of the high temperature existing at a certain depth

" under the wnsiderable, when compared with the total mass of the spheroid, and the atmospheric mass, which is a thin fuid surface of the earth. trestrial spheroid ; and if the profound abysses which entirely surrounding our globe, and extending to an inde- We are indebted to M. Trebra, the director of the sen upon its surface inspire us with terror, if we behola terminate height. We shall first speak of the internal mass mines, for one of the most curious observations that have ich Fooder the lofty mountains whose summits are lost Every one has, perhaps, at some time or other, felt curi. been made in modern times. This gentleman having

the clouds, it is because we compare them with the ous to know, whether the whole mass of the globe consist had occasion to visit the deepest artificial cavities, disco tremely diminutive objects by which they are sur- of a succession of layers analagous to those observed near vered that the temperature constantly rises, in proportion unded.

its surface, or whether the same kind of substance being as we approach the centre of the earth, and that this aug. The contour of the earth, whose surface now appears to always found at a certain distance from every point of its mentation takes place in a regular manner, that is, at the * 90 rugged, would, if comprehended at a single glance, surface, it may thence be concluded that the interior of rate of a degree in 150 metres. Consequently, in very Sresent the appearance of a globe as smooth as those the globe is entirely composed of it. For the solution of deep mines the heat becomes insupportable. hich have received the last polish from the hands of the these questions, geologists have imagined hypotheses You will easily understand, Madam, how impossible

widely differing from each other. They have successively it is to suppose, after this discovery, that the earth has no Let us suppose the inequalities upon the surface of the supposed the interior of the earth to be filled with water, other heat than that communicated to it by the

rays of the wth imitated in relievos upon a ball of three inches in gas, with an enormous mass of loadstowe, and with metals, sun. This solar heat, though capable of producing upon meter, representing the terrestrial spheroid. Protu. either in a solid or a liquid state.

its surface the changes of the seasons, and the alternate tances almost imperceptible, even with microscopic aid, Diderot, whose principal object it was to explain the temperatures of day and night, does not extend its inuld supply the place of the highest mountains ; the magnetic action of the carth, considered its internal part Auence to any considerable depth, as may be perceived ghtest scratch would be deeper in proportion to its to be formed of a vitrified nucleus, upon which the fric. by the coolness of all subterraneous places. A therno. imeter than are our greatest artificial cavities relatively tion of the exterior moveable shell produced the same meter, placed at the observatory, at the depth of eighty. that of the earth; and the condensed vapour, occasioned effect, as that caused by the rubbing of the cushions of an seven feet under the ground, did not, during the hottest breathing upon its surface, would, perhaps, be 100 electrical machine against its cylinder.

summers and coldest winters of the priod between the e to represent the atmosphere to the height where The most probable of all these hypotheses, and the only years 1787 and 1819, vary 1-37th of a degree. ads are formed.

one compatible with all the phenomena that have till now The temperature is generally admitted to be invariable le for ourselves, imperceptible atoms who vegetate in been observed, is that in which it is admitted that the in- at the depth of 100 feet below the surface of the earth; Sthin layer of humid air, it is impossible to describe, ternal mas is composed of metallic matter. kept in a state but instead of continuing at the same degree at all depths any comparison, our insignificance, and the insufficiency of fusion by the action of heat.

below that point, it then begins gradually to increase, in tur agency to the operation of any change upon the We know the exact magnitude of the earth, and it is proportion as we approach the centre of the earth. obe.

also possible for us to calculate its weight. Natural phi- The more we reflect upon the subject, the more we are Nevertheless, we have measured the earth, whose losophy and astronomy furnish us with two different convinced how extremely limited and superficial is the Mensions reduce us to comparative nothingness; we means of attaining this knowledge. The result of each action of the solar heat. The effect produced by it is me measured the sun, which is a million times larger of these is a weight so considerable, that the interior of scarcely perceptible, except in places where it is concen so the earth; we bave calculated the distance which the earth must necessarily be five or six times more dense trated by the reflexion of surrounding objects. So incon. Parates us from that star, whose lustre our weak vision than the mineral crust, supposing the latter to consist en. siderable is its influence upon high mountains, that the Zhot support ; we have discovered in the millions of tirely of a succession of layers similar to those observed summits even of those situated under the equator are co23 which shine in the firmament, so many suns scat. near its surface. The internal mass is therefore formed vered with snow, which does not begin to melt at any ed in the immeasurable regions of the universe, and neither of gas nor water, nor even of the bardest stone height exceeding that of 4,800 metres above the level of Tying along with them opaque globes, whose move with which we are acquainted. In any of these cases, its the sea. nts they regulate. Capable of elevating ourselves to weight would be three or four times less considerable than If the mineral crust were less thick, the internal heat, - idea of infinity, the earth, lost in boundless space, we have reason to believe it to be ; but it must consist en- penetrating more easily to the surface of the soil, would pears to dwindle before us to the diminutiveness of a tirely of substances as heavy as our heaviest metals. probably occasion there a temperature much more elevated en of sand.

These metals, as they exist in the internal mass, have than that which we feel in the present state of things. It a there not, then, Madam, cause to exult in the superior not the solidity imparted to those exposed to the tempera- is

, therefore, the general opinion that the surface of the Lure of the mind of man, which demands for the exer- ture which reigns upon the surface of the soil. All cir- earth is constantly growing cooler, although so slowly that

of its powers a scope so far exceeding the narrow cumstances concur to prove that they are subject to the the change is hardly perceptible.


Many naturalists have even been led to consider our

Scientific Records.

ducing the ton to 2000 pounds for the sake of round globe as a small incrustated sun. According to them, its [Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve power of traction of 100 pounds

moves a mass of gista

numbers, as in the last calculation, we find here that's whole mass must primitively have been incandescent like ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin pounds ; or the resistance which the water opposes to be that of the sun; since it began to move in space, it has gular Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi, motion of the vessel is equal to 1.900th part of the lead

, become sufficiently cold, to permit its exterior part to grow

losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical or entire weight. At sea, where the water way is of us.

Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History : limited breadth, the resistance is probably one-third les; solid. This hard envelope has, in the course of ages, in

Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents ;- but, as a compensation for this, when steam power is en. creased in thickness; and the earth, thus growing cold by

to be continued in a series through the Volume. ] ployed, there is probably a loss of one-third in consequence degrees, is irrevocably condemned finally to be converted

of the disadvantageous mode of its application. into a frozen lifeless mass, revolving round a sun, whose


We see, then, that the effect produced by the draught heat, also gradually diminishing, will at length be entirely

In the Mercury of the 17th instant, the editors ven- thirty times as great upon a canal as upon a well-trade

of a single horse is ten times as great upon a railway, and exbausted.

tured to dissent in opinion from the able editor of the road. Yet a railway costs only about three times as much Do not, Madam, entirely despise this opinion, which Scotsman, on the subject of some of the positions laid as a good turnpike road," and a canal about nine or tean has been admitted by Buffon ; be not either too much down in the following article. The view taken by the times! and the expense of keeping the railway and canal disheartened by the probability that it is well founded, as other learned men have encouraged us to hope that its respondent of that journal

, whose letter appeared last were railways to come into general use, two-birds or mere

Mercury derives additional countenance from an able cor in repair is probably less in proportion to the origical s. correctness may very reasonably be doubted. It is true Friday. In order that our scientific readers may be en- of the expense of transporting commodities would be that many of them do not promise us a much more agreeabled to decide between the Mercury and the Scotsman, saved. With regard to the comparative advantages of able fate; they condemn us, or rather our descendants, to it is only fair that we here insert the whole of the original canals and railways, so far as the present facts go, se may see our rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans gradually evaporate, article, out of which a discussion has arisen, which will, upon a canal as upon a railway, the canal costs about until the earth, being dried up, will be set on fire by the in all probability, be further prolonged. We shall also three times as much, and will of course require nearly cha sun. Upon the whole, I should prefer this mode of de, give a place here to the comments of the Mercury on that same rates or dues per ton to make the capital yield the struction to the other; it is more prompt, and the splendid article, omitting the paragraphs commented upon, as they same interest. conflagration which it leads us to anticipatc, is less ter will be found in the extract from the Scotsmai.-Ed. Kal. But here it is of great importance to recollect that ti rific to the imagination, than the lingering frozen death

computation refers solely to a velocity of treo miles an kabe. threatened by Buffon.


If the friction which impedes the motion of a car or was Some chemists have assured us that the earth will again In our last we gave a brief account of the nature and gon, and the resistance which the water offers to the revive from its ashes, and that this great combustion will construction of railways. We now pursue our inquiry gress of a ship, were governed by the same laws, the game

velocity might occasion so considerable

a quantity of water, that it must into the effects of a determinate force of traction employed be. But this is far from being the case, as we evaporate for several centuries, before some continents can

In calculations respecting the power of a horse exerted sently see. In illustrating this point, it will be care be left dry. The form of the earth is exactly that which in different modės, errors often arise from considering this nient, instead of estimating effects by the variable mensen would be impressed upon its mass, by the action of gravity, power as a constant quantity, which it is not. At a dead

of a horse power, tó refer to a determinate and conser if it were in a liquid state ; and this fact was for a long pull, an ordinary horse exerts a force of traction equal to force of traction of a given annount. We shall therea time produced to corroborate the hypothesis of the earth's 150 pounds; this is reduced to less than one-half when he assume, that the body to be moved is urged forward

travels four miles an hour ; to one-ninth part when he force exactly equivalent to a weight of 100 pounds, primitive state of incandescence.

travels eight miles an hour; and at 12 miles an hour, his pended over a pully at the end of the plane on whil Voltaire has much ridiculed Maupertuis, for having whole strength is expended in carrying forward his own proposed the expedient of piercing a hole to the centre of body, and his power of traction ceases. It is supposed is deduced from the constitution of fluids, and confirma

First, with regard to the motion of a body in wate: the earth; this would nevertheless be the surest means of here that the horsé performs pretty long journeys. When by experiment, that the resistance which they hely

encounters in its motion through the ! is if our conjectures be well founded, it would be iin possible only at a velocity of 15 or 16 miles an hour. But in com. effect of force of 'traction of 100 pounds at two sia a

basis the toon to penetrate far, on account of the extreme heat that would mon cases a velocity of 12 miles may be taken as the hour, let us ascertain what force would move the soon become perceptible. Whatever might be the success maximum, and for the convenience of calculation the body at a greater velocity. On the catal, mor arm or a of such an attempt, it would at least be curious to ascertain Professor Leslie's rule, the force of traction at any

degree impelled at the rate of two miles an hour by a force of the

sea, we have seen that a hody weighing 90,000 pounds les the kind of obstacle that would prevent its completion, and of velocity (r) will be=(12—0)2. Thus, the force exerted, I cannot help regretting that no sovereign has yet under. at 2 miles an hour, will be 100 pounds; at 4 miles, 64 pounds; therefore, to move the same body taken an enterprise so worthy of awakening ambition. pounds; at 6 miles, 36 pounds ; at 8 miles, 16 pounds;

At 4 miles an hour, will require.... 400 pounds.
At 6 ditto

ditto ..

900 ditto. One step has been made towards the accomplishment of a and at 10 miles, only 4 pounds. Steam-engine makers


ditto ......1600 ditto. work of this nature in the labours already executed in the assume a horse-power to be equal to a weight of 180 or 200

ditto pounds, but this is to be considered merely as an arbitrary

ditto ......3600 ditto, deepest mines. and conventional standard, adopted for a particular pur.

Or conversely :I shall terminate this letter by remarking, that however pose. It is necessary to keep this general conclusion in

100 pounds moves 90,000 pounds at 2 miles an hour. or 22,500

ditza. considerable the number of volcanos may be in our days, view when we speak of the application of horse-power to

or 10,000 the traction of loaded waggons and vessels.

ditto. it must formerly have been much greater. The resistance to the motion of a vessel in the sea or a

or 5,620 There is no country in which traces of extinct volcanoes canal, is of an extremely different kind from that which

or 2,500

ditto do not abound; they are discovered by the beds of lava a carriage of any kind experiences upon a common road resistance of water, a great increase of power produces

Hence we see that when we have to contend with with which they have covered the surrounding soil, and or a railway. In the former case it arises from the press a small increase of velocity. To make a ship sail dhe which often extend to very great distances. sure of the water on the bow and sides of the vessel; in times

faster, for instance, we must employ nine time all mountains had a volcanic origin; but they were wrong. The motion of the body in both cases is resisted also by for example, that it were required to determine, sisa Some geologists have even gone so far as to believe that that of the

rim of the wheel on the gravel of iron rail power;

and to make het sail six times faster

, we re It is at least certain that the number of ancient volcanos the air; but this resistance, which is small in amount, horse draws'a boat, loaded with thirty tons, at two is, by the result of the most enlightened researches, daily generally speaking, we shall throw entirely out of view in an hour, how many horses would draw

the same keel demonstrated to have been much greater than it has till the first instance, in order to simplify our calculations.

On a well-made road a horse will draw a load of one two times as fast, it will require forr times the abselor now been supposed. It is impossible, in France, to make excavations for fifty leagues in any direction, without find ton, in a cart weighing 7 cwt at the rate of two miles an

hour.-(Leslie's Elements, p. 253.) The whole strength amount of power, or 400 pounds. But a horse, moving ing beds of lava. The first volcanos of the earth were of the horse is exerted in overcoming the friction. On such four miles an hour, pulls only with a force of 64 pound opened in the primitive soil before the secondary soil was a road, therefore, a force of traction of 100 pounds moves

Of course, it would require six horses to exert a powe

400 pounds, and move the boat at the rate proposed. formed; they have since been covered by layers of soil, a weight of 3000 pounds, or the friction is 1.30th part of

Let us now see what amount of power will prostate con of which the successive formation has so evidently been the load (the cart included.) occasioned by the sea or immense lakes of fresh water.-in our former paper, that a horse travelling at the same

On a railway of the best construction, it has been shown responding effects upon a railway. And before we reaba

more particular inquiry, let us suppose that the retardBut, without anticipating what I shall presently have to rate of two miles an hour, draws 15 tons, including the tion occasioned by friction, instead of increasing as the say upon this subject, I will be contented with remarking vehicles. In this case, then, a power of traction of 100 square of the velocity

like the resistance of a fluid, increases that this immense quantity of volcanos opened in the pri- pounds moves a weight of 33,600 pounds; the friction, of in the simple ratio of the velocity. We have seen, then mitive soil, while the solid crust was less thick, tends much course, is 1-366th part, or, in round numbers, 1-300th that a force of traction of 100 pounds, upon a led rail part of the load.

way, moves a body weighing 30,000 pounds, at the rate of to confirm the opinions of which I have spoken to you.

On a canal, a horse, travelling at two miles an hour,
The comparative infrequency of volcanic eruptions in draws 30 tons in a boat weighing probably 15 tons. Re- tween Edinburgh

and Wooller, vre find the expense erine

* In Mr. Telford's estimates for portions of new rend te latter times may be accounted for as well by the diminish.

Boats in some cases carry only 15 or 20 tons; in others from £1000 to £1100 per mule, ineluding the price of the ed activity of the internal focus, as by the increased thick. 35 (as the coal boats on the Union Canal) but in the one case ground. ness of the layer by which it is covered. they travel quicker, and others slower, than the rate men- + See Playfair's Outline, I. 198.; Leslie's Elements, section

At 8
At 12

at 4 at 6 at 8 at 12

vii. article Resistance ; Encycl. Brit.


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two miles an hour. We may hence calculate the effect | ploy, is an element that may be entirely neglected, would | or fly-wheel, to limit or equalize the motion, the pheno produced by any greater amount of power :

then become the principal retarding force. We need 30,000lb. are moved at 2 miles an hour by a power of 100lb. scarcely add, that the question of time or velocity, rightly analagous to those supposed by the hypothesis of the Scotch

menon may be put to the test, under circumstances very at 4 miles by

2001b. considered, involves every thing connected with the mer. theorist. A small wheel carriage may easily be constructat 6 miles by

300lb. cantile advantage of different modes of communication. at 8 miles

400lb. We have here considered the subject in a purely theore- ed, to be impelled forwards by clock-work. Such a carat 12 miles by 600lb. tical light, leaving it to the engineer to find the means of riage may be made to revolve in a small circle; and, Or conversely:

giving effect to the truths we have stated. We shall enter indeed, we have seen a model of the kind in operation. A power of 100 pounds moves 30,000lb. at 2 miles per hour. into various details in a future paper, and touch upon some Now, if this machine were placed under the receiver of as

or 15,000lb. at 4
or 10,000lb. at 6

it right to say, that the conclusions we have announced perfect an air-pump as can be constructed, and put into or 7,500lb. at 8

are strictly conformable to experiments carefully made by motion; if the theory under investigation be correct, a or 5,000lb. at 12

Vince and Coulomb,—but as there are anomalies in the visible acceleration in speed ought to take place. But Hence we see that, though a moving force of one hun doctrines regarding friction, and as the velocities employed we will wager a few pounds with our brother editor, that a canal as upon a railway at two miles an hour, this su- that are likely to occur in railway communications, we do no such result will occur; and if we win, we will expend velocity at six miles an hour, and at all greater velocities principles laid down as applicable to every possible ve. Library." periority of the water conveyance is lost, if we adopt a not take upon us to guarantee the literal accuracy of the the amount in books for our Apprentices and Mechanics' the same expenditure of power will produce a greater ef- locity. We certainly believe that the conclusions founded We cannot divest ourselves of the persuasion that bodies, fect upon a railway, than upon a canal, a river, or the sea. upon in our calculations, will hold true at all the veloci, moving

on an horizontal plane, even if there were no opfriction increases in the simple ratio of the velocity, Such the most profound mechanicians, Leslie, Playfair, Young, position from the atmosphere, do not follow the law of was the opinion of Ferguson, Mushenbroch, and some &c., but we thought it right to mention a circumstance bodies falling perpendicularly to the earth. Other writers; but the more recent and accurate experi- which some may consider as materially affecting their uni- A body falling, or gravitating to the earth, moves ments of Coulomb and Vince have overthrown this doc-versal application.

quicker as it approaches it :--the earth being the source of trine, and established conclusions extremely different, of which the following is an abstract:

attraction, acts more powerfully upon the body attracted 1. The friction of iron sliding on iron is 28 per cent. of


the nearer it approximates it. the weight, but is reduced to 25 per cent. after the body RAIL ROADS AND NEW MECHANICAL PARADOX.

If a magnet (and such the centre of the earth may be is in motion.

2. Friction increases in a ratio nearly the same with | -- In a late number of the Scotsman, an article appeared regarded, by way of illustration) be held at a distanco that of the pressure. If we increase the load of a sledge on the subject of rail-ways, which is of so extraordinary a from a steel ball, it will attract it in a ratio increasing as or carriage four times, the friction will be nearly, but not nature, that we shall appropriate the whole of it in the the squares of the distance decrease ;-the magnet being quite, four times greater.

scientific department of the Kaleidoscope, in the hope that the source of attraction, the ball must necessarily accele3. Friction is nearly the same whether the body moves some of our readers may be induced to investigate certain rate in speed, until the two bodies come into contact. But upon a small or a greater surface; but it is rather less when paradoxical positions therein laid down, which we suspect it appears to us that a locomotive machine, moving on a the surface is small.

(6) It is with this last law only that we have to do at pre- to be erroneous. The phenomenon, to which we especially plain, even if the air were annihilated, is altogether under sent; and it is remarkable that the extraordinary results, to allude, and which merits the appellation of the second different circumstances. There is no goal before it, to hich it leads, have been, so far as we know, entirely over. “ Mechanical Paradox,” we shall here notice in the words which it is drawn by attraction or gravitation. There looked by writers on roads and railways. These results, in. of the Northern journalist ; to which we shall subjoin a is simply a machine of a limited power; and until we

deed, have an appearance so paradoxical, that they will shock tew remarks of our own, suggested by a cursory reading can believe that indefinite and similar effects can result lo che faith of practical men, though the principle from which they flow is admitted without question by all scientific

The principal part of the article consists of calculations from definite and dissimilar causes, we cannot believe the mechanicians.

respecting the respective resistance of bodies moving on proposition, that the velocity of a locomotive machine, (6) First, It follows from this law that, abstracting the ordinary roads, in a fluid, and on rail-roads.

under the presumed circumstances, would increase “ beresistance of the air, if a car were set in motion on a level railway, with a constant force greater in any degree than the opinions of eminent mathematicians, are stated, one On the subject of friction, certain results, deduced from yond any assignable limit.”

• As we have always professed ourselves inimical to gamwith a motion continually accelerated, like a falling body of which (4) is, that "the friction of rolling and sliding bling in any shape, our only excuse, on the present

occasion, scted upon by the force of gravitation; and however smaií bodies follows nearly, but not precisely, the same law as must be the purpose to which we should apply the winnings, the original velocity might be, it would in time increase to velocity; and that law is, that the friction is the same if they should happen to fall to our share. beyond any assignable limit. It is only the resistance of for all velocities.” the air, increasing as the square of the velocity, that presents this indefinite acceleration, and ultimately renders [Here follow the three paragraphs to which we have

Miscellanies. the motion uniform.

affixed the letters (a) (b) (c).] (C) Secondly, Setting aside, again, the resistance of the air The Mercury, in reference to these three paragraphs, the effects of which we shall estimate by and by) the very then proceeds as follows :

Two of our living poets were conversing on the actors ame amount of constant force which impels a car on a ailway at treo miles an hour, would impel il at ten or

Well might the writer in the Scotsman assert, that these Your admiration of Mrs. Siddons is so high," said Renty miles an hour, if an extra force were employed facts (if such they be) will shock the faith of practical her." ' To that magnificent and appalling creature! I

first to overcome the inertia of the car, and generate men. He might have added, and of theoretical men also. should have as soon thought of making love to the Archa le required velocity. Startling as this proposition may For our own parts, while we avow our own disbeliet of the bishop of Canterbury.ppear, it is an indisputable and necessary consequence theory, we do it with all the diffidence befitting persons The Prices.--Four gentlemen of the name of Price, all

the laws of friction. In fact, assuming that the sistance of the air were withdrawn, if we suppose a

whose knowledge of such subjects has been superseded by of very different dimensions, are members of a literary orizontal railway made round the globe, and the mach other and more urgent speculations ; and if we are mis-society, and are thus distinguished by the other meinbers': sine (supplied with a power exactly equivalent to the taken in the view we take of the matter, our consolation Price, the fat one, Full Price, and the thin one Half ietion) to be placed on the railway, and launched by must be, that we err in common with many others with Price. impulse with any determinate velocity, it would revolve whom we have conversed on the subject, who all view it or ever with the velocity so imparted, and be in truth a in the light in which it presented itself to us at first sight. After he had suffered amputation with the greatest courage,

Latour Maubourg lost his leg at the battle of Leipsic. ort of secondary planet to our globe.

Now, it would be at all times easy (as we shall afterwards If we understand aright the position which we venture he saw his servant crying, or pretending to cry, in one thos) to convert this accelerated motion into a uniform to question, it is, that a locomotive machine, set in motion corner of the room. * None of your hypocritical tears, nation of any determinate velocity; and from the nature on a level railway, with a constant force greater in any glad, for now you will have only one boot to clean insteart

you idle dog," said his master; " you know you are very f the resistance, a high velocity would cost almost as degree than is required to overcome the friction, would ittle, and may be as easily obtained as a low one.

of two." 1 velocities, therefore, above four or five miles an hour, proceed with a motion continually accelerated, like a fall.

At the theatre one evening, whilst Munden and Fawcett ailways will afford facilities for communication prodi ing body acted upon by the force of gravitation, and how. were dressing, the latter observing the former screwing up iously superior to canals or arms of the sea. Indeed, ever small the original velocity might be, would in time his face before a looking-glass, asked him " if he had here is scarcely any limit to the rapidity of movement increase “ beyond any assignable limit," provided the bottled his eyes ?" "Yes," returned Munden, "and I am hese iron pathways will enable us to command; and we annot give a better idea of the astonishing power they put pressure of the air did not act as a check to limit and now going to cork my eye-brows." ato our hands, than by referring to the remark of Dr.) equalize the rate.

A gentleman who had neither voice nor skill, opce at Young, quoted in our last. What he states is strictly Now, if this phenomenon should happen, were the ato tempting to sing in company, when he had come to a con. cities and powers of traction we now commonly em- would be observable in a less degree under ordinary cir- plain, explain.”—“ Why,” rejoined the wit," a devilish Tue, that the resistance of the air, which, with the velo-mosphere abstracted, it seems natural to conclude, that it clusion, Bannister said, "Your song, sir, is like the

cumstances; in which case, so singular a fact could scarcely good thing when it is over.” Leslie's Elements, p. 188, &c.; Playfair's Outlines, I. 88, &c. Journal de Physique, 1785; Philosophical Transactiouss, have escaped the observation of practical men, who have

During the riots in 1780, a magistrate being asked why 1785. Dr. Brewster has given the results of Coulomb's ex- for years witnessed the operation of locomotive machines. he had not called upon the posse comitatus, replied, "thas periments in a tabular form, in the article Mechanics, in his Erexopedaia

If, however, the atmosphere act as a kind of regulator he would have done so, bui knew not his address."

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The weary is at peace! her mortal woes

At length are ended; and she sleeps the sleep Where the long-suffering from their ills repose,

Where care finds rest and mourners cease to weep;
And shall we thoughtlessly lament the close

Of her sad pilgrimage? or vainly steep
In fruitless tears the welcome grace that Heaven
In mercy to her griefs has early given.
Oh! rather weep we o'er her agony

When for the stranger's land her parting sail
Swell'd with unwelcome winds; and her dim eye

Grew to the fading shore from which that gale Bore her for ever; then the bitterest sigh

Broke from her heart; and her pale cheek, more pale
Became, as in the wildness of despair
She thought of him who rov'd an outlaw there.
Uncertain of his fate, from day to day,

In all the tortures of suspense, how past
Her lonely hours ? how did she chide their stay,

Then, trembling, think the moments filed too fast,
Deeming in terror as they roll'd away,

Each, as it glided on, might be the last
On earth allowed him, and e'en then might gloom
O'er his dark scaffold, or his bloody tomb.
Weep for her feelings in that dreadful hour

When the dire tidings reach'd her to that strife
The pangs of death are light, and have no power :

Oh! mourn the anguish of the widowed wife,
Sinking beneath the blow, like some crushed flower,

Whose leaves the north wind withers; so her life
Faded with silent grief to slow decay,
Dissolving like pale snow in tears away.
Far from her own fair land and southern skies

The earthly relics of the wanderer rest;
Nor recks it now to her that her cold eyes

Were clos'd by strangers ; for the spirit drest
In angel splendours, freed from sorrow, flies

To seek the eternal mansions of the blest;
There in unclouded joy to meet again
Him whom on earth she lov'd and mourn'd in vain.
Reydon, near Southwold.

A. S.

The Belfast News Letter published the following Porn said to be from the pen of the Author of the Ode on & John Moore :

If I had thought thou couldst have died,

I might not weep for thee;
But I forgot, when by thy side,

That thou couldst mortal be;
It never through my mind had pass'd,

That time would e'er be o'er,
When I on thee should look my last,

And thou should'st smile no more.
And still upon that face I look,

And think 'twill smile again ;
And still the thought I will not brook,

That I must look in vain ;
But when I speak thou dost not say

What thou ne'er left'st unsaid;
And now, I feel—as well I may,

Sweet Mary, thou art dead.
If thou would'st stay, ev'n as thou art,

All cold and all serene,
1 still might press thy silent heart,

And where thy smile has been ;
While ev'n thy chill bleak corse I have,

Thou seemest still mine own,
But there, I lay thee in the grave,

And now-I am alone.
I do not think, where'er thou art,

Thou hast forgotten me;
And I perhaps may soothe this heart

In thinking still of thee!
Yet there was round thee such a dawn

Of light ne'er seen before,
As Fancy never could have drawn,

And never can restore.



Fare, fare thee well, thou dying Year!

Thy parting knell is rung,
And the tear-drop glistens on thy bier,

With cypress boughs o'erhung.
Thy birth with smiles was ushered in,

And feast, and festal rout;
And merry bells, with joyous din,

From spire and tow'r rung out.
And mirth and music blest the hour,

And many a legend wild
Bade grief resign her wonted power,

While love exulting smil'd.
And meeting hands, and sparkling eyes,

Made glad thy natal day;
And withering care, and mourning sighs,

Were banished far away!
Now at thy close, how changed the scene !

The festal rout is o'er,
And the merry bells, with joyous din,

Peal forth, alas, no more!
And the lov'd and lover both are gone,

And the mourner weeps alone;
And the green grass waves o'er many a one,

That joyous, hailed thy dawn! And the hoary head by youth is laid,

And the smiling babe at rest, Sleeps the last sleep, ere woe might fade,

Or rend its sinless breast ! And blessed they thus early ta'en,

The infant cherub blest, Betime snatched from a life of pain,

And borne to endless rest!
Yet still will pitying Nature weep

Beside the daisied sod;
But blest, thrice blest are they who sleep

In the bosom of their God!
Thou dying Year! thy sunny days,

But few and brief have been;
And Memory turns her tearful gaze,

On many a fitful scene!
And blighted hopes, and broken faith,

A sad and dismal train;
All, all that fate inflicts in wrath,

Revive to wound again!
And, oh! amid remembrance drear,

Scarce blooms one little flower;--
One brightening ray the heart to cheer

In retrospection's hour!
Thou dying Year, now past away,

With time before the flood !
Thy mourning rites, and festal gay,

Thy evil, and thy good!
Thou dying year, my farewell take!

'T may be, perchance, my last; And stranger hands the lyre may wake,

That consecrates the past. And if decreed the coming year,

Death's messenger must be; I will not shed one coward tear,

To die is to be free! Liverpool.

Que te sert de chercher les tempêtes de Mars,
Pour mourir tout en vie au milieu des harsardi,

Ou la gloire te mene?
Cette mort qui promet un si digne loyer,
N'est toujours que la mort qu'avec moins de peine

L'on trouve en son foyer.
Que sert à ces héros ce pompeux appareil
Dont ils vont dans la lice eblouir le soleil

Dęs tresors du Poctole?
La gloire qui les suit après tant de travaux
Se passe en moins de temps que la poudre qui vole

Du pied de leurs chevaux. + Perhaps some of our correspondents would favour wel translation of these clever lines.

TO T. L.

FOR THE YEARS 1824 of 1825.

Farewell, farewell; to a distant land

The waves of the ocean shall bear thee, And far away to a foreign strand,

From all that's dear shall tear thee. We've tasted together the cup of joy,

And drank deep the wormwood of sorrow; And we've learnt that the world's a glittering toy,

That dazzles—to fade on the morrow. Thy course is bound to a distant cllme,

Where no loved form is near thee; Where heavily flag the moments of time,

With no voice of affection to cheer thee. When sinking beneath that sultry sun,

No such lov'd form shall caress thee;
And then should thy youtful race be run,

No parent's voice will bless thee.
Time has not furrow'd our youthful brows,

But fast the moments are fleeting:
And Age may scatter his envious snows,

Ere our hands shall join in meeting.
Tho' the voice of thy destiny calls us to part,

Nought can chill the warm tide of affection,
And till life shall depart, in the depth of my heart,

Thou shalt dwell in each fond recollection. December 16, 1824.


GAZETTE; a Magazine entirely appropriated to ing

Subjects, published on the 1st of every Month, prie The Proprietors, on the approach of a new year, essa leave to call the public attention to the increasing cele of this popular Work, the forthcoming Number of which be published on the 1st of January) will begin a ner Faus

: and be embellished with Two capital Engravings, viz. 1. A fiue Plate of the Alpine Mastiff, by Landseer.

2. A beautiful Plate of Snipe Shooting, from a Draviti Fielding.

The general plan of this work is so well known to Sporting World, that it is only necessary for the Propre.co to state that it will continue to be conducted on its presca liberal scale with respect to paper, print, and illustrator and that no pains or expense win be spared to render every way worthy of the public attention. The sixth lume, which is just completed, contaifis a variety of Orig. La Communications, from different parts of the Kingdom, a Hunting, Cocking,




Single Stick,

Sailing. Accompanied with the Racing Calendar, &c. The World complete, for the year 1824, forms Two Volumes, Price 1, each, handsomely half-bound.

The Embellishments to these Volumes comprise a fine et graved Porcrait, by Landseer, of a Cross between the [** and Fox, from a subject in the possession of Lord Cranty Five Fox-hounds, Portraits, of the Hattield Hunt; a beauti Engraving of Jerry, the

Winner of the Doncaster St. Lam from a Painting by Herring: a Perspective Elevation of Grand Stand at Doncaster; Plans and Surveys of Doncaster and other principal Race Courses; Portraits of the ATEL Fox, Scotch Terrier, &c.

London : Printed for Sherwood, Jones, and Co. Paternis ter-row,


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ETIQUETTE OF THE BALL ROOM. This day is published, by Hurst, Robinson, and Co. 90, Political Economy.

Cheapside, and 8, Pall Mall, London, and A. Constable and

Co. Edinburgh, handsomely boarded, with engraved orna-
The following rules have been handed to us by a cor.

mental Covers,
and Gult Leaves, price Twelve

responder te wo states that they are observed at the Lower T HERLITERARY SOUVENIR, or Cabinet of MR. M CULLOCH'S LECTURE

EDITED BY ALARIC A. WATTS. " That after a lady has called a dance, it being finished,

Independently of a great Variety of splendid Illustrations, ver place in the next dance is at the bottom.

designed by Fielding, Brockedon, Nash, Corbould, and other " It is deemed a point of good breeding, for ladies that eminent Artists, and engraved (all in the Line Manner, in

The following has been politely handed to us as a rexave gone down the dance, to continue in their places till This Volume contains about seventy ORIGINAL 'Articles port of one of Mr. M‘Culloch's interesting lectures. For the rest bave done the same.

(Prose Tales and Poems) from the Pens of Sir Walter Scott, * That those who stand up after the country dance is Campbell, Montgomery, Mrs. Hemans, Naturin, Alaric A! any errors of statement which may be found in the report called, do take their place at the

bottom, unless rank en-Wates, Bowles, Hogs. Cunningham, L. E. L. Authoress of Mr. C. is not in any degree accountable; but we are of titles them to precedence."

you like it," Colton, Wiffen, Opie, Delta (of Blackwood's Maga- opinion it is substantially correct.
sine) the Rev. Thomas Dale, and many other Writers of

equal Celebrity.
LONDON. NORTHERN BAIL-BOARD.COM: The Literary Souvenir is a very graceful and agreeable book,

It will be unnecessary for me to enter into any lengthPANY, to connect BIRMINGHAM, DERBY, NOT. both inside and outside, and does infinite credit both to ened discussion on the advantages derived from the home "INGHAM,'HULL, and MANCHESTER 'with each other, the Editor and Publishers. Some of our friends.Croly, trade.--Its advantages are, indeed, too obvious and striking ith the Parts adjacent, and with the METROPOLIS. Delta, and Davie Lyndsay, contribute some capital pieces. to require to be pointed out. Each province or district of

Blackwood's Magazine.

This is, without exception, the most elegant and attrac- an extensive country has some particular mineral, vege-

tive little work we have seen issue from the press. The em- table, or animal production, or some peculiarity of soil or ASCOR GREXBRLI, Esq. M.P. JOHN SMITH, Esq. M.P. bellishments are really beautiful; but, beautiful as they are, climate, which fits it for being appropriated in preference Awis LOYD, Esq. EDWARD WAKEFIELD, Esq.

partment of the work is such as must secure it popularity, to certain species of industry. A district which abounds mes Evan Baillie, Esq. John Irving, Esq. M.P.

in coal, which has an easy access to the ocean, and the aneis Baring, Esq.

George W. Norman, Esq. ** A few Copies of the Work are printed in Post 8vo, with command of an extensive internal navigation, is the naturadon Evelyn, Esq. M.P. Frederick Pigon, Esq., Proofs of the Plates, on India Paper, price £1 48. tward Ellice, Esq. M.P. Thomas Richardson, Esq.

ral seat of manufactures. Wheat, and other kinds of grain, Robert Farquhar, Bart. James Waire, Esq.

ROYAL LEWISIAI SYSTEM OF WRITING. are the proper products of rich and fertile soils ; and cat isrles David Gordon, Esq. okuliam Williams, Esq. M.P. in

the real Inventor of the New Mathematical System of vantageously fattened in low and meadow grounds. It is ehard Hart Davis, Esq. M.P. Joseph Fry, Esq. non MʻGillivray, Esq.

Writing, under the immediate and especial patronage of his evident that the inhabitants of these different districts, by -1

Edward Goldsmid, Esq. Majesty and other branches of the Royal Family, and nearly confining themselves to the particular branches of industry, Lessrs. Smith, Payne, and Smiths, Mansion House-street; James Esdalle, Hammet, Grenfell, and Scott, Lombard- Liverpool and its vicinity, and begs to inform them, that in natural capability, must produce an infinitely greater quan.

his grateful acknowledgments to the worthy inhabitants of for the prosecution of which they possess some peculiar #MEETING held at the London Tavern on the 13th instant, perienced, during his short residence among them, and the to apply their labour indiscriminately, to every employ

consequence of the very great encouragement he has ex: tity of commodities than they could possibly do were they Present, WILLIAM WILLIAMS, Esq. M.P. in the Chair, to avail themselves of his instruction, he will do himself the ment; and they must thus derive the same advantages nd many other Gentlemen, it was resolved

honour of prolonging his stay in Liverpool beyond the period from this variety of natural qualifications and powers of ** That a communicntion, by Rail-way, connecting London he had fixed for his departure to town. Mr. Lewis will, there production as are derived by each separate individual from, heater and London, would be an object of great public 17th JANUARY, BEYOND WHICH TIME HE MUST POSITIVEXY TE The division of labour.

His system is equally But it is easy to see that foreign commerce, or the terri. 'wo Millions Five Hundred Thousand Pounds, for that ever incorrectly the Pupil may write, it will infallibiy era, countries, must contribute to increase the wealth of each “That a Company be formed, with a capital consisting of applicable to persons of all

ages and capacities; and,

how-torial division of labour between different and independent These Resolutions having passed, the Meeting then ad. EASY LESSONS) a quick and beautiful style of Writing: in precisely the same manner that

the home trade

contrirarned to Monday, the 20th instant, when the abovenamed so free, elegant, and expeditious, as no other method

of butes to increase the wealth of different provinces of the entlemen were appointed as the London Direction, and the teaching ever yet discovered can possibly impart; and from same kingdom. Distant countries are endowed with still allowing Resolution was passed unanimously: * That the Directors now appointed have power to select

Terms for the whole Course, One Guinea.

greater diversities of climate and soil, and peculiarities of aren Directors to be added to their number, from the dis- Numerous Specimens may be seen by applying to Mr national character and political institutions than can pos. riet through which the proposed Rail-road will pass." Lewis, at his Lecture Rooms, No. 5, Paradise-street. sibly be enjoyed by the different provinces of the same

SHORT HAND taught in Sıx LESSONS, for ONE GUINEA, ON hares, of £100 each, of which a liberal proportion will be the plan made use of by the Public Reporters, with their country; and, consequently, the advantages resulting meer ved for those persons resident in the neighbourhood of mode of following a speaker by contractions,

hitherto kept from the home trade must be produced by foreign

coma secret ; and their infallible method of abbreviating and de- merce, on a still more extensive scale. It would evidently plications for Shares may be made previously

to the 1st ciphering, without burthening the memory. NUARY, by letter, post paid, addressed to the Chairman, N.B. Pupils are detained only one hour cach Lesson, and France or Spain in England, than to make Yorkshire .

cost an infinitely greater expense to raise the wines of left at the Old London Tavern, Bishopsgate-street. may attend any time that suits their own convenience. (Signed) GEORGE HIBBERT, Chairman.


yield the same products as Devonshire. Indeed there area







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